Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Issue 1,

Issue 1


INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS BY DEFEROXAMINE (DESFERAL) DURING THE PREGNANCY: PRE AND POST-NATAL DEVELOPMENTAL STUDY

Abeer Thanoon; Ali S. Alchalabi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129080.1103

The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of induced oxidative stress by the deferoxamine (desferal) during the pregnancy on pre and post-natal developmen. One hundred twenty adult female albino rats, 3 months old, with an average weight of 175-200 g, were randomly distributed into two main groups (60 rats/group). The 1st (control group) was injected with 0.3 ml physiological salt solution / animal, and the 2nd group was injected with 100 mg deferral/kg B.W. which was given intraperitoneal once daily for three consecutive weeks (during the pregnancy period). At the end of the treatment, each group in turn was divided into two parts, each section comprising 10 animals, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis, then uterine and fetal tissues collected to observation the studied parameters. Results showed decrease in the numbers of implantation and blastocysts. The number of alive embryos were significantly reduced with an increasing number of dead and reabsorbed embryos, malformation of fetus increase in uterine of the stressed female group compared with control group. Postnatal observations showed significant variations in postnatal development parameters. Our study suggests that the deferral injection has a pro-oxidant capacity on rats' model at dose of 100 mg/kg, and the oxidative stress plays an important role during pregnancy especially on prenatal development as well as persist up to postnatal life.

MYIASIS, ITS TYPES, CAUSES, AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF SOME BACTERIAL SPECIES TO ITS EVENTS / (ARTICLE REVIEW)

Aulfat T. Yaseen; Dalia A. Mohammed; Eman M. T. Taher

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 19-33
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129403.1109

       Myiasis is one of the most complex and interesting relationships that we see in nature, as it represents the relationship between small larvae of the order of Diptera and other creatures such as humans and animals. It is also considered an economic problem that causes heavy losses in livestock. And in both animals, where these larvae belong to three families 1. Oestridae 2. Sarcophagidae 3. Calliphoridae, feed on live and dead tissues, it has also been shown that wounds contaminated with bacteria, Streptococcus spp. Staphylococcus aureus  ، Klebsiella peneumonia,، Pseudomonas spp. ، Enterobacter spp. و  Proteus mirabilis are more likely to suffer from myiasis due to their ability to produce volatile organic compounds that are considered as stimuli for flies. Therefore, Artiana, in this scientific article, dealt with a brief and comprehensive review of myiasis, including the classification of its types, the classification of the larvae that cause it, and the bacterial infections associated with myiasis.

IDENTIFICATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF POULTRY MEAT AND PRODUCTS USING PCR-RFLP TECHNIQUE

Kamaran M. Taha; Dilger M. Khdr; Karwan Y. Kareem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 34-42
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129251.1105

The mitochondrial cyt b gene plays a serious role in investigating untruthful meat species. This study aimed to authenticate the species of poultry products (Escallop, Nugget, Steak, and Sausage) depending on cyt b gene by using universal cyt b primer. DNA was isolated, and then a band of 359 bp of a mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was produced during the PCR amplification. The PCR products were exposed to Hinf1 and Rsa I restriction enzymes. The restricted fragments produced by the restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (RFLP), were run by agarose gel electrophoresis. Results showed that all products had a similar band except sausage product does not follow the rule and showed mislabeling product by the REs, Two bands were yielded by HinfI RE for all products (114 and 245) bp with the differentiated sausage among other products based on the fake product (63 and 296) bp, while digestion by Rsa I produced three bands for escallop, nugget, and steak, (63, 100, 196), but only two bands for sausage was generated (148 and 211). As result, the study offered that analyzing meat products to detect the origin species via a PCR-RFLP technique by using these restriction enzymes can give reliable results. In short susage is considered as a frau product because the results showed different bands as compaired with poultry meat.

BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF Rhizobium LIPO-POLYSACCHARIDES: A REVIEW ARTICLE

Raghad N. Gergees; Najwa I. AL-Barhawi; Shimal Y. Abdulhadi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 43-60
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.128871.1100

Lipo-polysaccharides are important substances that consist of LipidA, Core and O-antigen, and are formed in several metabolic pathways that include nine enzymes encoded by special genes called Custer genes. These carbohydrates are characterized by many physical properties, including viscosity. It's viscosity of polysaccharides viscosity ranges from 0.0020 to 0.0033 seconds/cm2,Optical rotation,right-side dextrorotatory and levorotatory.Lipo-polysaccharides have a prominent role in many fields. In the agricultural, they contribute to the formation of root nodules on leguminous plants of great importance in nitrogen fixation processes.In addition to it's role in the processes of creation and differentiation of callus leguminous plants, such as clover, alfalfa, and non-leguminous plants, such as tobacco.As for the medical and pharmaceutical fields, it haveclear importance in the immune response processes through its presence as one of the important antigens present on the surface of bacterial cells.In addition to its role in the adhesion process leading to the formation of bacterial colonies and as barriers that prevent the penetration of anti-bacterial agents into the bacterial cell.

ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF Vespula. Germanica

Batool A. Karso; Salih M. Bas

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 61-75
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129463.1112

Vespula germanica ( German wasp) is considered a dangerous pest that attacks bees and orchards, and its sting harmful to humans , found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, Khalaf was recorded in Iraq in 1958,  it was limited to registration within the Iraqi insects fauna only, and no any biological or environmental studies in Iraq. Therefore, study aimed for understanding of some aspects of the insect. During three years, 2018-2019- and 2020, field survey in different fields in Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan, collected 27 nests to investigate several colony characteristics. Our study showed the size of mature nests is correlated to number of individuals produced. observed that the German hornet builds its nests in different places as on trees and shrubs, on roofs of houses , buildings, animal pens, poultry fields, and near water sources. Queen begins to appear at beginning of May, workers at beginning of July, as for the males and virgins, they appeared in October. And all members cast die in winter except newly fertilized queens remain, who hibernate to next season. Showed the activity of workers increases with the progression of the hours of the day and that their highest activity is during the hour (9-11) in the morning, at rate 100 wasps/hour.  seasonal activity starts from May to November, and highest activity recording during July, August, and September. The highest average of sealed brood area 3.11inch during July , highest average number of hexagonal eyes 91 eyes/nest in October.

EFFECT OF FREEZE STORAGE ON THE QUALITY OF LAMB MEAT TREATED WITH TOMATO PEEL AND SUMAC EXTRACTS

Mead W. Sadallah; Thamer Alhaji

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 76-88
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129557.1117

The study was conducted to investigate the influence of natural antioxidants extracted from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum)  peel extract (TPE) and sumac (Rhus coriaria) extract (SE) on the quality of lamb meat stored for (6) months at freeze-storage (– 18 °C). Treated samples (TS) with these extracts showed a significant values (p<0.05) of drip loss and water holding capacity (WHC) compared to untreated samples (UTS). The UTS demonstrated a significant increase (p≤0.05) of cooking loss values compared to TS. Peroxide values (POVs) have been decreased steadily with TS until 2 months of storage, unlike the POVs of UTS were ongoing increase until the end of storage, however no POV significant differences were obtained through the storage period. TS with TPE and SE have continuously showed  less volatile base nitrogen values (VBNs) (p≤0.05) compared to UTS. Free fatty acid values (FFAs) showed little differences within the first 3 months of storage for UTS and TS, however, after the 3 months of storage, FA of UTS were significantly increased (p≤0.05) by the end of storage period.

EFFECT OF SHORT TERM EXPOSURE OF EGGS TO MAGNETIC FIELD IN HATCHABILITY AND PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF PROGENY

Duraid TH. Younis; Ahmed M. TH. Thabet

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 89-94
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129128.1102

The aim of this study was to identify the effect of exposing broiler breeders eggs to magnetic field before hatching on hatchability and productive performance of progeny. In this research, 300 fertile eggs produced by breeders of Ross 308 were used. they were divided into four Treatments (Seventy-five eggs for each) The Eggs were treated as follows: T1 Control not exposed to magnetic field, T2 eggs exposed to magnetic field 1800 Gauss for 30 minutes, T3 eggs exposed to magnetic field 1800 Gauss for 60 minutes, T4 eggs exposed to magnetic field 1800 Gauss for 90 minutes. After hatching chicks reared under normal condition in semi opened house until 42 days of age.  Statistical data analysis revealed that exposure of the eggs to the magnetic field for 30 minutes induces a substantial increase (p ≤ 0.05) in the percentage of hatchability, live body weight, total weight gain, dressing percentage, output index, W.B.C., R.B.C., P.C.V., hemoglobin and blood glucose, also, a decline in mortality of fetuses and variation in feed conversion between treatments.

