Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 46, Issue 4

Volume 46, Issue 4, Autumn 2018


THE ROLE OF AGRICULTURAL EMPLOYEES IN THE OPERATION OF AGRICULTURAL TECHNOLOGIES TRANSFER TO FARMERS IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE

AHMED ALTALB; Marwa A. S. AL-Zubaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161526

The present research aims at identifying the role of agricultural employees in the operation of agricultural technologies transfer to farmers in Nineveh Governorate in general, and in each field of the research fields،which included (organization field, planning field، implementation field، follow-up field, evaluation field). The comparison between the role of agricultural employees at the centers of the Directorate of Agriculture of Nineveh and its agricultural divisions in the transfer of agricultural technologies. Light is shed on the relation between the role of the officials un the transfer of the technologies and the following independent variables (age, educational level, specialization، origin, duration of service in agricultural departments، sources of agricultural information).The research included all  the agricultural employees in the Directorate of Agriculture Nineveh and its affiliated sections which are (384) agricultural workers, a random sample (60%)  has been selected (231) agricultural employees، (89) agricultural employees from  the sections  of Nineveh Agriculture Directorate, (142) agricultural employees distributed to the agricultural divisions in the Directorate of Agriculture Nineveh، (30) employees have been excluded because they are  included in  measuring the validity  of the research. A questionnaire has been prepared which included (75) paragraphs to measure the role of agricultural employees distributed in five areas related to programs for the transfer of agricultural technologies concerning organization ، planning، implementation, follow-up and maintenance. Each field has a number of paragraphs (11, 16, 19, 13, 16), respectively, with a five-point scale including the following expressions: (I have a very big role, I have a big role، I have an average role, I have little role, I have no role). The following numerical values have beengiven (5,4,3,2,1) respectively. The results showed that the role of agricultural employees in the transfer of agricultural technology in general was average and tends to increase, which indicates the role of agricultural employees. It recommended that training courses be undertaken to provide agricultural employees with the necessary information and expertise to improve their role in agricultural technology transfer programs.

COMMUNICATION SKILLS FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN THE CENTER OF WASIT GOVERNORATE AND ITS RELATION TO SOME VARIABLES

MAHA SAEED SHADA JUMA

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161527

The aim of the research was to determine the level of communicative skills of  agricultural extension workers in the center of waist governorate and its relation to some variables.                                                                                                                              
     The research included all employees in the agricultural extension in the center of waist governorate which are (57) respondents. The data were collected by interview questionnaire form is composed of two sections, the first section included some personal variables for the the agricultural workers, while the second section included the communication skills standards for the agricultural extension workers in the center of waist governorate. The following statistical methods were used like the range, arithmetic, simple correlation, the correlation coefficient, spherical correlation coefficient, (t) test, percentage.                                                       
     The results showed that the level of communicative skills of agricultural extension workers in the center of waist governorate average tends to rise as the results showed a significant correlation (0.01) between the level of development and the skill level of communication.                                                                                                                    
   The research recommends that agricultural extension workers awareness towards the importance of communication skills in the performance of work to deliver the message effectively through training of agricultural workers to develop communicative skills As well as the need of agricultural extension workers to create time to listen to the problems facing farmers and find appropriate solutions and that mandating rural contact with farmers and extension activities in assigned search area.                                             

The level of application of the extension plant to the extension recommendations in the field of grafting on pumpkin in greenhouses in the governorates of Dohuk and Kirkuk

Luma- Munther Edrees; Abd-Alaziz-Hameed- Midhas

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 25-38
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161528

The search aimed to the determine Application level for guidance recommendation for watermelon farmers in the grafting of the watermelon on the gourd in the greenhouses in two governorates duhok and Kirkuk in public form and in all domain from  studied domain, and determine  the relationship between the application level and all of the independent changes such as (age, the number of work years, education level, Greenhouse area,  information sources), The research included all of the farmers which them doing in grafting of the watermelon on gourd in greenhouses in duhok province and Kirkuk province which them number is(44) respondents. Data is gather by questionnaire form is used as an instrument for collecting the information that consist three parts: the first part is related to the personal information،the second part included depended variable which is include (33) items and the third part included of the problems which stand in way of respondents.  The results showed that level of general configuration / in duhok and Kirkuk it was middle and in each branch from the study branch in the research region it was middle too.
The results showed that there is significant relationship between the application level and th variables most of studied. The results showed that there is some of problems which stand in way of respondents. Researcher recommend by increase the directive activities that is related to farmers of watermelon in the research area. Making another studies in another regions and adoption the agents that showed significant relationship.        

Some of the personal and functional characteristics of agricultural extension workers and their relation to the level of their performance in Babylon Province

Anhar M.A. Hassan; Majid K. Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 39-48
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161529

The aim of the current study was to determine the job performance level of agricultural extension workers in Babylon province generally to estimate the level of job performance in each field of the research and to find the correlation between the level of job performance and some personal and functional characteristics in Babylon province. The research community were included the agricultural extension workers in the Directorate of Agriculture of Babylon province and the agricultural divisions that belonged to it. The random sample of 50% of the total population of (8) agricultural people was removed from them, in which (298) staff members were assigned a random sample of (152) employees.
       The questionnaire form was used as a tool for collecting data from respondents, which consists of two parts; the first includes questions related to the measurement of personal and functional characteristics (age, duration of employment, duration of extension service and Information related to the extension work), the second part includes a measure of the agricultural extension workers performance within the agricultural divisions. The scale was consisted of 102 items divided into two fields: the first field consisted of 74 items (performance of the extension work) and the second field consisted of 28 items (rural work and service of farmers). The answers for the previous items through an index were with five level (always, often, sometimes, rarely, unknown), with a corresponding numerical values (5, 4, 3, 2, 1). Stability was computed by split – half method and reached (0.77) in general.
       The results of the research showed that the general level of job performance of workers in agricultural extension average tends to high, and that the job performance level in the field of performance of extension work and work in the rural and agricultural service was high and tends to medium, Also ,the results showed that there was a significant correlation between the indicative job performance and the following variables: (years of  job service, years of extension service, number of courses, and development), and the variables give an explanation for 46.6% of the changes in the performance.
 The researcher recommended that the Directorates responsible for training the staff in order to prepare them and raise the efficiency of their job performance in preparing training courses on the content of their material in the fields of extension work carried out by the workers in agricultural extension taking into consideration the variables that showed a relationship of significant correlation in the preparation of training courses.

The knowledge Level of Rural Women in the Field of Tomato Cultivation in the District of Samarra of Salahaddin Province

Marwa Ahmed Taha Al – Asoudi; Ali Ahmed Ghadib

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161530

The study aimed to identify the level of knowledge of rural women in the Samarra district in Saladin province in the cultivation of the tomato crop in general, and to identify the level of knowledge of rural women in the cultivation of the tomato crop in each field of crop cultivation, 12%). The number of respondents was 100. The data were obtained from the questionnaire. The first part included a number of questions related to some independent factors (age, educational attainment, marital status, number of family members, type of household work، Donum aloe, And the second part: the level of knowledge of rural women in the field of cultivating and producing the tomato crop. A number of statistical methods were used (range، frequencies and percentages، correlation coefficient, t, the Spearman Brown equation، the multi-phase desolate model). The results of the study were shown in general Is the average tendency to decline, The results of the study showed a significant decrease in the selection of varieties, soil composition، appropriate soil, date and methods of agriculture، control of agricultural pests، relative importance, geography, storage and less value in soil and soil composition.

