Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 46, Issue 3

Volume 46, Issue 3, Summer 2018


TRENDS OF AGRICULTURAL FOREIGN TREAD IN SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE LIGHT OF THE EFFECT OF CONTEMPORARY INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICAL VARIABLES IN PERIOD 1985-2013

Kays Ghazal; Rehal Al-Taie

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 1-16
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161473

The opinion studied the reality of the agricultural external trade in the developing countries are diversified in the light of the effect of contemporary international economical variables. Some of these opinions refer to that these variables bear a number of opportunities and dangers for the dangers tend to the developing states. However, there are still a great and effective role for the state to be done with great effectiveness to increase the interests and decrease the dangers whether they are economical or social. Henceforth, our study depends on an assumption that embodies that the contemporary international economical variables affected variously on the agricultural external trade in a number of developing countries during 1985-2013. In order to confirm the research assumption, a number of developing countries were selected to include (Egypt, Jordon, Turley, Tunisia, Morocco, Thailand, Malaysia, and Indonesia). In which, the chronological series are adopted in evaluate the studied phenomenon and in each country individually for they reflect the changes occurred in the external trade according to their properties and traits differed from a state to another.

EFFECT OF DRIED YEAST AND BENTONITE AS SUPPLEMENT ON GROWTH AND SOME CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS IN LAMBS

Muthanna Tayeb; Muhsin Yaseen Yaseen

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 17-32
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161474

This study was conducted on Karadi lambs. The first group (control) was fed on standard ration consisted mainly of barley, wheat bran, urea and wheat straw. The animals second group was supplemented with 10 gm/day/ lamb of dry bread yeast in addition to the base ration. While the 3rd and 4th groups supplemented with either 20gm / day/lamb of bentonite or 20bentonite plus 10 gm / day / lamb of breads yeast respectively. The results showed that the average daily gain of lambs in each group were 260, 319, 282, 286 gm / each head a day respectively. Significant improvement (p< 0.05) in 2nd group was noted as compared to control. Results of rumen fluid parameters showed that pH of rumen fluid before feeding of lambs in the 4th group(5.97)was significantly(p<0.05) decreased as compared with the control. Ammonia concentration in rumen liquor was significantly(p<0.05) decreased before feeding in the 2nd, 3rd and 4thgroup as compared with control, the values were 9.18, 2,87, 4.98 and 5.44 mg / 100 ml respectively. Although, there was increases in ammonia concentration after 2hr. of feeding, but significant decrease was detected in 4th group(5.30) mg /100 ml as compared which  the control.The  logarithm of  bacteria number in the rumen liquor was 9.23, 9.41, 9.54 and 9.41 for the groups respectively, the differences was significant(p<0.05) improvement in 3rd. group on all other groups and 2nd and4th groups significantly  improved as compared with control.After 2hr  of feeding significant improvement (p<0.05) in 3rd group was detected as compared with control.The logarithm of protozoa number in the rumen liquor in 3rd  group (6.21) was significant increased (p<0.05) as compared with control before feeding. Statistical analysis of blood parameters showed no significant changes.

EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FENUGREEK SEEDS IN FEEDS DAMASCUS GOAT ON MILK PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION AND OFFSPRING'S

Wissam Jasim Mohammed Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 33-40
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161475

This study was conducted in the field of animal resource department-university of mosul on 15 Damascus Goat (2-3 years) were randomly divided into three equal groups,these groups were fed on three rations contain Isonitregeous protein and isoenergetic but are different in  Fenugreek seeds percentage(0,5, 10 %)  Fenugreek seeds recorded. milk yield and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and solid component) body weight was increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher milk yield groups 1,2 and control and decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in fat percentage batwing group2 and control.Significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the offspring body weight of the treated groups during the period.                                                    

EFFECT OF PARITY AND SEASON OF CALVING ON SOME PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS OF FRIESIAN COWS

Muthanna Al-Juwari; Mohammed S. M. Al-Salami

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 41-52
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161476

The study included analyzed 131 records belong to 34 Friesian cows reared at AL- Iśhagi dairy cattle station (50 km north of Baghdad) for the period from 1996 to 2005. The overall mean of the studied traits  milk yield 305 day (MY305day), lactation period (LP) , dry period (DP) the period between calving and first estrous (PSC), services per conceptions (SPC), day open (DO) ,gestation period (GP) and calving interval (CI) were 2775.81 kg, 315.30 days, 71.92 days, 65.52 days, 2.83 services, 109.47 days, 277.75 days, 390.53 days, respectively. Parity showed a significant effect on (MY305day), (LP), (SPC), (DP), but there was no significant effect for the other traits. Season of calving had a significant effect on(MY305day), (LP) and (CI) only. Cows calving through spring and autumn produced more milk significantly compared with cows calving in summer. (LP) and(CI)  was longer for cows calving in spring and shorter for there calving in autumn.