EFFECT OF BIOFERTILIZER TRICHODERMA HARZIANUM T-22 APPLICATION, GROWING MEDIUM AND TRAINING METHODS ON SOME CHARARCTRESTICS FOR LANTANA CAMARA PLANTS

afnan B. yahya; muhammad D. Al-Sawaf; .nidal Y. almura

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 95-103
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.127767.1059

An experiment was in the green net canopy Department of Horticulture and Landscape College of Agriculture and Forestry / University of Mosul from May 2019 to October 2019, to investigate the effect of Trichoderma harzianum T-22 application and three growing media (soil, 1:3 soil: peatmoss, 1:1 soil: peatmoss) and three pruning training method (1, 4, 6 branches) and their interaction on the vegetative and flowering growth of Lantana camara. Results showed that T. harzianum application, the growing medium, pruning training method and their interaction had significant effects on the vegetative and flowering growth of plant. The highest average of plant height, stem diameter, leaves number, chlorophyll content and flowering date gives in T. harzianum which increases plant height which was 52.31 cm, stem diameter 8.06 cm, leaves number 164.65, chlorophyll content 25.98 SPAD and flowering date 85.84 day. Results have shown that pruning training Lantana plants on six branchesgave the highest average for plant height 52.29 cm, chlorophyll content 38.69 SPAD and flowering date 79.25 day. Growing medium 1:1 soil:peat moss gives the highest average for plant height 51.97 cm, stem diameter 8.28 cm, chlorophyll content 26.29 SPAD and flowering date 93.33 day.

THE REASONS FOR FARMERS' RELUCTANCE TO PARCTICE THE AGRICULTURAL PROFESSION IN AL –ZAWIYA SUB-DISTRICT /SLAHALDIN GOVERNOATE

ahmed S. abdullah; Mohammad O. Shareef; abdalaziz H. Midhas

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 104-119
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129042.1098

        The study aimed to investigate the reasons that led the farmers ’abstention from agricultural work in Al-Zawiya sub-district in Baiji Governorate / Salah Al-Din Governorate in general. Then, find out the reasons  Which led to farmers' ’abstention  to work in every field of study. As well as determining the correlation relationship between the reasons for farmers ’ ’abstention  and each of the following independent variables (age, educational level, years of work in agriculture, working in other occupations, attitude towards agricultural work, communication with sources of information). There for, the research community included (201) farmers reluctant to practice agricultural work. Thus, we chose a random sample of farmers at a rate of (40%), so that the number of respondents who were subjected to the research reached (80) farmers who are not ready to work in agriculture. The results showed an increase in the abstention of farmers to farm work. We can conclude from this that there are real reasons that led to these results in an area, in spite fertile land for agriculture. The results also showed the existence of a significant correlation between the reasons for farmers' abstention from agricultural work and a set of independent variables. The researchers conclude the importance of these factors and the depth of their influence in increasing or decreasing causes of abstinence. We recommended the authorities, especially the Ministry of Agriculture, to develop solutions to the obstacles that make farmers stop agriculturalwork.

PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZER, APPLICATION TIMES, AND POLYMER GEL ON THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAD WHEAT Triticum aestivum L.

saleh M. I. Al-Jobouri; Amjad TH. KH. Alabar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 120-130
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.128974.1092

A field experiment was carried out during the winter agricultural season 2019-2020 at two location (Al-Hamdaniya, Talkef) to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer, its application dates, and polymer gel on the growth traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L), cultivar Talafar (3), and the RCBD was used. According to the split plots system and with three replications, the experiment included two factors, the first factor, levels of nitrogen fertilizer and its addition times, which are five levels :{ (zero as control treatment), (40 kg N /h: 1/2 when planting +1/2 beginning of Tillars), (40 kg N /h: 1/3 when planting +2/3 beginning of Tillars), (80 kgN /h: 1/2 when planting +1/2 beginning of Tillars) , (80 kg N /h : 1/3 when planting +2/3 beginning of Tillars)} and the second factor polymer gel in four levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg /h)  occupied coefficients The nitrogen fertilizer and the application of the main plots in the main plots experiment. The polymer gel levels occupied the sub plots. The results indicate that the levels of nitrogen fertilizer and the dates of its addition achieved a significant increase in most of the growth traits and for both locations, and the levels of polymer gel led to a significant increase in most of the growth traits, two study location, and The significant interaction response got all the growth traits except for the number of days until the beginning of flowering for the AL-Hamdaniya location and C.G.R for the Talkef location.