VARIANCE IN PARTICIPATION OF RURAL LEADERS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION ACTIVITIES IN ERBIL PLAIN DISTRICT

Mohammed Ahmed M. Al- jobouri; Aamel F. K. Al-Abbassi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 59-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161531

The Objective of the study was to determine the level of participation of rural leaders in agricultural extension activities in the Erbil plain district/Erbil governorate and to determine variance in this participation according to a number of variables. The sample consisted of 41 villages. The final number of local rural leaders surveyed was 102 rural leaders. The results showed that 65% of the respondents were involved in the activities of the agricultural extension medium and strong. In addition, there was a difference in the participation of rural leaders in these activities according to the following variables: (exposure to sources of agricultural information, satisfaction with agricultural extension work, and the motives of participation in agricultural extension activities). While there was no variation in the participation of respondents according to the variables of age, educational level, number of years of work in agriculture, social status, and openness to the outside world.

LEVEL OF APPLICATION OF RURAL WOMEN FOR SCIENTIFIC RECOMMENDATIONS IN THE FIELD OF DAIRY MANUFACTURE IN DISTRICT OF SHARKAT - SALAH ADDIN GOVERNORATE

Hafsa Fatah Aade Alenzy; Sahab A. AL-Ajeeli

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 67-82
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161533

The study focused mainly on assessing the level of rural women's application of scientific recommendations in the field of dairy manufacture in Al-Sharqat district/ Salah El-Deen governorate in general, As well as on estimating the level of application of rural women in each of the fields. The study also aimed to determine the correlation between the level of application. of rural women to scientific recommendations in the field of dairy manufacturing with number of personal, social and communicative characteristics of female researchers. The research population included all rural women in dairy manufacture. A randomize multi-stage sample was chosen representing (50%) of the research population. the number of respondents was 150. The research data were collected by using a questionnaire specifically designed to determine the level of application: The first part included personal. social. communication and economic characteristics. while the second  included scale to measure the level of application of rural women in the field of dairy manufacture. The results showed that the highest percentage of respondents was 46% of the respondents in the middle category application level followed by the high category of application level by 44%. Therefore, the level of application of rural women in Al-Sharqat district to the scientific recommendations in the fields of dairy manufacture can be described as average In general. The results also showed a significant correlation with the variables of age, social status, number of years of experience, purpose of manufacturing. and sources of information.

AN- ECONOMICAL AND ECONOMETRICAL ANALYSIS FOR WHEAT YIELD PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION IN IRAQ FOR THE PERIOD (1990 – 2014)

Ahmed Hashim Ali Al-Mshhdani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 83-92
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161535

The research aims to study the effect of the most important factors that affect the production and consumption of wheat crop and try to reduce the food gap between the produced and consumed quantities of this crop in Iraq for the period (1990 - 2014) and its effects on the agricultural sector in general. The fluctuation in the production of the wheat crop is offset by an increase in quantities consumed due to several economic factors. Based on this hypothesis, the research relied on the method of linking two directions, the descriptive method which was based on previous studies on the same subject, Lacey and his methods as he used the method of least squares two-stage And then explain the results of the quantitative method to assess the practical side of the study. The study also included the most important conclusions: wheat production was fluctuated during the study period because of the fluctuation in the productivity of the dunums of wheat where most of the cultivated lands are demotic lands represented in northern Iraq and the consumption of wheat is increasing due to the increase in numbers Population and wheat as a necessary commodity for the Iraqi individual so can not be dispensed or replaced, leading to a gap to be processed by importing, and therefore recommends the research: the use of modern agricultural techniques to increase the productivity of acres through the expansion of the use of modern irrigation systems and proved successful to reduce the dependence on rainwater and reduce the work food gap through the adoption of methods and methods in the preparation of modern production plans that work to raise productivity for this crop.

The attitude of Tomato framers in the Sharaqat district, Salaheddin province to wards use modern Agriculture technique and their relationship with some variable

Ali Ahmed Ghaidhaib; Mohammed Omer Shreef; Faras Abraheem Arhaeem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 93-102
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161536

       The  research  aims to identify the attitude of  uncovered  tomato farmers  to  wards  using  modern  agriculture in Sharaqat  district, Salaheddin province. Also، to identify this attitude with  all term  about  that  related  with planting and  marketing, as well as  to find  out a correlation  between  uncovered  tomato farmers  attitude with following  variable (Age، Education level. year of  experience).                           A search  include all  uncovered  tomato farmers  in right  side of  Sharaqat  district، the 250  farms،those who  enrolled  in  the  Sharaqat  Agriculture dept, 30 were  expelled  as being a sample survey. We took a random sample of 50% were taken. Thus, the under study respondents were (110).
       We used  questionnaire to got  data  which  included  two  parts; the  first  the  data about  farms  tomato crop، second measurement  to determine the level of  adoption consist of  33 experimental term. Then، we were sure of the validity via, the reliability, retail midterm، we get stability، brining stability coefficient is (0.91),Therefore, statistical data were classified in several way as (rang، person's correlation coefficient spearman correlation coefficient rank's and  other). Results showed that the rate of answer in first class was positive attitude (96.666), the percentage was (87.878%), and that number of terms in this part was (18), Therefore, that the rate of the answer to respondents second part-neutral attitude was (58.625) and the percentage was (53.295%), while the number of term was (8). Thus, that the rate of answer in third part is –negative attitude (31.25), the percentage was (28.409%), while the number of term in this part was (4), Also results that showed the percentage rate answer respondents matched the percentage of each level when measuring thus, the tomato farmers attitude is positive in (18) terms، while the attitude in (8) terms was neutral, while the attitude in (4) terms was negative. Finally, the results showed there were significant correlations with (Age, Education level, Years' experience). Based on the results we have some suggestion, conclusions and recommendation.

Economics production buffalo breeding farms in the province of Nineveh (Badush area a case stady)

Salim AL- Nuaimy,; Zwaid, F. Abd; Mahasen, M, Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 103-108
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161537

Buffalo breeding are one of  the important agricultural activities of economic yield farms  and breeding Buffalo in traditional farms mainly for milk in the area of ​​Badush (study area) where the buffalo products are of great interest to citizens and represent a special place in the economic structure The research aims to analyze the economics of  production and costs of these farms in the sample of the study (58) farm for the productive season 2013, which accounted about 50% of the research community in Nineveh province through the estimation of  production and costs of the application of  principles of selection in using of elements of production and to show the impact of these elements and contribute to help farmers in using their resources with a degree of efficiency and making productive decisions based on the economic derivatives of these functions to determine the optimal production and most of the profits. Results of the estimation showed that the double logarithmic formula is the best formula for the representation of production function and that the function and all the explanatory variables are statistically significant except for green feed and veterinary services.The most significant effect of the employment variable was on the production process، with  elasticity of 0.277 and  positive indication، and the results of the cost function estimate the best formulas to represent the relationship. The total cost house and  total milk production is the spring formula. The optimum production volume was 10.77 kg / dayو (1266) dinars / kg, while the maximum production volume of the profits (15.99) kg / day per animal and the average cost (988) dinars / kg، and in the light of the previous results recommend the need to work at the maximum level of profit at   the farm when the potential for expansion exist especially the physical and the  administrative

ORIENTATIONS OF DAIRY PRODUCERS AND CONSUMER ATTITUDES (A FIELD STUDY IN THE PROVINCE OF NINEVEH)

Alla Abdullah; Qater Alnada Esmael

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 109-120
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161538

The dairy production has the potential to be a powerful engine for poverty alleviation and raising levels of nutrition and improving the livelihoods of the rural population in many developing countries, although dairy products have characteristics which may Ataatlaúm and characteristics of other food products, but the embodiment of the problem of the study on the possibility of determining the significance of variables to consumer satisfaction ( sign of the product, advertising, quality, quality casings, product availability and diversity, the right price, and the clarity of phrases and language) in terms of the style of presentation and uniformity, and the possibility of determining the significance of the variables related to the characteristics of dairy products in the province of Nineveh .The importance of research in the definition considerations marketing and its reflection on the production, consumption and marketing of milk in the province has been the formulation of hypothesis concerning the existence of the relative importance of the variables of the study, and using the method of economic and descriptive and quantitative analysis based on several methods to estimate the (style of presentation and uniformity, comparisons marital, factor analysis and scale Thurston) in the factories for the production of milk in the province of Nineveh,T he study included (4) plants in the province ( dairy factory Mosul , Al Jazeera dairy , ice cream, Ltd. , dairy national and dairy Secretary ) has been taking a sample geography in Nineveh province and distributed ( 1050 ) form the consumers in those neighborhoods , and depending on the method of sample multi-stage ( cluster ) , and based on the diagnosis of the key factors of the study has been marking a set of conclusions and recommendations including the study of the problems of productivity , marketing and regulatory coefficient dairy production and to reconsider the policy of productivity projects small dairy to increase its production and achieve production capacity full.