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS OF SOME PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE ASPECTS IN FRIESIAN CATTLE

Muthanna Al-Juwari; Mohammed S. M. Al-Salam

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 53-64
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161477

34 Friesian cows records were analyzed reared at AL-Iśhagi dairy cattle station (50 km north of Baghdad) during the period 1996-2005. Heritability estimates for milk yield 305 day (MY305d), the period between calving and first estrous, services per conceptions, day open, lactation period , dry period , gestation period and calving interval were 0.17, 0.06, 0.07, 0.05, 0.07, 0.24, 0.02 and 0.03 respectively. Repeatability estimates for the same traits were 0.20, 0.12, 0.07, 0.11, 0.15, 0.15, 0.14, and 0.05 respectively. Genetic Correlation between (MY305d) and productive & reproductive traits were negative and highly significant (p>0.01(, and ranged between -0.30 and -0.73. While Phenotypic Correlation between (MY305d) and other traits were positive and high. Most Genetic and Phenotypic Correlations between studied traits except gestation period were positive and highly significant (p>0.01). Breeding Value (BV) estimated of sire for (MY305d) were ranged between 14.720 and -8.106. The highest and lowest values of Breeding Values of cows for (MY305d) were ranged between 352.224 and -159.705. Real Producing Ability (RPA) of cows for (MY305d) were predicted between 674.051 and              -365.234 as a deviation from overall mean of flock.

ADD GINGER Zingiber officinale , GARLIC POWDER Allium sativum L. AND BLACK BEAN SEEDS Nigella sativa L. TO FEED AND ITS IMPACT ON PRODUCTIVITY AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF JAPANESE QUAIL.

Faiyz AL-Khateeb; Shehab Ahmed Hameed; Samir Hamid Majid; Salem Thanon Younis

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 65-76
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161478

This study was conducted to know the effect of adding plants, ginger and black bean and garlic to feed on some production traits and egg production of Japanese quail during 49 days of age. Chicks were divided into four treatments of the first control -free plant additions and second treatment is add ginger and third treatment   is add black bean and garlic add a fourth. After a statistical analysis of the results, show the superiority of all transactions of plant additions morally in body weight and the weight gain and cumulative food conversion efficiency compared to control. It also shows a significant decrease in the percentage mortality of both 2 and 3 as compared with the 1 and 4. As it turns out the existence of a significant decrease of the coefficients 2.3 and 4 in feed consumption at the end of the seventh week compared to control. While in 4 treatment it was noticed that there was increase outweigh the relative growth rate and chest piece compared to the rest of the transactions. It was noted the presence of significant superiority in the dressing percentage of 3 and 4 compared to control. As shown the presence of significant superiority in the proportion of egg production(H.D.P) EP% transaction control and 2 compared with 3 and 4 and the significant superiority of treatment 2 in the average number of eggs / female EN% and the conversion factor total eggs g feed / g eggs compared to the rest of the transaction. The significant superiority in the efficiency of feed conversion of eggs FC% of 1 and 2 compared with 3 and 4. We conclude from this study that the addition of medicinal plants have a positive effect on body weight and to reduce the proportion of mortality Japanese quail and this in turn enhances the economic situation at the level of education on major projects.        

EFFECT OF ADDING GINGER ROOTS POWDER TO THE RATIONS OF AWASSI LAMBS IN SOME PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSILOGICAL PARAMETERS UNDER LOCAL CONDITION OF NINEVEH PROVINCE

Q. ShamsAl-dain; E.A. Jarjeis; H.A. Sulman; M.H.A. Shailai; Y.I. Hamad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 77-90
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161479

       Twenty four(12 male and 12 female) Awassi  lambs aged (3.5-4 months) with average weights 22.75±0.34 Kg. ,were assigned  into three main groups (8 lambs / group),each main group was divided into two sub groups(4 male or 4female/group) according to their live body weight.All groups of animals were fed on iso-nitrogen and iso-caloric diets, the 1st group was fed on ration without ground Ginger(control ration),while 2nd and 3rd  group were fed on standard  ration contained  either 15 or 30 g.ground ginger/Kg.dry matter, respectively, for four months. Results indicat-ed that  average daily gain, total gain, final weight, different  body dimensions, red and white cell count, hemoglobin , packed cell volume, lymphocyte and netrophil cell  percentages, total protein, globulin AST and ALP were increased significantly (P≤0.05), while the percentage of acidophil and netrophils cells, glucose and ALT were decreased significantly (P≤0.05) in blood lambs fed 2nd and 3rd treatment that contained 15 and 30g.ground ginger roots /Kg.dry matter, respectively as compared to those fed 1st treatment (control ration).Also lamb sex  and  age  had significantly (P≤0.05) effect  some studied parameters. It was concluded that adding of ground ginger roots had improved some productive and physiological parameters.               

EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK AND ITS DURATION IN CHLOROPHYLL AND PROTIEN ONTENT OF Robinia pseudoacacia L. TRANSPLANTS

E. Suleiman; Nathim Th. Saieed; Adeba Y. Shareef

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 91-102
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161480

A research work was done for chlorophyll and protein contents of Robinia pseudoacacia L. leave, So theseeds were treated with different shocking power and duration. Then subjection of Robiniaseeds to different electrical shock have significantly effect, so (10) Ampere shock power was the best in (chlorophyll a, total chlorophyll and protein contents) in Robinia leaves in comparison with control treatment, but chlorophyll b and ratio of total chlorophyll / protein traits was significant at shock power (8) Ampere, at same time the characteristic of chlorophyll a/b ratio was significantly different for control with all other treatments. On other hand duration of shocking (6) minutes was the best in (chl. a and total chl.) and significantly different from control, but duration of (2) minutes was the best in (chl. a / b ratio and total chl. /protein ratio) and significantly different with all other characteristics, When duration of (4) minutes was the best in chl. b and duration of (8) minutes was the best for protein content characteristics in comparison with all other treatments. Interaction effect between electric shock power and duration showed that chlorophyll contents for (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll) was the best in comparison with all other treatments at (8 Am. × 4min.) and this not differ significantly with interaction of (4Am. × 6min.) also interaction of yielded highest value for the ratio of chl. a/b and this was  significantly different with control, But protein content increased at interaction of (10 Am. × 4,8 and 6 min.) and this was significantly different with control, but the highest percent for the ratio of (total chl./ protein) was recorded for the interaction (8Am.×2min.) and this significantly different with control and all other treatments, Finally we concluded that the improvement in chemical characteristics was due to subjection of Robiniaseeds to different electric shocks and different periods.

EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL SHOCK AND ITS DURATION IN SOME MORPHOLOGICAL AND SURVIVAL PERCENTAG OF Pinus brutia Ten. TRANSPLANTS

E. Suleiman; Nathim Th. Saieed; Adeba Y. Shareef

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 103-114
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161481

A research work was done to show the effect of different shocking power and duration. So the subjection of pine seeds effected significantly. So the shock power (6Am.) significantly effected in most of characteristics (diameter, number of branch and the weight of vegetative system fresh and dry) in comparison with controls but survival percentage was the best at 4 Am. shock power so it was significantly different with control also was different with all other treatments. When stem length characteristic was significant at 10 Am. power shock. which significantly different with control, and with all other treatment, In respect of duration effect which have been significantly effected and duration of 4 minutes was the best in (survival percentage, stem length, stem diameter and vegetation weight fresh and dry) in comparison with the other treatments and at the same time duration of (6)min. was the best for number of branches characteristic when compared with other treatments, In respect of interaction treatments (4Am.×8min.) was significant for survival percentage in comparison with control. Also interaction (10Am.×6min.) Cause increase in stem length and number of branches in comparison with control and stem diameter in comparison with control, also same power of (6Am. × 4and2 min.) respectively was the best in vegetative fresh and dry weights, after this interaction of (6Am.×4 min.) was next as the best and for fresh weight and dry weight with respect to the control that resulted in least value, From these results we concluded that electrical power shock resulted in improvement of vegetative characteristics and survival percentage for pine transplants.

TAXONOMIC MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF Pinus sp. GROWNING IN NORTHERN OF IRAQ.

Haees AL- Jowary; Younis M. Q. AL-alousy; Abdulrazak AL- malah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 115-140
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161482

The  present  work  includes  a  morphological taxonomic  comparative study  of  (6) species belonging to the genus Pinus L. (Pinaceae) which grown in northern  Iraq  in (11) Sites which distributed in Ninavah, Dohuk, and Erbil Provinces, five of them were cultivated (Pinus halepensis Mill., P. eldarica Medw., P. pinea L., P. canariensis Sm., P. radiata Son.) and one species grown naturally( P. brutia Ten.).                                                                                                                    Morphological study includes gross characters, such as (stems, twigs, crown, bark, needle leaves, female cones, seeds, wings of seeds, and indumentums), also characters variation between and within species have been discussed. The species showed clear variation between them, while not varied within species. The study indicates that the stems ,twigs , bark, needle leaves,  female cones, seeds and wings of seeds, showed  a taxonomic importance to identified and separate the species studied ,generally this study indicated that the sexual characteristics (cones) , seeds and wings of seeds are more stable than others characteristics. The method of female cone fulcrum on the branch character showed a large taxonomic importance in contributing to separating species from each other specially in separating and identifying P. brutia for P. halepensis.  Moreover species P. canariensis In most recipes growth and morphological and it was identified and separated from the other species studied.

