Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 50, Issue 2

Volume 50, Issue 2, Spring 2022


EFFECT OF WEIGHT AT FATTENING ON CARCASS TRAITS OF AWASSI LAMBS

Osama A. Alzidan; Omar A. Al-Kurjia; Haytham M. Sabeh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133094.1166

This study was conducted to study the effect of different initial body weights of Awassi Lambs used for fattening and its outcome on growth and some carcass characteristics, 15 Awassi lambs were divided into 3 groups which differed in their initial body weight, first group was (22.00 ± 0.22 kg), second group was (29.80 ± 1.21kg), and the third group was (34.20 ± 0.66 kg). All lambs were fed   the same ration which consisted of barley, wheat bran and soybean meal, the ration had 14.39 % crude protein and 2499 Kcal/kg of metabolized energy. Results showed a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the average daily weight gain and total average weight gain in the third group which had the higher initial body weight when compared with first group which had the lowest initial body weight, the results also showed that using lambs with low initial weights in the first group caused a significant decrease  (P<0.05) in carcass weight as compared with the second and third groups which had lambs fattened with higher initial weights 18.76 kg , 24.63 kg and 25.25 kg for the three groups respectively. Total fat percentage of the carcass decreased significantly in the second group 15.83% in comparison with the first group 17.29% and the third group 18.68%, Total fat percentage was also significantly lower in the first group 2.741kg compared with the third group 4.047kg.





      This study was conducted to study the effect of different initial body weights of Awassi Lambs used for fattening and its outcome on growth and some carcass characteristics, 15 Awassi lambs were divided into 3 groups which differed in their initial body weight, first group was (22.00 ± 0.22 kg), second group was (29.80 ± 1.21kg), and the third group was (34.20 ± 0.66 kg). All lambs were fed   the same ration which consisted of barley, wheat bran and soybean meal, the ration had 14.39 % crude protein and 2499 Kcal/kg of metabolized energy. Results showed a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the average daily weight gain and total average weight gain in the third group which had the higher initial body weight when compared with first group which had the lowest initial body weight, the results also showed that using lambs with low initial weights in the first group caused a significant decrease  (P<0.05) in carcass weight as compared with the second and third groups which had lambs fattened with higher initial weights 18.76 kg , 24.63 kg and 25.25 kg for the three groups respectively. Total fat percentage of the carcass decreased significantly in the second group 15.83% in comparison with the first group 17.29% and the third group 18.68%, Total fat percentage was also significantly lower in the first group 2.741kg compared with the third group 4.047kg.





 

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY APPLICATION IN OHMIC PASTEURIZATION OF ORANGE JUICE

Hawri S. Ahmed; Arkan M. Sedeeq; Thamer A. Alhaji

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 8-20
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132958.1165

The conversion of electrical energy into heat energy, which results in internal energy generation, is the underlying premise of Ohmic heating. An experimental batch Ohmic heating unit was built and manufactured for this study. The effect of voltage gradient of alternating current during batch Ohmic heating on orange juice was investigated. Parameters such as temperature, electrical current, time consumption, system performance coefficient, and heating rate of orange juice under Ohmic heating process were studied. The time consumption such as (23.02, 11.25, and 2.19 minutes) to reach the Ohmic pasteurization temperature (95 °C) was decreased as the voltage gradients (9.20 V/cm, 12.64 V/cm, and 25.28 V/cm) increased respectively. The electrical current was rapidly increased (4.46 Amp.) in accordance with the higher voltage gradient (25.28 V/cm) to attain the pasteurization temperature. With rising voltage gradients, Ohmic heating resulted in greater system performance coefficient values. The heating rate appears to have grown dramatically as the voltage gradients increased.

EFFECTS OF FORWARD SPEEDS AND BLADE ANGLES OF POTATO DIGGER ON FUEL CONSUMPTION AND TUBER MECHANICAL DAMAGES

Zhyar Burhan Abdulla; Arkan M. Sedeeq; Fawzi faythalla Khorshid

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 21-37
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133565.1170

This experiment was conducted in Shamamik- Erbil state in Iraq-Kurdistan Region during the middle of summer of 2021 in order to determine the effects of different blade angles and forward speeds of potato digger in the fuel consumption and mechanical damages. Split plot arrangement under Randomized Completely Block Design was replications. Two blade angles (180) and (220) were located as main plot, while three forward speeds 2.6, 3.51 and 4.36 Km.h-1 were located as sub plots. The results were as following: the blade angle of (220) recorded the lowest percentage values for all studied traits, namely, undamaged tubers, severe damage, slight damage, lifted tubers and damage index except in digging depth and fuel consumption which gave higher values than those obtained from the blade angle of (220). By increasing the forward speed, weight of (undamaged tubers 69.11%, lifted tubers 79.27% and digging depth 26.16cm) were decreased, while the rest of the traits increased. At any blade angle (180 , 220), as the forward speed increased, the values of (severe damage1.84%,2.87%,slight damage17.50%,12.48, fuel consumption 44 , 43 litter.ha-1 and damage index 142 , 104) were increased, while the other attributes decreased

APPLICATION LEVEL OF DRIP IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY BY THE VEGETABLE GROWERS IN ALQOSH DISTRICT/ NINEVEH

Rayan R. Kadem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 38-46
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133802.1172

The research aims to measure the level of application of drip irrigation technology by vegetable farmers in Alqosh district/Nineveh Governorate, and identify the correlation between the level of application of drip irrigation technology by vegetable farmers and some independent variables. The research community included all the vegetable farmers in Alqosh district, who numbered 200 farmers. A simple random sample of them was taken by 60%, thus bringing the number of respondents to 120 farmers. A questionnaire was prepared consisting of three parts, the first part included the independent variables (age, educational level, land area, tenure, training courses). the second part, it included a scale to measure the level of farmers’ application of the drip irrigation technology, and it might consist of 21 items, while the third part included 10 problems that hinder the application of the drip irrigation technology. The data were collected by the personal interview method. After that, the data was emptied for the purpose of statistical processing using the Spss program. The results showed that 64% of the respondents had a medium level of application. The results also showed that there is a significant correlation between the independent variables (age, educational level, tenure and training courses) and the level of application. while there is no significant correlation between the land area and the level of application, as it was found that the problem of clogging the nozzles with suspended materials, sediments and salts ranked first with an average of (3.533).