Effect of adding anisum and Coriander to diet in some productive performance and the enteric ecosystem of quail

Dureid Younis; O. A. Adday

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 121-134
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161539

       This study was conducted in one of the halls of Animal Production Department- College of Agriculture and Forestry / University of Mosul for the period 8/10/2017 until 31/12/2017 (84) day and aimed to know the effect of adding anisum seeds powder and Coriander in some productive performance and the enteric ecosystem of quail. The study was divided into two stages: The first stage (Growth stage)from the age (14 day) till the age of puberty. 288 Local quail birds were divided randomly into four treatments (72 birds/treatment),six replicates in each replicate 12 birds. The experimental treatments were First no addition (control) , Second treatment was added 2 % of anisum powder, Third added 2 % of coriander powder , and Forth added 2 % of anisum and 2 % of coriander powder to diet , birds reared until six weeks. Feed and water were Ad-Libitum and the water was provided free of additives. Statistic analysis of data showed a significantly increase in body weight, growth rate, improving in feed conversion ratio for third and fourth treatments. as compared with first and second treatments, weight gain for fourth treatment as compared with second. increasing in Number of Lactobacillus bacteria for third and fourth treatments as compared with control. Significantly decrease in feed consumption for third treatments decrease in number of Salmonella bacteria and E.coli bacteria for second, third, fourth treatments as compared with control. No significantly differences in relative weight of Edable organs, Length of digestive tracts, carcass weight, relative weight of chest, wings, back, neck, and dressing percentage for third treatment improvement in intestine tissue picture for forth treatment. Second stage (egg production) from the age seven weeks until twelfth weeks, statistic analysis of data showed significantly increase in egg production percentage,weight and high and diameter of yolk for second,third and forth treatments as compared with the control. Increasing in hatch ability percentage from fertility and total egg, fertility percentage for second treatment as compared with others treatments.  No significant differences in body weight gain during production period. Significantly decrease in embryos mortality for second treatment.     

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF LICORICE ROOTS POWDER TO DIETS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND SOME BLOOD TRAITS FOR QUAIL

Khalid Hadi Mustafa Al-Sofee

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 135-144
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161540

This study was conducted in the Poultry farm of Animal Resources Dept., College of Agric. & Forestry, Mosul Uni., in order to investigate the effect of different levels of licorice roots powder to diets on productive performance and some blood traits for quail.
Two hundred fifty six unsexed quail (Coturnix coturnix) one week old were randomly distributed into four treatments (64 birds/ treatment) with 8 replicates, in each replicate eight birds, and the treatments continued till the age of 42 days of age. The treatments were as follows: 1st (control): reared on the standard ration  without  addition of crushed licorice root, and the 2nd, 3rd and 4th treatments reared on the standard ration supplemented with (0.5,1,1.5)% of crushed licorice root/kg ration respectively. Ration and water were ad libitum along duration of the study.
Statistical analysis of data showed no significant differences (p≤0.05) in final body weight, average total weight gain, relative growth rate, total feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, production index, total mortality, dressing percentage also on mainly cuts and secondary cuts, PCV, serum glucose and triglycerides.
While the results showed a significant increase in serum total protein in the 2nd and 4th treatments, as well as a significant decrease in the serum cholesterol levels in the 3rd and 4th treatments compared with control (p≤0.05).

Effect Of Adding Some Medicinal Herbs (Thyme & Red Pepper Powders) And Probiotic On Some Productive Performance Of Broiler chicks

Ibrahim S. Kloor; Ahmed M. A. Al-ubaidy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 145-154
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161541

The study were carried out to evaluate the effect of supplying the diets with some medicinal herbs powders of thyme (Thyme Vulgaris) and red pepper (Capsicum Annum)  as well as the probiotic on some productive performance of broilers (Arboracer) in a duration of 42 days. A total of 160 one day old unsexed chicks were used allocated to four treatments (two replicates/ treatment, of 20 chick/replicate). The first treatment as control, The second and third treatment were supplied by 0.5 % thyme and red pepper powder respectively and the forth treatment supplied by 0.1% probiotic. The results showed that the bird fed the diet contained red pepper had significantly (p≤0.05) better weight, weight gain، feed conversion ratio, feed efficiency production index and the lowest mortality when compared to control group. No significant difference (p≤0.05) were found between diets added thyme، probiotic as compared to control group in body weight، weight gain، feed intake، feed conversion ratio although the production index value was improved for these two treatments.

COMBINING ABILITY IN F2 HYBRIDS PEAS (Pisum sativum L.)

Shamil AL-Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 155-170
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161542

Used in this study Four varieties of Peas (Pisum sativum L.) viz, (1- Carina, 2- English, 3- Green Feast and  4- Little Marvel ) were Full diallel crossing carried out according to (Griffing 1956) first method (Model I) to produce F2 hybrids, of twelve single hybrid from self pollination of F1 hybrid during the growing season 2010/2011. The parents and F2 hybrid were planting by using Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replications at vegetable field of the Horticulture and landscape design department, College of Agriculture and Forestry , Mosul University, during the growing season 2011/2012, for evaluate the performance of full diallel hybrids and parents, to determine the best parental combinations through general and specific combining abilities analysis and estimating their effects and reciprocal effect of the yield and its components.
Analysis of variance results showed that mean squares of general combining ability was significant for all the studied characters except no. of branches(branch. plant-1) and pod filling, and that of specific combining ability was significant for most studied characters, the reciprocal effects was significant for all studied characters. The results showed that variance compound of general combining ability was higher than that of specific combining ability for plant height, date flowering and maturity, average weight  and pod length, no. of seeds per pod, green pods yield and biological yield, indicating that an additive gene action control the inheritance of these characters. Estimation of general combining ability effects showed that the parent Little Marvel was significant and good combiners for most of the studied characters, indicating that the contains desired gene , the hybrids varied for their specific combining ability effects, the hybrid 2×4 have a good significant specific combining ability effects for the most desirable characters, and this due to the wide genetic diversity between their parents and their abilities to inherit their characters to their hybrids. 

THE EFFECT OF MEDIA, NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND FOLIAR SPRAY OF GIBBERELLIC ACID ON GROWTH AND MINERAL STATUS OF OLIVE TRANSPLANTS CV. BASHIKA.