TAXONOMIC CHEMICAL STUDY OF Pinus sp. GROWING IN NORTHERN OF IRAQ

Haees AL- Jowary; Abdulrazak R. S. AL- malah; Younis M. Q. AL-alousy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 141-164
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161483

The study was conducted to determine the kind of the phenolic compounds for six species of Pinus sp. for used in plant identification and In the chemical study extraction used method cascade by device extraction constant Continuous Soxhlet apparatus. for the preparation of the crude extracts from the vegetative species under study using four different solvents and sequential polarity (petroleum ether. benzene. chloroform and ethanol) to obtain the extract free of fat and impurities. then separated compounds by High performens liquid chromatography(HPLC) technique. and then carried out the process of acid hydrolyses on crude extracts of (chloroform and ethanol) to facilitate the identification of their compounds. and the results showed  the isolation and identification of 15 phenolic compounds inclouding (Quercetin. Hydroquinone. Vanillin. Cinnamic acid. Coumarin. Gallic acid. Hydroxybenzoic acid. Luteolin. Phenol. Resorcinol. Rutin. Salicylic acid.  Catechol. Myricetin. and Querctin-7-glucoside). The results also showed many  differences in the number. type and rates of these phenolic compounds between the Pinus species.
      The results of the present study was to ethanol extracts contain a number of non-sugary Flavonoids such as Luteolin. and others are glycoside. The study showed the involvement of pine species studied in the presence of a number of chemical compounds which enhances the unity of genes and health of the species studied belong to him and contributed to the study of chemical in the identification and separation of the species studied in terms of the content of phenolic compounds and support the phenotypic characteristics and anatomy. and these  differences in chemical compounds  between the pinus species  could be used as an indicator for plant taxonomic.

Combining Ability Analysis in F1 Hybrids of Maize

Zakariya Fathi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 165-178
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161498

Five inbred lines of maize IK8, W 13 R, ZM 7, ZP, ZM 47 W were used in half diallel crosses accorded to Griffing methods 1956 fixed model study the combining ability Genotype (5 parent +10 Hybrid) in the field of college of agriculture and forests in autumn season, 2013 using R.C.B.D. Design in three replication the characters studied were: number of days to silk and tassel flowering ,plant height, ear diameter, ear length ,number of rows in ear, number of grains in ear,100-grain weight and plant grain yield. Mean squares for general and specific combining abilities were significant for all characters except for plant height which was not Significant for general combining ability. The ratio of the components for the general &specific combining abilities was less than one for all the characters. The inbred line ZP was better than others in its general combining ability effect for number of days to tassel flowering, ear diameter, ear length, number of grains in ear,100-grain weight, The cross (ZM 47 W × W 13 R) exhibited significant  specific combining ability effect in desired direction for number of days to tassel and silk flowering, , ear diameter, ear length ,number of grains in ear,100-grain weight.

Performance Evaluation and path coefficient analysis for six genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under different plant densities

Zahraa Sabri; Ahmed.A. Ahmed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 179-190
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161499

The experiment was carried out during (2013-2014) season on college of Agriculture and Forestry (Mosul University) location. Five of naked barley entries introduced from (ICARDA) in addition to local  Variety Rihan-3 were grown  under rain fed condition under three plant densities (200-300-400 seed/m2) using split plot system in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data collected for characters: spike length (cm), number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2, grain yield (kg/ha), 1000-grain weight (gm). The results showed different performance of genotypes with the variation of plant density. The entry  TOCTE/PETUNIA 2//PETUNIA 1 surpassed other in spike length ,number of seeds per spike and  grain yield, and the characters number of spikes/m2, grain yield , and 1000 –grain weight were better at density 400 seed/m2. The Broad-sense heritability and expected genetic advance were high for  spike length ,number of grains per spike , number of spikes /m2 and For 1000 grain weight (gm), For Expected genetic advance was high for the density 200 seed/m2 and medium for the two densities 300 and 400 seed/m2. Genetic and phenotypic path coefficient analysis showed  that the character 1000 grain weight (gm) had the high effect on grain yield at the three densities, and can be used in breeding programs to improve   grain yield.                                                                                                                                          

EFFECT OF TWO TYPES (FURROW OPENERS AND CLOSERS) IN ZERO TILLEGE SEEDER ON SOME MECHANIZATION TRAITS

Saad Al rijabo; Mahmood Shaker Al-totonjy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 191-202
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161500

