Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Issue 4,

Issue 4


THE POSSIBILITY OF USING NANOFERTILIZERS TO RAISE THE EFFICIENCY OF VEGETABLE CROPS PRODUCTIVITY, IMPROVE THE QUALITY AND REDUCE THE DAMAGE OF BIOLOGICAL STRESSES (REVIEW ARTICLE)

Fathel Fathi Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127584.1056

Several methods were used to increase productivity and quality of the product for vegetable crops and prolong their presence in the markets, including the treatment of various vegetable crops with industrial growth regulators and mineral fertilizers, whether fertilizers containing in their composition micronutrients or major nutrients. Global statistics have shown in many studies that there are large numbers of people in the world whose number exceeds 3 billion peoples who suffer from undernutrition, especially the shortage of micronutrients, as this problem can be overcome by adding fertilizers containing these elements to agricultural production fields in different ways, but the use of these chemical fertilizers may have negative harmful effects on the environment and public health in addition to the high prices, which constitute an economic burden on farms, so the researchers moved not long ago to adopt the idea of using nano-fertilizer to raise production efficiency and reduce the harm of biological stresses reduce the cost of production processes as well as it is the safest food source compared to chemical fertilizers in vegetable crops, which have been used and utilized in many scientific fields in many countries of the world.
Key word: Nano. Nano-fertilizer. Biological stresses.

STUDY OF GENTIC PARAMETERS USING HALF DIALLEL CROSS IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.)

Mohammed S. Altaweel; Qusay A. Yousif

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127377.1049

Five inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were used in this study with ten hybrids which planted through spring and autumn seasons (2018) at the research station of the Field Crops Department/College of Agriculture and Forestry/University of Mosul, using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The characters studied were date to tasseling, date to silking, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area cm2, leave area index, number of ears per plant, ear length, number of rows per ear, number grains per row, 300 grain weight, grain yield per plant and oil percent %.The results showed that phenotypic, genetic and environmental variances were significant for all the characters for both seasons. The average degree of dominance was greater than one for number of leaves per plant, leaf area index, number of ears per plant, ear length, number of rows per ear, the number grains per row and oil percent. The broad sense heritability was high for plant height, leaf area, leaf area index, number of rows per ear, 300 grain weight, grain yield per plant, and oil percent for both seasons, while it was medium for number of leaves per plant, number of ears per plant, ear length, number grain per row, and low for date to tasseling, date to silking, at autumn season. The expected genetic advance values for all characters and for both seasons was high.

META – ANALYSIS FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCHES (REVIEW)

Eskander H. alqysy; muna A. ALamadani; sura S. alaidham

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127947.1064

       This article aimed to discuss the Meta- analysis and its use in agricultural research. This analysis carefully reviews the results that have already been published; it works on organizing, integrating and scientific evaluation of previous researches and studies on a specific topic. It is also a statistical analytical approach aimed at interpreting the results of researches collected from multiple studies, it helps in making decisions, and its purpose is statistical integration between the results taken from a large community through several researches on different samples derived from the same community. It is a well-established technique in the natural, medical and psychological sciences, and it was used recently in the field of economics. It is a technique that differs from others; it has its methods, steps and quantitative procedures. Recently, Meta-analysis was considered one of the objective and solid methods in agriculture. Although in cross-sectional agricultural researches there are difficulties due to different conditions and environments, yet Meta- Analysis has become an inevitable method, as it can serve as a summary or a base for data and results that help researchers and determine their research path and direction. It helps decision makers and policy makers as it puts in their hands a large number of results and conclusions.

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF PUREBRED AND CROSSBRED ROMANOV LAMBS

Nawzad . M Aziz; Dvalishvili. V. G

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 35-42
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128447.1075

The present study aimed to examine the growth performance and characteristics of carcass quality of purebred and crossbred Romanov male lambs (3/4 Romanov × ¼ Edilbai). A total of 40 male lambs (3 months aged) from two different genotypes (20 of each genotype) were used. Lambs were reared under the same management system for 8 months of age. The growth and characteristics of carcass as hot and cold weight of carcass, dressing percentage and carcass composition were determined for each group of lambs. The results indicated a significant difference (P≤0.05) in growth traits between purebred and crossbred Romanov lambs. The crossbred Romanov lambs had significantly higher final body weight and  weight gain per day compared to purebred Romanov lambs. Moreover, a significant increase was recorded for all carcass traits in Romanov crossbred lambs compared with purebred Romanov lambs. Due to high production and carcass traits, Romanov crossbred lambs can be used for the production of meat purposes. However, further investigations of these crossbred lambs need to be evaluated before any recommendation is given.

ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL REGENERATION OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF GAPS IN ATRUSH FOREST

muzahim S. younis; Mohammed Y. Al-alaaf; Mohanad Abd-Alqader

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127907.1062

Atrush Forest is a mixed forest that contains many types of forest trees and shrubs, and the dominant species in these forests (Pinus brutia Ten., Querecus sp., Crataqus ozaralus, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rhus coriaria, Prunus amycdalus, Ficus carica L. and Plautus spina- christi), the total area of the study area was determined (126.1821) hectare, (1786) gaps were fixed, classified into four categories, measurements were taken of the crowns and the total height of the surrounding trees that make up the circumference of the gap. As for the gap area, use the ellipse formula. It was found that the numbers of small gaps come in the forefront for each category (X < 200) m2  and (200 < X < 400) m2 where the number of gaps in the first category (X < 200) (855) was a problem gap of 48% of the total  gaps, while the second category followed (200 < X < 400), in which the number of gaps was (444) gaps and constituted (25 %), while the third category (400 < X < 600), the number of gaps was (171) gaps formed by that (10%) of the total gaps, while the number of gaps in the fourth and large category (X > 600) was (316) gaps, and 17% of the total gaps formed, while the shapes for the gaps were the triangular, oval, regular, and irregular shape Regular proportions (6, 30, 37 and 27 %) respectively, and that the ellipse and regular form (67 %) of total space. As for the gaps with areas (400 < X < 200) m2 where the triangular, oval, regular and irregular shapes form the proportions (9, 28, 39, 24 %) respectively, we find that the oval and regular forms are a total of (67 %) of the areas of the second category, while the gaps with areas (600 < X < 400) m2 , the triangular, oval, regular and irregular shapes formed the proportions (13, 25, 40, 22 %) respectively, and the oval and regular forms formed 65% of the areas of the third category. While we find that the large gaps whose area is greater than (600 > X) m2, we find that the triangular, oval, regular and irregular oval shapes formed proportions (13, 18, 53, 16 %), respectively, and that the sum of the ratios The oval and regular forms of the fourth area category are (71 %), and this indicates that the oval and regular forms are the most common forms in the gaps, and there is no doubt that regular forms are prevalent at the site of the study and formed (17 %) of the total gaps.

EFFECT OF SALINE STRESS ON GROWTH OF FRUIT PLANTS (REVIEW ARTICLE)

Ayad H. Alalaf; Waleed M-E. Fekry

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 53-61
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128155.1070

Soil and irrigation water salinity are among the main problems hindering agricultural development, especially in arid and semi-arid regions, which depends on especially surface irrigation as the main means in agriculture. The salinity lead to low growth and production of plants, including fruit, as a result of the temporal, azalotic, or nutrients imbalance. Salinity of the soil or irrigation water greatly reduces the growth, productivity and quality of fruit crops by affecting their physiological, chemical and biological functions as they cause obstruction to the absorption of some elements by the plant and if it increased absorption of salts, it causes ion poisoning of the cell, as well as increased salts cause less absorption of water by the plant due to the high osmosis of soil water. There are many ways to reduce the salt stress in the growth of fruit plants, the most important of which is adding organic fertilizers such as humic acid or spraying with the amino acid proline.

THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION CENTERS IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT IN IRAQ

AHMED . R. ALHealyi; Dahham N. Aljarjary

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 62-74
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127573.1055

The research aims to identify the role of agricultural extension centers in rural development in Iraq from the viewpoint of those working in, by identifying the degree to which agricultural extension centers play their role in rural development in the extension, economic and social fields. The degree to which these centers played their role in each of the aforementioned fields of rural development was determined and the items of these fields are arranged. The research community included (113) agricultural engineers and extensions working in the agricultural extension training centers in the country of (16) extension centers, except for the governorates of the Kurdistan region.
 The results showed the agreement the views of most the respondents that the extension centers in Iraq play a major and effective role in rural development through carrying out tasks and works in all fields of studied rural development (in general). Likewise, most of the respondents views agreed that the economic field comes at the forefront of these fields and the social field came in the second rank, whereas the extension field came in the last rank. In the researcher’s conclusions, he recommends the necessity of the continuity and support of the Ministry of Agriculture and those in charge of the extension apparatus in Iraq for extension centers due to the importance of its role in agricultural and rural development.