Nabil M. Ameen; RAGHD ADNAN ALI

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 171-186
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161543

This experiment was conducted on olive (Olea europaea L.) transplants, Bashika cv. in the nursery of  Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design of the College of Agriculture and Forestry, during season 2012 to study the effect of four growing medias (sandy loam 100%, sandy loam 3:1 manure, sandy loam : manure: peatmoss 3: 1/2:1/2 and sandy loam: peatmoss 3:1), three levels of nitrogen fertilization (0,100 and 200 mgN.l-1) and foliar spray with GA3 (0 and 100 mg GA3 .l-1) and their interaction treatments , in order to improve vegetative growth . The experiment was factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD), with 4 replicates and 10 transplants  within each factorial units. Means were compared by Duncan multiple ranges test at 0,05% level. The most important results were as follows: Growing medium were effective in most studied parameters, The sandy loam medium 100% increased transplants height, diameter, branching ,leaves number and leaves areas, while sandy loam: manure: peat moss 3:1/2:1/2 resulted in a significant increase the height of transplants , leaves area. And fertilization with 200 mg N.l-1 resulted in an increase in transplant height, leaves number, leaves area. GA3 foliar spray at 100 mg.l-1 increased transplant stem diameter and branching. The interaction between the three factors resulted in an additional increase in transplant height, stem diameter, branching, specially the interaction between sandy loam 100% + 100 mg GA3.l-1 and 100 N.l-1 mg, while other interactions appeared a different responses.

Inheritance of Quantitative Characters in Diallel Crosses of Maize

Ahmed A, Ahmed; Zakariya Badir Fathi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 187-200
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161544

Five inbred lines of maize were used in half diallel crosses to study the combining ability for the characters:  height of main ear, number of leaves over the main ear, number of leaves for plant, leaf area, number of grains/ear, grain weight and plant grain yield.The parents and their F1 crosses were planted by using randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were analyzed according to Griffing analysis (1956), method-2, fixed model. Mean squares for general and specific combining abilities were significant at 1% for all characters.The ratio of the components for General and Specific combining abilities was less than one for all the characters.The inbred line ZP was better than others in its general combining ability effect for four characters height of main ear, number of leaves over the main ear, number of leaves for plant and grain weight ,The crosses (DK-17×ZM 7), (DK-17×ZM 47 W), (ZM 7×ZP) and (ZM7 × ZM47 W) exhibited significant specific combining ability effect in desired direction for the characters height of main ear, number of leaves over the main ear , number of leaves for plant , grain weight and plant grain yield (gm).

Nature of Genetic Variance and Heterosis in Maize

Ahmed A, Ahmed; Zakariya Badir Fathi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 201-218
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161545

Five inbred lines of maize: ZP-707, ZP-670, ZM 7, ZP and ZM-47W.were used  in a half diallel crosses program, the genotypes (5 inbred lines + 10 hybrids) were planted in the fields of the College of Agriculture and Forestry / university of Mosul in the autumn season 2013 by using randomized complete block design with three replications The characters studied were number of days to silk and tassel flowering ,plant height , height of main ear(cm), number of leaves over the main ear, number of leaves for plant ,leaf area(cm2),ear diameter(cm),ear length (cm), number of rows/ear, number of grain/ear,100-grain weight and plant grain yield (gm). The results showed additive variance  differed from zero to the plant height, the height of the main ear, leaf area(cm), number of grain/ear, 100-grain weight, and plant grain yield (gm). The dominance variance differed from zero for all studied traits. (ZM7 × ZP-707) which gave heterosis (based on deviation of hybrids from mid parents and from best parents) for the character of number of days for tassel flowering, Plant height, number of leaves for plant, leaf area(cm2), number of grain/ear, weight of 100 grains (g) and plant grain yield (gm). The degree of dominance was greater than one for most traits.

EFFECT OF SEEDING RATES AND MOWING STAGES ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF FORAGE AND SEED OF COMMON VETCH (Vicia sativa L.)

Salim Younis

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 219-232
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161546

       This study conducted in the winter season (2012-2014) at two locations (Bashiqa / Tobzawh village) (25km) east of Mosul and Hemidat - Thaljah village (20 km) west of Mosul. Experiments carried out at each locations to study the effect of three seeding rates (60. 90 and 150kg/ha.) and three growth stages (beginning of flowering, early pod formation and lower pod filing) on growth characters of: forage, seeds yield and quality of common vetch. The experiments carried out according randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D.) with three replacations. The growth stages significantly affect all growth characters dry forage yield and percentage of quality characters of dry forage at both location. The dry forage yield was achieved at lower pod filing growth phase at Thaljah location (3.1ton/ha); And at Tobzawh location (3.6 ton/ha), seeding rates significantly effected dry forage yield at both locations the highest dry forage yield was a achieved with seeding rates 150kg/ha at Thaljah location (2.3 ton/ha) and Tobzawh location(2.6ton/ha) grain yield component and of quality characters of dry forage significantly affect by seeding rates at both location except protein percentage at Thaljah location. The Percentage of all quality characters of seeds and straw were  is significantly affected by seeding rates at both except protein percentage  in seeds and straw at Thaljah location. and percentage of soluble carbohydrate  in seeds, ether extract in straw at Tobzawh location and percentage ether extract in seeds at in seeds at both locations the interaction between   seeding rates and growth stages significantly effect on all  growth characters, dry forage yield and quatily characters of dry forage  yield except ahs percentage at Tobzawh location. The highest dry forage yield was achieved at seeding rates 150 kg/ ha and lower pod filing growth satages at Thaljah location (3.9ton/ha) and at Tobzawh loction (4.3ton/ha.(

Effect of Sowing Date and density of Hordeum glaucum on growth and yield of Triticum aestivum L.

Alaa K. ibraheem; Saliem H. antar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 233-242
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161547

The study was included experiment carried out at the field crops department, College of Agriculturay and Forestry in the agricultural season 2012-2013, the purpose of the 1st experiment was to study the effect of competition between Triticum aesitivum and Hordeum glaucum. Two factors were selected for this purpose: sowing date (early and Late) and four levels of density (8, 16, 24, 32 plant/ m2). The experiment were set out as a "Complete Randomized Design" with three replications. The data analyzed according to design used in all experiment using (SAS) programe. Duncan test was used for all comparison between means treatments. It can be concluded that the most important results were as follow: There was no significant effect between treatment wether they were sowing at early or late  sowing dates for all studied  parameters  except  for leaf area in which the valus of  tratments  sowing at late sowing date were higher with 6.46  as compard with those sowing at early sowing date .The plant height and percentage of protein were  increased as the No. of  Hordeum glaucum plants increased in which it was  fourd has  pots contains  four plants Hordeum glaucum were higher with 7.92 and 26 for both characters  respectively .as compared with control treatment. There was no significant effect for spike height with increasing numbers of Hordeum glaucum plants.The number of grains/spike, weight of  1000  grains pot yield ,leaves area ,dry weight  of plant and biological yield were decreased as the number  of  Hordeum glaucum  plants increased to four plants  pot as compared with control treatment in which it was observed the amount of increased were is follows  (45.45,45.43 ,43.26 ,45.62  ,18 ,10 ,10.44 %) respectively.for the above parameters

ASSISMENT PERFORMANCE OF TWO TYPES OF ASSISSTANCE PARTS (LANDSIDES) LOCALLY MADE AND TRADITIONAL FOR MOLDBOARD PLOW UNDER EFFECT DEEP TILLAGE IN SOME INDECATORS MECHANICAL PERFPRMANCE

Adel Abdullah; Ahmed Ibrahim Abed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 243-256
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161548

This study was conducted to compare two types of assisstance parts (landsides) locally made on performance moldboard plow for two levels of deep tillage. Then their effectsin power requirements criteria (drawbar power, soil resistance force to cut and consistency, energy utilization efficiency) and field performance criteria (vertical deviation percentage, and horizontal deviation percentage). Results showed that the increase deep tillage from 10-15cm to 20-30cm gave higher values for each drawbar power, soil resistance force to cut and consistency and horizontal deviation percentage. Manufactured landsides gaves higher values for energy utilization efficiency while traditional landsides gave higher values for drawbar power, soil resistance force to cut and consistency. The interaction between 20-30 cm depth of tillage and traditional landsides gaves higher values for drawbar power, soil resistance force to cut and consistency.

