Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 50, Issue 4

Volume 50, Issue 4, Autumn 2022


ATTITUDE OF RURAL WOMEN TOWARDS SOME ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN DUHOK GOVERNORATE, KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ

Mijda Alsinayi; Abid A. H. Aldosky; Aamel F. K. Alabbassi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 1-9
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.135404.1194

The main objective of this study is to identify the rural women’s attitudes towards some environmental issues in Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Area random sampling was used to select the research sample which is (507) rural women. A questionnaire was designed to collect the research data, which is consisted of two parts, the independent variables and attitudes scale which is consisted of (54) items distributed on four domains (Rural tourism, Home waste management, Sustainable agriculture, and Sustainable methods of using and conservation of forest). Experts and content validity were used to achieve the validity of the attitudes scale, and Cronbach alpha formula was used to measure the reliability of it, its value was (0.945). The data was analyzed with SPSS program. The results showed that attitude of the respondents towards all the studied environmental domains is positive. The results also showed that there is significant correlation between the attitude of respondents and each of the following variables (Level of education, Satisfaction with services in the village, Agricultural information sources, and Cultural openness). While there is no significant correlation with: (Age, Material status, Current work, and Participation in family decision –making). The research included some conclusions and recommendations.





The main objective of this study is to identify the rural women’s attitudes towards some environmental issues in Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Area random sampling was used to select the research sample which is (507) rural women. A questionnaire was designed to collect the research data, which is consisted of two parts, the independent variables and attitudes scale which is consisted of (54) items distributed on four domains (Rural tourism, Home waste management, Sustainable agriculture, and Sustainable methods of using and conservation of forest). Experts and content validity were used to achieve the validity of the attitudes scale, and Cronbach alpha formula was used to measure the reliability of it, its value was (0.945). The data was analyzed with SPSS program. The results showed that attitude of the respondents towards all the studied environmental domains is positive. The results also showed that there is significant correlation between the attitude of respondents and each of the following variables (Level of education, Satisfaction with services in the village, Agricultural information sources, and Cultural openness). While there is no significant correlation with: (Age, Material status, Current work, and Participation in family decision –making). The research included some conclusions and recommendations.

USED NASTED-PCR DETECTION OF PHYTOPLASMA CAUSING BIG BUD DISEASE ON TOMATO IN IRAQ

Laith kais alsawaf; Hameed Hamoud Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 10-18
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134252.1179

Symptoms similar to those produced by the phytoplasma disease "Big bud" were observed on tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown in the field in Mosul city, Iraq. Diseased plants were characterized by twisting, corrugated, yellowing or reddening of leaves. The sepals of the flowers acquired hypertrophied form, were fused together and created a bell-shaped sterile bud (phyllody) of green or anthocyanin color. The stems of the plants were lignified, and phloem necrosis was observed on the stem. In mid-September 2020, samples of 30 diseased and 2 healthy (control) tomato plants were collected from the fields. Phytoplasmas were detected by PCR and Nested-PCR in 10 diseased samples, use universal and specific primers. The results of a phylogenetic tree consisting of 27 genetic sequences of the 16 S ribosomal RNA gene of Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii, locally isolated from Iraq/Mosul, showed a sequence identity with a high percentage of genetic similarity of 99% with Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii 16Sr member VI-A. Clover proliferation group (16Sr VI), with various isolates from around the world.

BUILDING PREDICTIVE MODELS TO ASSESS DEGRADATION OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER OVER TIME USING REMOTE SENSING DATA

Abdulsalam Aljumaily; ammar kashmolaa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 19-27
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.136537.1204