A field experiment was carried out during the agricultural season (2012-2013) in Moderate Rainfall Area-MRA /Nineveh governorate. Italian Gaspardo Sc250 Seeder modified to ZT farming system used in the cultivation of bread wheat. The experiment included three factors: the first factor was Press wheels with two levels, gang press wheel and mutual press wheel, the second factor was the Opener types with two levels, Hoe (Tine) Opener and inverted (T) Opener, the third one was the seeding depths with two levels (3-4 cm) and (4.1-5 cm). This experiment was implemented with split split plot under randomized complete block design with three replicates where the press wheels represented the main plot while the Openers within subplot and seeding depths were under sub sub plot. The mechanization Traits studied were: (slippage percentage, fuel consumption, field efficiency, power requirements).The results showed a significant effect of gang press wheel in enhanced these mechanization traits: (slippage percentage, fuel consumption, field efficiency, power requirements) compared with mutual press wheel. The results also indicated the less significant value of the Hoe opener. The results again showed the significant effect of (3-4 cm) seeding depth in improving the fallowing traits: (slippage percentage, fuel consumption, field efficiency, power requirements) compared with the depth (4.1-5 cm). The interaction between the two types of press wheels and opener types had a significant effect in mechanization traits. The interaction between gang press wheel with seeding depth (3-4 & 4.1-5 cm) had a significant effect in enhancing mechanical characteristics (Slippage percentage, Fuel consumption, Field efficiency, Power requirement). The dual interaction between the Hoe tine with seeding depth (3-4 cm) recorded the best results for the following traits (Slippage percentage, Fuel consumption, Power requirements) and high field efficiency compared with other treatments. Triple interaction between gang press wheel with Hoe tine and seeding depth (3-4 cm) had best values for the studied traits (Slippage percentage, Fuel consumption, Field efficiency, Power requirements) compared with other treatments.

USED OF HOT AIR IN CONTROL RED FLOUR BEETLE Tribolium castaneum AND THE KHAPRA BEETLE Trogoderma granarium

Aead Haj Ismail; Shaymaa Mohameed; Hisham Yousif

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 203-212
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161501

The effect of  Hot air on the Killing a percentage of different stages of Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum and The Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium , have study: the larval stage of Khapra beetle is more resisting in expansion to Hot air  in  killing 50 a percentage having 104°C and in killing 95 % is in 110°C , in Red flour beetle the killed 50 % in  all the stages of  the same (82°C) but in the killing 95% the pupal stage is more resisting to arrive at 92°C and nearby in adult stage (90°C). 

Keywords: Hot Air, Control of Insects Stored Products, Local grain products, The Khapra Beetle, The Red Flour Beetle

ALLELOPATHIC EFFECT BETWEEN WHEAT Triticum aestivum L AND Fenugreek trigonella foenum-gracum L.

M. Faysal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 213-228
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161502

The present study was conducted in wired house in order to test the alleopathic effects which resulted by cultivation fenugreek (Indian variety) in plastic pots. The soil was planted previously with two wheat cultivers and residues additives of fenugreek roots and shoots with seedling and mature growth stages. Experiment carried out using a complete randomized design. The analysed data were showed that the cultivated fenugreek plants in soil of Al-ize variety more resistant and well tolerate than those cultivated in soil for Talafer-3-variety by high value of a  and b chlorophyll, proline and tolerance index also decreasing of injury index and infiltration of sodium ions as well as increasing of root / shoot ratio. On the hand growth inhibition of planted fenugreek in its residues compared with comparison soil (no residue) through the parameters, chlorophyll a, proline , injury index and infilteration of sodium ions , root / shoot ratio with high values of tolerance index. There were no significant differences of that two growth stages of all studied traits except for tolerance advantages of fenugreek plants which cultivated in residues within stage seedling.

EFFECT OF RED CABBAGE CRUDE EXTRACTS ON E. coli AND Staph.aureus GROWTH

Salah Ahmed; Muhannad Al-Taleb

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 229-238
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161503

The current study concentrated on effect of red cabbage crude extracts, first: acidified methanol extract by 2.4 mM/L HCl, second: of methanol 80 %, on growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in solid and liquid media. Each extract was added in 125, 250, and 500 µL/ treatment , it was added to the fixed sterilized disks in solid medium or added to liquid medium, however, the control treatment freed of extracts. All treatments were incubated for 24, 48, and 72 hours at 30 oC when inhibition percentages were calculated and the minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) was measured for both bacteria. The results appeared that red cabbage crude extracts showed significant (p<0.05) change on E. coli and Staph. aureus inhibition in the solid media as the inhibition ratios on ranged between 42.59-92.17 and 40.04-86.60% , respectively , while the inhibition ratios in the liquid media between 46.44-96.26  and 44.45-95.10% for the two species of bacteria respectively. The lowest  MIC  occurred when adding acidified methanol by HCl of red cabbage especially against E. coli as inhibition happened at 200 µL and this lower than the concentration which inhibited Staph.aureus.