FIELD STUDY IN SOME ENERGY PROPERTIES OF USING DISC PLOW

Ghazwan, A. Dahham

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 257-268
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161549

Field experiment was conducted to study the effect three levels of tilt angles (15°, 20° and 25°) two levels of depth (10 and 20) cm and three speeds (3.6,4.9 and 6.8) km/h according to design RCBD method of split-split block design and their effect on ; drawbar power(kw) , slippage percentage (%), fuel consumption(L/ha), specific energy area(MJ/ha), specific energy volume (KN/m3) and specific energy efficiency. Results showed that all  the studied characteristics were increased by increasing tilt angle. Different levels of depths and speeds had significant effects in all the studied characteristics, The increased of plowing depths from (10cm) to (20cm) was increased in all studied characteristics exceptionality specific energy volume. Drawbar power, slippage percentage and specific energy efficiency increased by increasing speeds, While the fuel consumption, specific energy area and specific energy volume were decreased by increasing forward speed. It was found that all interactions between (tilt angles, plowing depths and forward speed) had significant effects in all the studied characteristics.

STUDY EFFECT OF SOME FIELD FACTORS IN DETERMINING THE PERFORMANCE AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR

Ghazwan, A. Dahham

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 269-280
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161550

This research was conducted to study the effect of three levels of soil moisture content (10-13%),(14-17%),(18-21%) with two plowing depths by using the disk plow(10-15cm),(15-20cm) and three different speeds (3.5, 5.5, 7.5 km/hr.) on Slippage percentage, Mobility number, Motion resistance,Motion resistance ratio and tractive efficiency. Split split plot design and randomized complete block design with three replications were used in this experiment. Results showed that the effect of  soil moisture content was significant in all studied characteristics, Soil moisture content (14-17%) recorded highest value of mobility number(67.83) and highest tractive efficiency (77.51), while Soil moisture content (18-21%) recorded highest slippage percentage (14.06%) and highest motion resistance(1.40 KN) and highest motion resistance ratio(6.37%).It was found that plowing depths had a significant in all the studied characteristics, The increased of plowing depths from (10-15cm) to (15-20cm) increased slippage percentage and motion resistance and motion resistance ratio , and lower of mobility number and tractive efficiency. Also it was found that speeds had a significant in all studied characteristics, The increased of speeds from(3.5 km/hr.) to (5.5km/hr.) to(7.5km/hr.) increased slippage percentage and motion resistance and motion resistance ratio, and lower of mobility number and tractive efficiency. All of  interaction soil moisture content, plowing depths and speeds had a significant in all the studied characteristics. Results showed that the tractive efficiency and mobility number of two-wheel drive (2WD) tractors are clearly influenced by field factors (soil moisture content and plowing depths) and condition tractor (speed and draft force required to pull agricultural machine in the field and motion resistance of the tractor tires and slippage). The tractive efficiency is clearly affected by mobility number of the tractors. 

EFFECT OF ADDED WEIGHTS FOR AGRICULTURAL TRACTOR UNDER TOW LEVELS OF MOISTURE IN SOME MECHANICAL PROPERTIES USING THE MOLDBOARD PLOW

Saad Al rijabo; Thanoon Younis AL.Sheekh Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 281-291
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161551

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding weights on the agricultural tractor wheels by using the moldboard plow, through measuring some machinery  parameters, such as slippage %, pulling force, practical productivity, soil adhesion on body surface and fuel consumption. The experiment was conducted  at the agricultural season (2017-2018) in one of the agricultural fields in the north east of Mosul and the soil texture was clay. The field was divided  according to experimental design under randomized complete block design (RCBD) split-split block design with three replicates. where allocated the main plots two levels of moisture content (14-16)% and (18-20)%, and the secondary plots with two levels of add weights (0 and 310) kg and  the sub secondary  plots with three levels of front speed ( 3.3, 5.6 and 7.7) km/h. The result averages were tested by multiple range Duncan test with probability (0.05). The results reveated that the moisture content (14-16)% achieved the less values for percentage of slippage, pulling force, soil adhesion on surface of the body, fuel consumption and  the higher values for practical productivity, and the effects of adding weights on tractor wheels (310) kg showed the less values for percentage of slippage, pulling force, soil adhesion on surface of the body, fuel consumption and  the higher values for practical productivity , the forward speeds (3.3) km/h recrded the less values for    slippage% and pulling force, the forward speeds (7.7) km/h recrded higher values for  practical productivity and the less values for soil adhesion on surface of the body and fuel consumption.The Interaction of  moisture content (14-16)% with the adding weights on tractor wheels (310)kg and the forward speeds (3.3) km/h  achieved the less values for percentage of slippage, pulling force. while showed the moisture content (14-16)% with the adding weights on tractor wheels (310)kg and the forward speeds (7.7) km/h the higher values for practical productivity and the less values for fuel consumption and soil adhesion on surface of the body.

EFFECT OF MOLDBOARD PLOW SHARES AND LANDSIDES (LOCALLY MADE) IN SOME INDECATORS MECHANICAL PERFORMANCE

Adel Abdullah; Ahmed Ibrahim Abed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 293-304
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161552

       This study was conducted to comparision moldboard plow shares under effect tow types of assisstance parts (landsides) locally made. Then their effection power requirements criteria (drawbar power, soil resistance force to cut and consistency, energy utilization efficiency) and field performance criteria (vertical deviation percentage, and horizontal deviation percentage). Results showed that Traditional share gave higher value for vertical deviation percentage while Notched share gave higher value for soil resistance force to cut and consistency. Manufactured landsides gaves higher values for energy utilization efficiency while traditional landsides gave higher values for drawbar power, soil resistance force to cut and consistency. The interaction between traditional share with manufacture landsides gave higher value for  energy utilization efficiency and the traditional share with traditional landsides gave higher value for drawbar power while Notched share with traditional landside gave higher value for soil resistance force to cut and consistency.

EFFECT OF CREAM FORTIFICATION BY FLAXSEED OIL (SOURCE OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACIDS) IN SOME CHEMICAL, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY PROPERTIES

Mowafak M. Ali; SumayiaKh. Badawi; Shaymaa J. Mahmood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 305-318
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161553

It has been manufactured CREAM rich in Omega-3 by fortification row cream 35% oil with Flax seed oil in the following fortification  rates (2.5, 5.5, 10.5%) and with tow treatments were made flax seed oil fortified with Vitamin E as an antioxidant , added to one of them , while the Vitamin E was not added to the other, at storage time(0, 4 ,8,12) day at temperature (5±1°c).Results showed that there was no significant differences in the sensory evaluation which conducted after processing directly in the characters color, flavor, texture and bitterness between the control cream and the cream treatments with fortification rates mentioned above, and for all kinds of cream which added in it antioxidant , and cream without adding antioxidant, mean while in the advanced period of storage a cream with fortification rate 10.5% which added in it Vitamin E  get the highest degree in sensory evaluation qualities mentioned above. There was significant reduction in the content of cholesterol in the cream and its directly proportional to the increase in the rate of fortification compared to the control cream. The development in the peroxide values and acid degree value during storage period was at least in cream with fortification rate of 10.5% which added in it Vitamin E and above was in the control treatment cream.Physical properties like as Melting point, Density and viscosity showed decrease in its values compared to the control cream. The quality and quantity test of fatty acids in control cream and cream treatments fortified with Flax seed oil by GLC appeared that had been increased of poly unsaturated fatty acids (α- Linolenic Acid) in cream treatments which fortified as a result to the fortification by Flax seed oil.