SOIL SURFACE CRUST: ITS SIGNIFICANCE, TYPES AND MECHANICS OF FORMATION. A REVIEW

yousif H. alnaser; Qahtan D. Alkhafagi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 75-85
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128485.1076

Most of the agricultural soils around the world suffer from increased soil degradation and erosion and reduce moisture conservation, which is the decisive factor in agricultural crop production, and among these problems is the phenomenon of Surface Soil Crusting (SSC), which is spread in a wide range of climates, especially in dry and semi-arid soils. In this review, the focus was done on the significance of SSC, its formation mechanisms, stages of emergence, types of crusts, methods used to estimate crust hardness and its resistance to penetration. It was noted that SSCs are formed when raindrop falls on newly plowed soils or soils without vegetation, followed by periods of drought, thus destroying soil aggregates and splashing there fine particles, these particles enter the inter-pores, Leading to formation of hard thin layers at the soil surface with thickness ranges from several millimeters to several centimeters or these particles moved by surface runoff water to deposit in the bottom of valleys, forming a sedimentary crust of five to seven centimeters thick. The SSC are generally divided into three main parts, namely, structural crusts, sedimentional crusts, in addition to the Biological soil crusts, which is formed over the previous two types and consists of fungi, algae, lichens and bacteria. Crust hardness can be measured or estimated by two main methods, which are Modulus of Rupture, and crust Penetration Resistance.

ESTIMATING AND ANALYZING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SOME CASH CEREAL CROPS IN IRAQ AND EGYPT FOR THE PERIOD 1995-2016

Eman Y. alnjar; Basim F. Al-Douri; Waleed I. Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 86-103
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128623.1079

This study aims to estimating and analyzing the factors affecting the production and productivity of the main cereal crops in Iraq and Egypt at the period 1995-2016, which are characterized with low production. Three crops were selected, which are wheat, barley and rice. The research was based on a hypothesis that there is a deterioration in the production of the three crops due to some factors that hamper the development of crops production for the period 1995-2016. To verify the hypothesis, the methodology used linking two directions, the descriptive method which depended on the previous studies dealing with the same topic and the quantitative method based on the standard economics methods and techniques. The two stages normal least squares method was used and then interpreting the results of the quantitative method to evaluate the theoretical aspect of the study depending on the economic theory concept. Important conclusions were reached, including: agriculture in Iraq and Egypt is subjected to several limitations with varying effects on its growth. Also, the research reached the important result: the level of the economic agricultural exposure has a negative impact on the quantities of rice produced in Iraq and Egypt, and the researcher recommended adopting a pricing policy that contributes to the product protection and making the local prices of the crops in question approximately the same international prices.

PCR-RFLP TECHNIQUE FOR SPECIES ORIGIN IDENTIFICATION OF IMPORTED BUFFALO MEAT

Dilger M. Khdr; Kamaran M. Taha; Azad M. Sabow

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 104-113
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128802.1086

The study aimed to identify the species origin of imported buffalo meat from three countries Ukraine, Brazil and India to Erbil using PCR-RFLP technique. The pair of universal cyt b primer was designed to amplify a 359 bp DNA fragment in PCR amplification. Then the amplified fragments were digested with Hinf1 and Rsa I restriction enzymes, achieving a characteristics banding pattern in a 2% agarose which produced evidence to identify origin meat species. The results presented that digestion of samples with the Hinf1 RE, produced two bands in each (Ukraine and Brazil), (58 and 301) bp while it was showed different bands in Indian buffalo meat (85, 274) bp. On the other hand the outcomes in the Rsa I RE were two bands in Ukraine and Brazil (156, 203) bp and two bands were obtained in Indian buffalo meat (106, 253) bp. The results realized that the Indian buffalo meat species was not acceptable and showed mislabeling products. Thus, the obtained results recommend that the PCR-RFLP technique with HinfI and Rsa I restriction enzymes play an important role to detect the origin meat species, since it is a fast, simple and easily handle technique for detection of meat species.