EFFECT OF SOME SEAWEEDS AND FLORAL PLANTS EXTRACTS AND METHODS OF ADDITION ON MINERAL COMPOSITION. SEPARATION AND DIAGNOSIS OF SOME ACTIVE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS OF SENNA PLANT) Cassia acutifolia

Saad Al-Hafothy; Hassan Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 239-256
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161504

This research  included the study of the effect of aqueous plant extracted form two types of seaweed (Algex, Algamix), licorice plant and cultured barley seeds with three concentrations (0, 5, 10 gm/L) and two ways of  methods addendum (spraying and irrigation) in  mineral composition of the Senna plant Cassia acutifolia which had been planted in one of fenced wire house of the Department of biology /College of Education/ University of Mosul, at summer season (2011). The analysis of the data were obtained by using the Complete randomized design (C.R.D) with four replications.
Separation and diagnosis of some chemical compounds from the plants under study had been done. The results are as follows:
Treatment with all extracts significantly affected most of the physiological traits under study compared with the control. The Algamix extract sprayed at rate of (10gm/L) showed the highest potassium concentration in the leaves, while Algex extract gave the best concentration of magnesium in the leaves when used at (10gm/L), rather than sodium at (5 gm/L).
Spraying with Licorice extract showed a significant increase in calcium and phosphorus when used at (10 gm/L).
Glycoside and Aglycon compounds were separated and identification. Diagnosis of both compounds were done by using  infrared(IR) rays ,while another active compounds Sennoseid (A and B) were separated. Their diagnosis was carrid out by using the high performance  chromatography (HPLC) technique.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT TYPES AND LEVELS OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD FOR TWO VARIETIES OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum)

Fatih Hasen

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 257-264
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161505

A pots experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to study the effects of two levels of phosphorus (160 kgP2O5 ha-1, 320 kgP2O5 ha-1) in the form of RP, TSP, DAP, and NP on vegetative growth, yield and N, P, K content in seed of two varieties of wheat (Sham-4, Um rabie) grown in calcareous soil in the north part of Iraq. The results showed that the addition of phosphorus caused a significant increase on most vegetative growth parameters (dry matter, plant height, number of tiller), yield components (number of  spikes, Weight of 1000 grain and grain yield) in the two wheat varieties. and also increased the contents of N, P  and K  in the seeds of the two varieties. Treatment of 320 kg P2O5ha-1 as TSP showed better results as compared to RP, DAP and NP. 

USING KINETICS RELEASE CONCEPT AND POTASSIUM STATE IN EVALUATING SOIL FERTILITY FOR SOME FOREST SOILS IN NORTHERN OF IRAQ

M.A Al-Obaidi; Ahmed Shams aldin

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 265-280
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161506

This study was conducted to investigated potassium release kinetics in Zawitta (Duhok) province in northern Iraq. Soils were classified within Mollisol order under different forest tree types (Walnut, Betoum, Common Pine, Oaks, Almond, Occidental, Out of forest (Control)). Potassium release was conducted by successive extraction by using (0.01 M) oxalic acid. The results show the potassium release capacity were decreased with increaseing time of abstraction. The different of potassium in chemical and physical properties of soil were effected clearly with in the capacity release rate of potassium and path way of reaction also the results show that path way reaction according to parapulic diffusion consist of two stage (first  one represent  exchangeable phase with high rate and the second represent non exchangeable potassium release with slow rate). Potassium release (capacity and release) in first stage was more than the second stage. Soils under forest trees gave a different capacities for potassiumrelease as following orders (Walnut, Oaks, Occidental, Almond, Betoum, Common Pine, Out of Forest (Control). The high value for exchangeable capacity was in sub soil horizon for (Walnut) (66.32 mg.kg-1), while the lower value were in sub surface of (Pine forest) (0.87 mg.lg-1). The highs value for non-exchangeable potassium were in sub horizon surface under (Walnut Forest) (423.2 ml g.kg. minute 0.5), while the lower value were recorded in sub surface horizon in (Pine Forest) (45.37 ml g.kg. minute 0.5). Rate of potassium release from exchangeable phase recorded a high value in sub surface horizon (Walnut Forest) (27.78 ml g.kg. minute 0.5), while the lower value were recorded in sub surface horizon for Pine forest (4.17ml g.kg. minute 0.5). Potassium non exchangeable were recorded high value in sub surface horizon for (Walnut Forest) (4.67 ml g.kg. minute 0.5), while the lower value were recorded in sub surface horizon from control (1.26 ml g.kg. minute 0.5). In generally all horizons in pedons  were characterize with homogenus. Surface horizon were high in each of potassium release capacity and potassium rate and decreased with depth. according to soil fertility evaluation and depending on potassium capacity release and rate from Mica minerals which show the low reserve (47-490)  and  low rate release. All of these soils regard as low supplying for potassium there for, these results may be have important to treaded potassium problems under forest soil.  

Effect of sulfur and organic fertilizers on growth and yield of garlic Allium sativum L.