Effect of some drying methods on phenolic content and reducing power antioxidant of three local apple varieties

Suror.K. Issa; Salih.H. Sultan; Shaymaa.R. Abdul Asalam

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 319-326
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161554

       The study included  the drying Effect of three varieties of local apple fruits growing in northren  Iraq (red, yellow, green ). The pulp drying was dried by using three different drying methods hot air oven at the temperature 60-70C and direct sun and the shade in the normal air temperature  . The final sample moisture differed depends on the drying method  .The samples dried on hot air oven had a least final moisture content among the other methods . Phenolic content of fresh samples was different depending on the  variation of varieties also differ with drying methods .Green apples were high in phenolic content followed by yellow and red . The reducing power of three concentration of phenolic compound was 25 , 50 ,75 µg /ml .The fresh sample was highest absorption at concentration 75 µg and the dried samples the hot air drying method showed the highest rise in the absorption power at 700 nm comparated to the other methods .The dried samples in the shade was the lowest absorption in all concentrations that is mean those have the lowest reducing power.

EVALUTION THE MICROBIAL METHOD USED TO JUDGE THE QUALITY CONTROL OF PASTEURIZED MILK

Khazal Shaaban Abdallah; Ghanim Mahmood Hasan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 327-332
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161555

The methods used to judge the quality control of milk counting microscopic direct and this method can be fast distingish of cells and identify the source of microbial contamination , but it is difficult to distinguish between living and dead cells and that they do not give acceptable results for the heat treatment milk . While the results showed in the way of standard plate count, although it is used along time of incubation they are calculated only living cells and the total count of bacteria less than in direct microscopic count range between 15x104 to 17x105 cfu/ml in the pasturide milk directly . in direct microscopic count While the dyes reduction test gave unacceptable results due to rapid contamination in milk and the count of the bacteria ranged between 35x105 to 150x105cfu/ml then the number of the bacteria increase with the increase of the period of the storage .the relationship between the method dyes reduction  test and the standard plate count to judge the quality of raw milk , as the samples were good at the 1% level for statistical analysis while the samples stored when using the method of nitrates dyes reduction , the relationship level less than the quality of milk at a level of statistical analysis of 5% in judging the quality of milk .the samples of the milk divided to two groups the first one contain bacteria less than 50x103 cfu/ml and the other contain more than 50x 103 cfu/ml we find that the samples contain bacteria less than 50x103cfu/ml needs more time to reduce the pigments.                                                                                            

MEASURMENT OF EFFECT LEVELS ON UREASE ENZYME ACTIVITY IN SOILS UNDER DIFFERENT INCUBATION TIMES

Alyaa Abdulateef Jassim AL- Atrkgee; Mazin Faisal Said

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 333-340
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161556

       A  factorial  experiment  was  conducted  in laboratory using complete randomize  design (CRD) to study the effect of urea fertilizer levels on urease enzyme activity and available nitrogen  in Bashika  and  Al-hawi soils under different incubation times. Results  showed  a significant increases in enzyme activity in Bashika soil as compared with Al-hawi soil of 25.93%. 100kgN.h-1 gave  a significant increasing in enzyme activity  as compared with 200 kgN.h-1 of 15%. Enzymes activity was increased with increasing incubation time till to 30 days, then after a significant depression in enzyme activity was noticed.
Bashika soil gave a significant increases in available nitrogen as compared with Al-hawi soil of 23.55%. 200 kgN.h-1 gave a significant increases  in available  nitrogen as compared with 100 kgN.h-1 of 27.48%. Available nitrogen was increased with increasing incubation time till 45 days, which gave 53.34 ppm. However a significant decreases was noticed at 60 days of incubation.

A Comparative Study Microbial for Biomass formed in calcareous soil cultivated corn with that cultivated by soy bean

Osama HusamFadhil Al- Azzawy; Ghaith Mohammad Kassim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 341-356
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161558

A set of experiments were conducted in the Department of soil & water sciences resources of the college of Agaric. Forestry, University of Mosul  to study the effect of root exudates secreted by the tap roots of legume crop (represented by soybean) and fiber roots (represented by corn and barley) grown under different levels of salinity (2.5, 1,5 dS m-1 ) on soil microbial biomass ( MB-C ) at two periods of growth (40 and 80 days ) using a complete Randomized Design with three replicates for each treatment.
There Uncultivated pots for each level of salinity were also included for comparison, and included a comparison between the microbial biomass of the rhizosphere soil with that of the non- rhizosphere. The MB-C of 10 different treatments were chosen from the tow experiments in order to measure the MB-C with two  different methods  ( FIM , SIRM ) in to obtaine a simple equations which explain the mathematical relationships between these two methods.Results indicated that :  Root exudates of  corn plant was generally less than that of soy bean. also decreased with age specially under soy bean. The MB-C under soy bean crop was nearly double of that measured under corn crop in both rhizosphere and non- rhizosphere soils. A negative relationship was oblained between the increases in the level of salinity and the MB-C .

Biological and chemical control for some fungi associated with potato tuber rot

bassam almosa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 357-364
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161559

Isolation  results from the potato tuber showed appearance of fungi  Rhizoctonia solani , Phoma sp (1) and Phoma sp (2) the result also showed great   antagonism  ability  of  T.harzianum   against  isolated fungi  under laboratory conditions and   Bacillus subtilis  showed  effective mycelium growth inhibition against   isolated fungi  bio-pesticides bioassay of Cryptanol and Tobsin _M  showed  non-significant differences between the fungi in the rates of inhibition percentage .The results of potato disc treated with controlling factors revealed developing dry rot, The biggest inhibition significantly in the development of rot  in  potatoes disc test  was with R. solani and Phoma sp. When they treated with Cryptanol 86.6%, which did not differ significantly from  Phoma sp. (2) with  Tobsin –M and  Phoma sp. (2)  and R. solani Phoma sp. (1) When Its treated with  T. harzianum 80 % and the lowest percentage of inhibition with R. solani when treated  with B. subtilis 53.4% . The results of potato tubers treated  with controlling  factors reveal  that biggest inhibition developing dry  rot  was with Phoma sp. (2) When Its treated  with  Cryptanol  95 % which did not differ significantly from the treatment of % sp. (1) with Tobsin-M or Phoma sp. (1) with  Cryptanol and Phoma sp. (2)  Tobsin –M  92, 90 and 89.1 %, respectively the lowest percentage of inhibition  was with Phoma sp. (2)  when Its treated with B. subtilis  25 %.

ECOLOGICAL STUDY AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME PEAR VARITIES TO ATTACK BY Dysaphis reaumuri and Dysaphis pyri

Nazar M. Al-Mallah; Haitham M. Mohammed; Abdul Jabar K. AL. Obada

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 365-372
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161561

       The results of studying the effect of some Ecological factors and Ana and vestibella pear varities on Seasonal activity of leafroll aphid Dysaphis reanmuri and Dysaphis pyri. showed a significant effect on mean number of the two aphid species a ccording to the season . apple varity and direction. the highest mean aphid number reached 29.89 Aphid / Leaf on east direction on vestibella variety for the season 2010 – The results also exhibit a significant variation between the general mean number of aphids according to the direction and reached 21.17، 6.13، 5.41 and 12.7  Aphid / leaf for East . West . North and  South direction respectively . The regression equations between the mean number of aphids and biotic and abiotic factors showed a clear effect on mean aphid seasonal activity and the Temperature exhibit ahighest effect on mean aphid number and reached   ٪85 while the effect of moisture and rain and wind  43.7 ،53.1،37.9  %  for  the season  2009  while of season     reached  52.4،7.14،70.1،60.1  %  in the 2010  respectively

Estimates of Combining Ability by Complete Diallel Crosses Analysis in Hexaploid Wheat Triticum aestivum L.