Agricultural fields near Rabia district, northwest of Nineveh Governorate/Iraq, were selected for study, as the study area is located between longitudes (36°31'51.34'' and 36°43'40.343'') north and two latitudes (42°16'14.475'' and 42°34'50.99'') east, with an area of approximately 52.5 hectares. The predictive model is built from the integration of multiple linear and nonlinear regression relationships between remote sensing data and laboratory-measured organic matter concentration values.
The predictive model was applied to Satellite data for  three years (2002, 2012, and 2022), producing three maps to describe the soil content of organic matter (a map for each year). The results of the study showed the possibility of applying predictive models to Satellite data for a particular area and for previous years to give results with high spatial accuracy (R2 = 0.9581). Spatial maps were possible for each of the three years studied (2002, 2012, and 2022), and fertility maps were drawn by projecting spectral evidence values into the predictive model equation in the ENVI program. The resulting images were then processed using ArcGIS 10.8 to color them and perform a Reclassify operation and take them out with the values of percentages of organic matter concentrations. The results showed a clear deterioration in the soil's organic matter content over time, especially between 2012 and 2022

STUDY OF SOME REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN AWASSI RAMS: A REVIEW

Muthanna Abdullah; Nadia Bashir ALshaar; Mohammad Salem Ibrahim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 28-44
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.135812.1196

Reproductive efficiency represented by sexual desire, semen quality, testicular dimensions, and level of sex hormones are among the main components of ram fertility, which affect the fertility and productivity of the herd. Since the development of the testicles is related to reproductive activity and the ability to fertilize, so measuring the dimensions of the testicles is important in evaluating the reproductive capacity of rams. In addition, the concentration of testosterone is reflected in most of the characteristics of male sexual behavior, as it is positively and significantly correlated with ejaculate volume, mass motility, and sperm concentration. The high level of testosterone hormone in the blood plasma during reproductive season leads to an increase in male sexual desire and an improvement in the quality of semen through direct influence in the process of sperm formation and the volume ejaculate, density and vitality of semen. In addition to reproductive traits are also affected by age, body weight, season and herd management, as well as the impact of the environmental conditions, which are temperature, humidity, level of nutrition, quantity and quality, and length of the photoperiod, which is one of the most important factors affecting the reproductive performance of rams.

RAPD MARKER TO SCREENING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF LOCAL CHICKEN

Hurea Saber Abdulrazaq

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 45-53
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.135086.1190

A total of 500 local chickens from different regions of Iraq, which were divided into five groups according to the regions from which they were taken, namely, the East (E), West (W), North (N), South (S), and Central (C) regions of Iraq. The blood samples were collected into tubes containing an EDTA, DNA extraction was carried. Using 20 primers from Gen Script USA, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was carried out. The reaction of PCR had a final volume of 25 μl. A total of 473 loci ranging between 200 and 1800 bp were amplified. The higher numbers of bands shown in north(N) local chicken group (101) than the other groups. East (E) and South (S) groups phenotypic revealed higher numbers of the polymorphic bands. The Polymorphism percent (%6.2) in East (E). Between the north (N) and west (W) groups, the genetic similarity score was found to be the highest (0.893). dendogram It was clear that the South(S) appeared to be most distant from the other groups whereas the West (W), North (N) were related closely together whose genetic closeness is highest. The main aim of present study is to assess the genetic specificity chickens in Iraq independs on RAPD analysis, To assess phylogenetic relatedness between groups of chickens, is to understand the extent of genetic variation between local chickens groups in Iraq.

EFFECT OF ADDING CHAMOMILE POWDER TO DIETS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER REARED UNDER HEAT STRESS CONDITIONS

Thaer Alkado; Anwar Mohammed Younis Al-hamed; Khalid Hassani Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 54-61
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132516.1153

This study was conducted to determine the effect of adding chamomile powder to the diet of broilers (Ross308) raised under heat stress conditions on production performance and economic indicators. Unsexed chicks were raised from one day until 42 days. Chicks were randomly distributed at the beginning of second week on experimental treatments with three replications / treatment as follows: T1: Feeding birds with out adding (Control), T2: adding 9 gm chamomile / kg feed , T3: adding: 15 gm chamomile /kg feed. The statistical analysis of data showed: a significant superiority in the final live body weight rate and the total weight gain rate, an improvement in the weekly and total feed conversion, and the superiority of the production index and the productive factor, while we did no find a significant effect showed in feed consumption rate and the percentage of mortality% and in the production yield per m2 in Production of one kilogram of live meat. The result indicated that  addition of chamomile lead to improve growth performance and reducing the cost per unit of production in conditions of heat stress. 

EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL AND NANO PHOSPHOROUS FERTILIZATION AND SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO WHEAT CULTIVARS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN CALCAREOUS SOIL FROM NINEVEH GOVERNORATE

adnan hazem atalla algborey; Fateh Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 62-75
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.136492.1201

A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions to study the effect of phosphorus fertilization under to soil moisture content on some growth indicators, yield and seed content of nitrogen and phosphorous for two wheat cultivars, Adnaniah and Sham-6, in calcareous soil suffering from a lack of available phosphorus. The results indicated that phosphorous fertilization led to an improvement in plant growth, as it caused an increase in the relative water content of leaves, chlorophyll percentage, nitrogen and phosphorous seed content, grain yield and protein percentage. Phosphorous fertilization played an important role in increasing the ability of the two wheat cultivars to withstand water stress conditions and reduce the negative impact resulting from the lack of water on plant growth, while the exposure of the two wheat cultivars to water stress there was a decrease in the values ​​of previous growth indicators, grain yield and its content of N and P elements. Sham 6 variety was more responsive than the Adnaniya variety, as this variety outperformed in all the studied traits, in addition to that it obtained the best growth and higher yield under conditions of water shortage.

ESTIMATION OF THE ADDED VALUE OF WHEAT CROP PRODUCTION IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE AGRICULTURAL SEASON 2019-2020

Eman Fasil Alzubaidi; Alaa Mohammed Almullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 76-89
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134996.1187

This study examines the typical value of wheat crop production in Nineveh Governorate for the production season 2020, and calculates costs, the United States and profits and diagnoses the challenges and problems of crop production. (134) questionnaire forms were distributed to a random sample of wheat crop farmers in Nineveh Governorate for the agricultural season 2019-2020. showing that the average revenue per ton of wheat crop amounted to (497, 578,832) dinars/ton, and that the average total value added per ton was estimated at (384,200,121) dinars/ton, and the average total costs (production and marketing) per ton amounted to (223.621.841) dinars/ton. The results of the research indicated that there are problems and obstacles with regard to the process of preparing the state for production requirements for farmers in terms of inappropriate timings for cultivation and low quantities distributed, This leads to higher variable costs than production costs. and the presence of delays in the process of marketing and receiving the yield from the silos, The study recommends early development of the agricultural plan, opening centers to collect the crop in the harvest season, close to the farms in order to reduce costs and facilitate the marketing process, and work to develop a marketing mechanism and the receipt of the crop by the silos, and expedite the process of disbursing the financial dues to farmers.

MONITORING SEASONAL VARIATION IN GROUND WATER QUALITY AND EVALUATION OF ITS SUITABILITY FOR IRRIGATION IN THE NIMRUD AREA SOUTH –EAST OF MOSUL –IRAQ

Zainab Alzubaidy; omar Nabhain Al Azzo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 90-106
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.136520.1203

Sixteen water wells have been chosen in different locations within Nimrud district, to study the variation of ground water quality during the dry and the wet season. Analysis including salinity, pH, temperature, total hardness, major cations and anions were performed. Ground water salinity (EC) has significant variation and ranged from (0.81 to 5.82) and (0.88 to 5.77) ds m-1 in dry and wet seasons respectively. About 75% of water samples have a higher EC in the wet season compared with the dry season. All samples are very hard water class. Half of the wells have higher calcium and chloride concentration in the wet season than in the dry season. Two third of samples have higher Magnesium in the dry season than the wet season. Around 87% of wells have higher sodium and potassium in the wet season than dry season. About three quarters of wells have a higher sulphate in the wet season in compared with the dry season. About 80 % of samples have a higher nitrate concentration in the dry season compared to the wet season. Water quality for irrigation has been evaluated using several parameters. All samples fall into three category groups, C4S1, C4S2 and C3S1 according to the US salinity diagram.