Dena Shaheen; Raida Al-Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 281-294
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161507

A field experiment was carried out during agricultural season 2011/2012 to study the effect of sulfur addition with some organic fertilizers on plant growth and the yield of garlic Allium sativum L. which has been got as cloves from local markets. Experiment was conducted according to the randomized complete block designe withing factorial experiments by three replicates. Using Duncan test polynomial on possibility of 5% to compare averages of treatments, Eighteent sulfur addition was applied levels of zero and 1000 kg.ha-1 and poultry manures of 10 and 20 tons.ha-1. Some fertilizers and organic extracts such as Italpollin in levels 1 and 2 tons.ha-1. Afoiler organic extracts were applied on levels 2.5 and 5 ml.liter-1.
         The results showed that sulfur addition at a rate of 1000 kg.ha-1 caused a significant increase on chlorophyll leaves content and plants harvested, cloves number, mean clove weight, total heads yield and biological yield, poultry manure application at the level of 20 tons.ha-1 appeared also a significant increase as above, also intraction between sulfur and levels of added organic fertilizers increased the above studied properties, 1000 kg.ha-1 of sulfur with (20 tons.ha-1) of organic fertilized had a significant increase on studied properties accept mean weight of clove and head.

RELATIONSHIPBETWEENBACTERIAANDFUNGINUMBER IN RHIZOSPHERE AND BULK SOIL.

Mowafaqn Sultan; Marwan Yassen

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 295-306
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161508

          Pot experiment was conducted in a Plastic house to study the number and percentage of bacteria and fungi in Rhizosphere (RS) and Bulk Soil (BS) using four types of crops, (wheat, onions, faba bean, clover) has been cultivated in silty clay loam soil from AL-​​Rashidiya farm, Soil Samples were collected to estimated the bacteria, fungi numbers, and soil reaction in two stages of plant growth (60 day,120 days). Results showed: studying the number and percentage of bacteria and fungi in Rhizosphere and Bulk Soil using the four types of crops which had been cultivated in silty clay loam soil from Al-​​Rashidiya site, Samples of the soil were took to estimated the bacteria, fungi, and soil reaction in  two phases of stages of plant growth (60 days, 120 days). The Results  showed that the number and percentage of bacteria and fungi in (RS) was increasing compared to bacteria and fungi in (BS) and in  all soils cultivated with the crops in the two stages of growth  (60 days, 120 days). Faba bean (442.4*105UCF) and wheat (434.7*105UCF) at the first stage of growth (60 days)were the highest increasing in the number of bacteria in(RS) compared with the number of bacteria in (BS), with the increase (1172.7،1139.1 %) and ratios (R/S) amounted to (1:12.7، 1:12.3) respectively, In the second stage of growth (120 day of planting) there was a significant increase in bacteria number  in)RS(soil and for all crops compared to the)BS(and the highest increase was in soil planted with wheat (378.9*105UCF) clover (350.1*105UCF) with increase of (1051.3 ,898.93%) and rates (RS) amounted to (1:11.5, 1:9.9), respectively Also that the number of fungi have achieved a significant increase in the (RS)  compared to (BS) and the highest increase of fungi in the (RS) was in the soil cultivated with faba bean, followed in the soil cultivated increase of (36.88*103UCF) and rates (R/S) was (1:1.3). In the second stage of growth (120 day of planting) there was a significant increase in fungi in)RS(achieved a significant increase compared to the)BS(soil and the highest increase was in the in the soil planted with clover ,faba bean and an increase of (R/S) was (34.87, 34.76*103 UCF) and the rate of (1:1.23،1:30) respectively. The soil reaction RS and BS was affected in both stage with rate degrees (0.13, 0.11) in RS and BS with (1.68,1.42%) respectively compared to control. 

THE EFFECT OF HEAT AND MICROWAVE TREATMENTS ON ORANGE JUICE QUALITY DURING STORAGE

Thamer Khalil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 369-382
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161471

The effect of heat and microwave (MW) treatments on quality related parameters as ascorbic acid (AA), browning index (BI), reducing sugar (RS), total soluble solid percentage (TSS %), and pH of orange juice (OJ) were investigated directly after the treatments and after storage at 4 and 20 °C for 2 months. Microwave treatment induced little reduction in AA compared to heat treatment. Microwave treatment ensured the quality stability of orange juice stored for 2 months under refrigeration (4 °C) but inferior orange juice quality was detected after 2 month storage at 20 °C. Using MW exposure above 60 sec gave better studied parameters than heat treatments. However, microwave exposure for more than 60 sec. was sufficient to preserve the OJ quality. Accordingly, the use of microwave energy may be proposed as an alternative to traditional heat treatment in order to preserve the OJ quality.