Najeeb Kakous Yousif; Manal Abdul Muttaleb AL-Hayali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 373-384
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161520

Seven varieties of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) JAWAHIR-20, REYNA-27, ACHTAR, REBWAH-12 (group 7), REBWAH-12 (group 8), Ibaa 99 and Abo-Gharaib with their full dialed crosses were used in this study. Grains of parental varieties and their hybrids were planted at the college of Agricultural University of Mosul using randomized complete block design with four replications, during the growing season (2013-2014), depending on rain fed conditions. Genetical analysis was performed to determine the genetic systems for each of Plant height, Number of spikes, Biological yield, Grain yield, Weight of (100) grains and Number of grains per spike, also to estimate the general combining ability (G.C.A) and specific combining ability (S.C.A). F-test showed significant differences among the genotypes, both general and specific combining abilities for all studied traits. The ratio between the variance components of general combining ability and  specific combining ability was less than ore for all studied traits except for number of spikes, and (100) grains weight. Parental varieties distinguished with general combining ability for the some studied traits. The following hybrids showed high and desirable values for specific combining ability effects to the traits: (1×6) for biological yield and weight (100) grains, and (4×2) for number of spikes, weight (100) grains, and (3×7) for grain yield, and (4×6) for plant height, and (5×6) for plant height, and (6×7) grain yield, biological yield and weight (100) grains.

Effect of Double Dose of Tomato Juice on Some Physiological and Biochemical Characteristics and antioxidants Status of Male White Rats

Muntaha M. AL-Kattan; Maha Khalaf; Zaid Tahseen

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 385-392
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161521

       This study was conducted to investigate the effect of the double dose of tomato juice at the various sizes (1,2,3 ml) on the concentration of hemoglobin, packed cells volume and some biochemical characteristics and body weight of white male rats. Body weights of rats which ranged between (300-340)g. (6-7) months old. Rats divided into four groups, (5\ group). Oral doses by garage needle the double dose of tomato juice daily with various size as respectively (1, 2, 3) ml/kg body weight. The rats were treated daily for four week.
The results show that tomato juice may be the improved the concentration of hemoglobin and packed cells volume. In addition to improvement in biochemical characteristics were it decreases the concentration of cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood serum of males rats. Accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of malondialdehyde and the rise in the concentration of glutathione. In addition to a reduction in the weight of male rats in all groups drench tomato juice the decrease of weight of rates in the group drenched 3 ml/kg body weight compared with the other groups.In general the study shows that the tomato juice has improved the blood and chemical properties and the status of antioxidants

The effect of some crop residues in phenotypic and anatomic features of four weed species (Silybum marianum L. Lolium rigidum L., Sonchus oleraceus L ., Panicum Spp.)

Wasan S. Husain; Janan A. Saeed; Amer M. Al-Mathedy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 393-406
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161522

This study was conducted in the glasshouse in Biology Department \ College of Science\ Mosul University to study the effect of the crops (wheat, Barley, corn ,Sun flower) residues added to the soil at ratio (5%) W:W in seed germination and growth of four weeds includes (Silybum marianum L ., Lolium rigidum L., Sonchus  oleraceus L., Panicum Spp.). The result showed inhibition in seed germination and growth of the weeds growing in the soil containing the crops residues compared with the plant (weeds) growing in control soil (without residues) showing significant difference between crop residues rather than weed species (using a multi-range Duncan test at a 5%) . It was found that the greatest inhibition in seed germination and shoot length of Silybum marianum L. effect by Wheat residues reaching 36.05% , 24.49% , respectively which was accompanied with reeducation in these stem diameter section 28.6% .in root growth was found that the greatest inhibition recorded 42.85% in Lolium rigidum L. that growth in soil content barley residues also Wheat residues caused the greatest inhibition root diameter section in sonchus  oleraceus L. 59.13% ,While remarked increases in vascular calendar diameter for Lolium rigidum L. effect by corn residues accompanied increases in root length , that the greatest inhibition in leaf area of Lolium rigidum L. 83.27% effect by corn residues accompanied inhibition wider cell epidermis 62.88% ,in dry weight of Silybum marianum L. show the greatest inhibition effect by sunflower residues 70.46% .         

COMBINING ABILITY, GENE ACTION AND HETEROSIS IN MAIZE (ZEA MAYS L.)

Khalil H. Kanoosh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 407-420
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161523

Five maize pure lines (HS, ZP301, IK58, OH40 and DK17) were used in half diallel cross to develop 10 single crosses. Pure lines and their crosses were planted at Al-Qubba, Telkeef (Nineveh Governorate) in ist July 2013 using randomized complete block design with three replicates. General combining ability effects for lines, specific combining ability effects for hybrids, heterobeltiosis as deviation from better parent, genetic variance components and narrow sense heritability were estimated, and adoption of the graphic analysis method for traits, number of days to 50% tasselling and silking, plant height, number of grains per row, 300 grain weight and grain yield per plant. The results showed that mean square of genotypes, parents, crosses, general and specific combining abilities was highly significant for all trairs. The pure line DK17 characterized by desired highly significant general combining ability effects for all traits except 300 grain weight (not significant), and the two crosses (ZP301 x DK17) and (OH40 x DK17) by significant desirable specific combining ability effects and heterobeltiosis for most traits including grain yield per plant. Additive genetic variance components were not significant from zero for most traits, while dominance components were significant for all traits. The values of dominant components were more than that of additive for all traits. Graphic analysis suggested the absence of epistatic gene action (non-allelic interaction) for all traits. Narrow sense heritability was low for grain yield per plant (8.3445%) and moderate for other traits.

GLUSTERING ANALYSIS OF MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SIX GENERA OF BRUCHIDAE FAMILY: COLEOPTERA ORDER IN IRAQ

Aead Haj Ismail

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 421-426
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161524

The research tackles the taxonomy of six insects genera:Caryedon, Spermophagus, Bruchus, Bruchidius, Callosobruchus and Acanthoselides that belong to Bruchidae family :Coleoptera order which are recorded in Iraq depending on morphological characteristics which were given suitable code for numerical analysis by using clustering analysis statistically packaging SPSS-17. The results were compared by computer to manifest different kinship relations. The results manifest that the relation percentage of phylum is 97% on basis of the degree of similarity of morphological characteristics between Bruchus and Bruchidius genera; and between  Caryedon and Spermophagus genera, whereas the kinship relation between the former two genera and the latter two is 72%, its reveals that  Callosobruchus and Acanthoselides genera have  less degree of relation 27% in this family in Iraq. By using diagrams of  multisided popular relation tree it appears that popular relation of the four  genera Bruchus, Bruchidius,Caryedon and Spermophagus have no kinship relation with the two genera  Callosobruchus and Acanthoselides  i.e. 0%.

EFFECT OF SOME HERBICIDES ON CONTROLING ASSOCIATED WEEDSWITHWHEAT GROWING IN THE SEMI ARID ZONE

T.A Khattab AL-hailly; M.M Sdeeq; S.Abudulkader Saleh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 427-434
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161525

The experiment was carried out at al-Alkosh location in Nineveh Governorate in the agricultural season of 2009-2010. The aim of the present research is to study the effect of OD Pallas herbicide with three doses (4556.25 and 50.4 g/donum) ,Chevalier (11.25 g/donum) and Granstar (37.5g/donum) + Topic (15g/donum) herbicides in controlling broad and narrow leaf weeds growing with durum wheat um rabee variety and to obtain the effect of these treatment on the yield of wheat. The experiment was set out as Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. The results showed that OD Pallas gave a significant reduction in the number of broad and narrow leaf weeds and their dry weights and this results had a positive reflect in increasing the yield of wheat. The highest yield production of wheat was obtained with using OD Pallas at concentration of 125 cm³/donum (336.3 kg/donum) whereas the yield in the control treatment was only 110 kg/donum. Furthermore the presence of weeds in the control treatment led to a reduction in the yield production of up to 59.4%.  Keywords: OD Pallas , Chevalier , Granstar , Topic , Wheat , Um Rabee variety. 

HETEROSIS AND COMBINING ABILITY EFFECTS FOR SOME TRAITS OF PEA (Pisum sativum L.)