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF SOME APHID SPECIES (HOMOPTERA; APHIDIDAE) BASED ON RFLP-PCR TECHNIQUE

Hero Muhyaddin Muhammad; Dilzar Hamad Mawlud; Kamaran Mustafa Taha; Nabeel AbdulQader Mawlood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 107-116
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.135131.1192

This work includes, identification eight species of Aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) which collected from the leaves of different plants in many localities of Erbil governorate Kurdistan region-Iraq from the period May till July 2022, these are: Chaitophorus salijaponicus, Aphis fabae, Macrosiphum rosae, Capitophorus carduinus, Myzus persicae, Aphis ruborum, Aphis punca, and Aphis gossypii. The mitochondrial cytochrome C Oxidase subunit I (COI) gene used for identification these species. DNA was isolated, and a band of 550 bp of mt COI gene was amplified during the PCR amplification. The amplicons were digested with HinfI and DdeI restriction enzymes. The restricted fragments produced by RFLP technique were proved by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results illustrated that digested amplicons were given bands according to their cut sites. This study presented that studying aphids to detect their species through a RFLP-PCR technique by using these restriction enzymes can distinguish some species with reliable results. HinfI and DdeI REs could not distinguish all species, HinfI only discriminated species Macrosiphum rosae, Capitophorus carduinus, Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii, but DdeI identified the remain species, Chaitophorus salijaponicus, Macrosiphum rosae, Myzus persicae and Aphis ruborum,within and among other species exactly. The study suggested using other restriction enzymes to provide full recognition profile for all species.

EFFECT OF SOME AGRICULTURAL PROCESS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor L.) (ARTICLE REVIEW)

Rayan Fadhel Ahmed Al-Obady; Salim Abdullah younis Ghazal; Waleed Khalid Shahatha Al-Juheishy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 117-126
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.136718.1206

Sorghum is one of the important cereal crops and its importance is due to its multiple uses, as it is used in human food and animal feed in the form of concentrated grains or green fodder, as well as entering into many industries such as starch, cellulose, alcohol, brooms, baskets and many handicrafts and others.  Sorghum is the most drought-tolerant summer field crop, but it is one of the crops  that stresses the soil as a result of depleting many nutrients, especially nitrogen. Therefore, fertilization is necessary, especially nitrogen, which is reflected in improving the quality of forage and increasing the dry matter yield .The growth and yield of sorghum is affected by many environmental, genetic and agricultural factors, in which the growth and yield are the sum of the effect of these factors combined, and that following modern methods in serving this crop is one of the main factors in improving yield productivity, and the most important of these factors is determining the best cultivar and optimal planting date and the recommended plant density and the best fertilization rate that gives the best yield and the least cost and damage.

PERFORMANCE OF KARADI SHEEP IN KURDISTAN REGION/IRAQ: A REVIEW

Kamal Noaman Mustafa; Ibrahim Aswad Baker; Jalal Eliya Alkass

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 4, Pages 127-138
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.137141.1207

The Karadi sheep which comprises about 18-20% of the country sheep population is native to the northern mountain villages and undulating dry-farming plains of Kurdistan region. Rams and ewes are polled, and it is fat tailed animal with an excessively large tail that ends in a thin nonfat terminal extended beyond the fat lobs. The sheep are white with black open face and pendulous ear. The black color often extends to the shoulders and other parts of the body. All Iraqi sheep including Awassi, Arabi and Karadi were exposed over a long period of time to the rigorous and sever semi-dry condition, drought, feed shortage and prevailing disease. Hence their adaptation to the conditions of the country was at the expend of important economic traits. Karadi sheep is hardy with potentials for improvement, their weight and milk display over whelming ranges. In addition, hormonal treatment have improved their reproduction performance, as well as crossing them with other native and exotic breeds is promising. Nevertheless, this breed is not well characterized and much work is needed to explore the potential of this breed for economic traits.