THE USE OF LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS PREDICTORS OF BODY WEIGHT OF DONKEYS AT BLOUBERG LOCAL MUNICIPALITY, LIMPOPO, SOUTH AFRICA

Thobela Louis L. Tyasi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 47-57
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132799.1160

The current study was conducted to estimate body weight (BW) by using body measurements including thoracic circumference (TC), withers height (WH), body length (BL), rump height (RH) and front leg length (FLL) of donkeys. The study was conducted at three villages (Thorne, Archibalt, and Genau) of Blouberg Local Municipality, Limpopo, South Africa. A total of 74 donkeys (40 males and 34 females) aged from 3 to 4 years were used in the current study. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and simple linear regression. Correlation results indicated that in female donkeys, BW had positive and highly statistical significant (p  0.01) correlation with WH (r = 0.67) and not significant correlated (p  0.05) with TC (r = 0.14) and FLL (r = 0.28). In male donkeys, BW had positive and highly statistical significant (p  0.01) correlation with RH (r = 0.60) and not significant correlated (p  0.05) to FLL (r = 0.27). Regression findings indicated that WH had the highest R2 = 0.45 in female donkeys, while RH had the highest R2 = 0.36 in male donkeys.

EVALUATION OF FOUR PROMISING BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT PHOSPHORUS LEVELS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS

Mohammed A. Al-Falahy; Khalid M. Dawood; Dilsher S. Al Mahmada; Shleer S. Ahmad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132494.1155

The study was done during winter season 2020-2021 at field of College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Duhok University, to evaluate the influence of different phosphorus fertilizer P2O5 rate (0, 60, 90, 120kg ha-1 on yield and yield components of four promising bread wheat Bura, Jehan-99, Apst-35 and Apst-26. The experiment was Laid out in factorial experiments using randomize complete block design with three replications. Significant difference in plant height, flag leaf area (cm), spike length(cm), No. seed spike, weight of seed per spike, 1000-seed weight and total yield were observed by the application of different phosphorus fertilizer 120kg ha-1. However, only days to 75% flowering was not significant affected by different rate of phosphorus fertilizer. Also the results exhibited that the Apast-35 was significant in plant height (104.91cm), flag leaf area (40 cm2), spike length (15.4cm), No. seed per spike (37), seed weight of spike (1.48g), 1000-seed weight (41.09g) and total yield 3.66 (t.ha-1). The simple correlation exhibited positive and significant between yield and plant height (0.89), leaf area (0.85), 1000-seed weight (0.76), No. seed per spike (0.87) and weight of seed spike (0.92), this main these traits were intributed to increase the yield under rate 120kg ha-1of phosphorus P2O5.

EFFECT OF OHMIC HEATING TREATMENT ON DIFFERENT PROPERTIES OF WHOLE COW MILK

Rayan N. Meshaan; Thamer A. Alhaji

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 68-76
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133744.1171

Ohmic heating is a unique thermal technology in which an electrical current is passed through a food product, causing heat to be generated. This alternative heating process was investigated in terms of energy efficiency and high quality method for a batch quantity of whole cow milk. The study's major goal is to show that it is possible to develop a heater that successfully pasteurizes milk on a laboratory scale. Before and after ohmic and conventional heating procedures, chemical characteristics (such as protein, acidity as lactic acid, fat, and solid non-fat), alkaline phosphatase, and microbial counts (such as total bacteria count and E. coli) of the milk were examined. When the maximum voltage gradient (19.13 V/cm) was used, the protein content of pasteurized milk remained unaltered. The fat level remained consistent at 5.10 % across all pasteurization methods. Both conventional and ohmic heating inactivated alkaline phosphatase and microorganisms. Different voltage gradients of 6.08 V/cm, 9.56 V/cm, and 19.13 V/cm were also studied to see what effect they would have on the ohmically heated milk's electrical properties (such as electrical conductivity and current).

THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AVAILABILITY AND WHEAT GRAIN STATUS OF MANAGNESE AND IRON IN CALCAREOUS SOILS AND IMPLICATION FOR HUMAN SAFETY IN IRAQI KURDISTAN

Muhammed S. Rasheed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 77-94
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132812.1161

Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the two vital micronutrients for plants and moreover essential nutritional health components in humans. Iron deficiency is common in humans and causes many health issues. In this survey, wheat grains of two major wheat cultivars were analyzed for their Mn and Fe concentrations beside the natural gradient of micronutrient availability across Sulaymaniyah province, Iraqi Kurdistan. However only 20% and 7.5% of the soils samples were Mn and Fe deficient or below recommended level. The considered micronutrient concentrations in the grains of wheat were in the acceptable range which are reported globally (range 41.3 and 37.6 mg kg-1 respectively). Furthermore, high application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in the studied calcareous soils could be strongly affected on the studied micronutrients concentration in the studied grain samples. The results indicate that adequate levels of Mn and Fe in the surveyed grains is a beneficial guide for quality of grains associated with human heal