IMPACT OF ADDING SEROTONIN, TRYPTOPHAN AND OPTIFEED IN DRINKING WATER ON BROILER BEHAVIOR, PERFORMANCES GROWTH AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL TRAITS OF BLOOD

Mahbuba A. Mustafa; Rand R. Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 114-124
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128894.1089

The present study was conducted to study the impact of serotonin, tryptophan and Optifeed adding in drinking water on behavior characterize, body performance, sensory evaluation of breast and thigh meat, some biochemical parameters of blood and immune status against some diseases by ELISA of broiler (Ross-308). 400 unsexed chicks one day old were randomly distributed into 4 treatments and 4 replicates for each treatment, are: T0 (control standard drinking water DW), T1 (0.5 g tryptophan/1 L DW, T2 (2 mg serotonin/1 L DW, T3 (0.5 g Optifeed®/1 L DW). The birds were reared for 42 days and behavior traits of birds controlled by erected cameras upon all replicates. The analyzed results were significantly improved behavioral characteristics, body performance (body weight and gain, feed intake, FCR, water consumption, uniformity, liver, and gizzard%), feasibility (economic profit), sensory evaluation (aroma, taste, tenderness, juiciness, and acceptance) of cocked breast and thigh meat, blood serum concentrations (total protein, globulin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), serotonin, thyroxin (T4), tryptophan), and immunological ELISA titers against Newcastle, Gamboro, and Infectious bronchitis viral diseases. Otherwise, significantly decreased mortality, and blood serum concentrations, (triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and corticosterone) in all treatments of water additives compared with the control.
The addition of Optifeed® and serotonin positively affects in all experimental characteristics than others especially improved behavioral characterize of broiler during the rearing periods.

GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND MICROFLORA IN GROWING QUAIL FED DIETS SUPPLEMENTED WITH Lactuca serriola POWDER

NAZIM R. RASUL

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 125-133
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128996.1094

The aim of the current study was to assess the influence of Lactuca serriola supplemented diet on performance, carcass characteristics and intestinal microbiota count of Japanese quails. A total of eighty birds of quail (one week of age) were divided into 2 groups of 40 birds each (five replicates of eight birds each). In the first group, the birds were fed a basal diet without Lactuca serriola, while the birds in the second group were fed diets containing 20 g Lactuca serriola /kg feed. Birds in both groups were fed for five weeks. Quails were slaughtered in order to study intestinal microbiota count and carcass characteristics at six weeks age. The results showed that quails fed Lactuca serriola had higher growth performance including body weight in comparison with the control group. The inclusion of Lactuca serriola had significantly higher lactic acid bacteria count and  lowest level of E. coli and Salmonella enterica count than the control group. However, Lactuca serriola did not affect carcass measurements. Thus, supplementation of Lactuca serriola can improve the performance of Japanese quail and used as a new feed additive to balance gut microbiota

EFFECT OF BORON ON SOME INDUSTRIAL CROPS: A REVIEW

Waleed KH Al-Juheishy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 134-145
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128730.1083

Boron is considered one of the necessary elements for the growth of plants, it participates in the process of pollination, fertilization and plant fruit setting. It enhances the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and serves as a compound that accelerates the movement of sugars into the active areas during growth throughout the reproduction stages of the plant. Shortage in boron causes slowness in plant growth, decrease in production and degradation of crops quality. It is found that adding boron to some industrial crops such as (sesame, sunflower, safflower, rapeseed, soybean, cotton, flax, and sugar beet) leads to stimulating plants, accelerating the growth, and increasing the production of these crops, through its influence on many physiological functions that determine the growth and development of crop yield. It was noted that boron facilitates and speeds the transfer of sugars to the plants, as it interacts with sugars, forming a sugar complex with boron, this works on the movement of boron through cell membranes with ease compared to the movement of sugar molecules alone, and this may be due to the formation of regions or points of reception of sugar in modern growth or because boron may be considered one of the components of plant membranes, It also works to regulate enzymatic activity.