Hajar Saeed Askander; Kazheen Fakhri Osman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 435-450
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161516

This study was carried out at the college of Agriculture field, University of Duhok, during 2013-2014 growing season. It involved half diallel crosses among five genotypes of pea.The seeds of genotypes (parents and F1 hybrids) were grown according to Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications, to estimate general combining ability effects of the parents and specific combining ability effects of hybrids, heterosis as deviation from mid and better parents for the following characters, Days to 50% flowering, plant-hieght (cm), numbers of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1, pods weight plant-1 (g), number of seeds plant-1, numbers of seeds pod-1,100 seed weight (g), seed yield plant-1 (g), dry seed yield plant-1 (g), protein percentage and total chlorophyll percentage.The data was statistically analyzed according to Griffing (1956b) method 2 (fixed model). The results indicated that Parent (Petit provencal) showed the best general combination in the desirable direction for no. of pods plant-1, no. of seeds plant-1, no. of seeds pod-1, seed yield plant-1, dry seed yield plant-1 and total chlorophyll. Hybrid (Thomas laxton x Petit provencal) exhibited significant specific combining ability effect in a desirable direction for plant height, no. of branches plant-1, pods weight plant-1, no. of pods plant-1, no. of seeds plant-1, seed yield plant-1 and dry seed yield plant-1. The hybrids (Avola x Petit provencal) and (Thomas laxton x Petit provencal) gave the best heterosis in desirable direction measured as a deviation of F1 from mid-parents for days to 50% flowering, pods weight plant-1, no. of pods plant-1, no. of seeds plant-1, no. of seeds pod-1, seed yield plant-1, dry seed yield plant-1, total chlorophyll and also the same hybrids showed a high heterobeltiosis values for (5) characters for each hybrid which include (pods weight plant-1, no.of pods plant-1, no. of seeds plant-1, seed yield plant-1 and dry seed yield plant-1).

EVALUATION OF SOME DISINFECTANTS ON TOTAL MICROBIAL LOAD IN TEATS CUPS AND MILK

Arif Kassim AL-Hubaety AL-Hubaety; Ashna Khursheed Darweesh; Aseel Daoud Najem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 451-462
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161517

Investigation was carried out at the farm of Animal Production Department, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University on 20 Dairy Friesian Cows. The Cows were milked twice daily in their stands with an Alfa Laval pipeline milking machine .Teats Cups were treated by disinfectants as follows:1-Untreated Teat Cups 2- Wet towel washing water (55-60C0) followed by paper towel drying. 3- Wet towel washing (55-60C0) then by 0.1:1000, 5:100, 1:100 Iodophor respectively, followed by paper towel drying. 4-- Wet towel washing (55-60C0) then by Hibitane at a concentration of 1%, 0. 5%, 0.25%, respectively followed by paper towel drying. 5- Wet towel washing (55-60C0) then by half strength Lukewarm potassium at a concentration 0.5:10000 , 1:10000 respectively followed by paper towel drying, All these treatments were applied onto teats cups for 30-60 seconds.
    The aims of this study is to evaluate the effects of these disinfectants on Colony forming units (CFUs) of teats cups swab samples and Colony forming units (CFUs) of milk samples. The lowest percentage in the reduction of Log2 /swab of teats cups surface was noticed when wet towel washing (55-60C0), followed by paper towel drying being 36.05%. By using Iodophor there was an increase of about 20% in the reduction of TBC/swab(Total Bactrial Count) with each increase in Iodophor concentration, and were 58.5%,79.3% and 95.7% with concentrations of 1:100, 0.5:100 and 0.1:100). The highest concentration of Hibitane gave a reduction in TBC/swab similar to that of the highest Iodophor concentration, being 94.5%.A decline in the percentage of TBC/swab was proportional with the decrease in Hibitane concentration, being 62.6% and 42.1%, when Hibitane was used at concentrations of 0.5% and 0.25% respectively. Potassium permanganate treatments show a slightly better than wet towel treatments, being 44.9% and 46.9% in concentrations 0.5:10000 and 1:10000 respectively.
    The reduction percentage of Log2 TBC/ ml of milk in different treatments was noticed when wet towel washing (55-60C0), followed by paper towel drying being 30.0%. By using Iodophor there was an increase of about 20% in the reduction of TBC/swab with each increase in Iodophor concentration, and were 56.2.5%,79.0% and 95.5% with concentrations of 1:100, 0.5:100 and 0.1:100). Hibitane concentrations gave a reduction in TBC/swab lower than that given by Iodophor, being 75.4%.A decline in the percentage of TBC/swab was proportional with the decrease in Hibitane concentration, being 47.3% and 39.5%, when Hibitane was used at concentrations of 0.5% and 0.25% respectively. Potassium permanganate treatments show a slightly better than wet towel treatments, being 40.5% and 49.7% in concentrations of 05.10000 and 1:10000 respectively.

EVALUATION OF SOME DISINFECTANTS ON TOTAL MICROBIAL LOAD IN TEATS CUPS

Arif Kassim AL-Hubaety; Ashna Khursheed Darweesh; Aseel Daoud Najem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 463-468
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161518

This study was conducted at the farm of Animal Production ,College of Agriculture and Forestry- University of Mosul, to study the effect of using a number of disinfectants on Total Viable Bacterial Count (TBC) and Total Fungi (TF) on  teat cups which they are a part of the automatic milking machine.The following disinfectants were used with two concentration (5 and 10%) of Dettol; Chloroxylenol and Hydrogen Peroxide. Water was also used at temperature at (700C).Teat cups were immersed in  a bowl containing each of the above mentioned disinfectants for one minute. The results revealed that in control treatment( without using any disinfectants) the (TBC)  was 8X105 (CFU) and there was a reduction in the (TBC) after the use of the above mentioned disinfectants at 5%, and water (700C ) they were  33X103 ; 35 X 103; 25X103; 37 X103 (CFU) respectively. One log reduction in the (TBC) was reported after increasing the concentration of these disinfectants to 10% and they were 15X102; 30X102, 15X102 and 37 X102 (CFU) respectively. For the (TF) in teat cups there was a reduction (TF)  from 4.3X105 in the control treatment to 5X102; 7X102  and 6X102 (CFU)  after using the above disinfectants at aconcentration 5% respectively, but when disinfectant concentration were increased to10%, there was one log reduction in (TF) to 4X101; 6X101; and 3X101 (CFU)  respectively.
It could be concluded, from this study, that the best disinfectant was hydrogen peroxide in both concentration.

INFLUENCE OF VARYING RUMEN DEGRADABLE TO UNDEGRADABLE PROTEIN RATIOS ON MILK YIELD, COMPOSITION AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF KARADI EWES

Jalal Eliya Alkass; KAMAL NOMAN DOSKY; EMAD TAYAR SADEEQ BUTI

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 469-478
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161519

Twenty-four lactating Karadi ewes, 3-5 years old and 54±0.69 kg in body weight were used to study the effect of RDP to RUP ratio on milk yield, composition and some blood attributes. Ewes with their lambs were placed in individual pens and fed concentrate and straw ad lib. Milk yield was recorded in two successive days at biweekly intervals commencing at 2nd week post lambing by using hand milking and lamb suckling technique. Also, blood samples were withdrawn at start, mid and at the end of the experimental period (84 days). Daily milk yield and total milk yield averaged 1.16±0.038 and 98.31±4.44 kg, respectively. Feeding ewes protected SBM resulted in a non-significant increase in milk yield in T3 (15.22%), and 12.06% in FCM in T2 as compared to control. A significant (P<0.05) effect of treatment on both percentage and yield of fat and protein was observed. However, the highest fat percent and yield was recorded in T2, whereas, the highest percent and yield of protein was noticed in T2 and T3, respectively. Cholesterol and urea levels was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T1 as compared to other groups.