GENETIC ANALYSIS IN DURUM WHEAT USING GRIFFING AND HAYMAN’S APPROACH UNDER STRESS AND NON-STRESS WATER

Ismail Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 383-403
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161472

A full-diallel cross of five durum wheat genotypes[Simeto (1), Ofanto (2), Acsad 65 (3), Miman-9 (4) and CRAK-10 (5)] was made in the growing season 2010-2011 at the Research Field of the College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University in Erbil, Iraq. Grains of 20 F1s and their five parents were planted on 15 November 2011 in two separate experiments, rainfall (stress) and irrigated (non-stress) using a randomized complete block design with three replications in order to study the genetic properties of days to flowering, plant height, flag leaf area, spike length, no. of spikes/plant, no. of grains/spike, 1000-grain weight, biomass yield/plant, grain yield/plant and harvest index by using Griffing, Hayman and Jinks-Hayman approaches. The results revealed that some parents exhibited positive and high general combining ability, while some hybrids showed specific combining ability for the majority of these traits. Important role of additive genetic component (D) was found for days to flowering, flag leaf area spike length, no. of spikes/plant, no. of grains/spike and biomass yield/plant under stress conditions and days to flowering, spike length, no. of spikes/plant, 1000-grain weight, biomass yield/plant, grain yield/plant and harvest index under non-stress conditions.The non-additive component (H1) was found to be important for the genetic control of all the traits under stress and non-stress conditions excluding grain yield/plant under stress conditions. The average degree of dominance (H1/D) ½ was>1 for all traits in both cases. The narrow sense heritability Hn.s .was low for flag leaf area, moderate for no. of grains/spike and 1000-grain weight, high for remaining traits under stress conditions. While low for no. of grains/spike, moderate for days to flowering, flag leaf area and grain yield/plant, high for remaining traits under non-stress conditions.Under stress conditions high heterosis was exhibited by cross [1×4] for most traitswhile by cross [5×3]under non-stress conditions.It could be concluded that generated of these genotypes will serve for the breeders to develop high yielding of durum wheat under water stress und non-stress conditions by employing individual or mass selection breeding.

EFFECT OF EXPOSURE PERIOD AND CONCENTRATION OF THREE TYPE OF ABRASIVE DUST ON KILLING EFFECT OF LARVA AND ADULTS OF KHAPRA BEETLE Trogoderma granarium Everts. (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

Nabil M. Almallah; Ahmed M. Aljanabi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 307-318
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161509

The laboratory experiments were conducted to study the effect of Exposure Period and Concentration of Abrasive dust (Silica gel, Limestone and Gypsum) on Killing effect of larva and adults of Trogoderma granarium Everts. under laboratory conditions (25±5Cº and 65±5% R.H) in College of Agricultural and Forestry. Mosul University 2013. The results showed that the killing percent was clearly increased So as to increased of Concentration. The Silica gel Exhibit high effective in comparison with Limestone and Gypsum which revealed after two week of treatment had higher average values of larva and adults killing which reached 60, 70.33% respectively at Concentration 70g/kg. where as these values of treatment by Limestone and Gypsum were reached 33.33, 60% and 26.66, 40% respectively at the same Concentration.
       These results reflected to LC50 values of the abrasive dust which indicated that the adults had more susceptibility than larval stage in their responsable for used Dusts which LC50 values reached after two week of treatment 42.53, 58.88 and 101 ppm for Silica gel, Limestone and Gypsum respectively.
       These last results reflected too on the values of Relative efficiency and Relative susceptibility of two insect stage (larva, adults) and their higher values were recorded in Silica gel after two week of adults treatment which reached 422.34 for Relative efficiency 1 for Relative susceptibility compared with Gypsum which gave lower values on larval stage which reached 100 for Relative efficiency 0.226 for Relative susceptibility.

EFFECT OF PH OF WELL WATER ON EFFICIENCY OF SOME INSECTICIDES UNDER FIELD CONDITION

Saddam mowafak Hassan; Nazar m. ALmallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 319-328
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161510

The result of used 6 well water in deiloution of 4 insecticides (salut, marshal, vapcotol and lannate) showed The values of Insecticides efficiency percentage were varied according to the well water kind and the time passed from the application date. The water of Gelbarat deep well reduce significantly the efficiency percentage of Salut to 49% and accelerate its degradation from 100% to 60, 47, 27, 14% after 1, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days from application, while xiluting marshal insecticides by the Gelbarat deep well water lead to produce ageneral mean efficiency reached 54% and reduce its field efficiency in controlling A phisrieri to 38%. The general mean efficiency percentage of vapcotal reached 60% when diluted by the water of Gelbarate deep well with a reduction in its efficiency reached 32% while lanate general mean efficiency reached 72% when diluted by Gelbarat deep well water which reduce its efficiency 22%.

EFFECT OF FEEDING Coccinella novemnotata Herbst, AND C. undecimpunctata L. (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE) ON Hyalopterus pruni Geoffr. (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE) ON SOME BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF THE TWO PREDATORS

Juma'a T. Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 329-336
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161511

            Results of studying the extent suitability of Hyalopterus pruni Geoffr. (Hemiptera: Aphididae) as suitable prey to the Lady beetles Coccinella novemnotata Herbst and Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) on some biological characters of two predators, showed that there is no significant effects between the means of larval development period which was 2.8,2.6,3.4 and 3.6 days for the fourth larval stages period of C. novemnotata Herbst respectively, in comparison with 2.6,2.8, 3.4 and 3.6 days for C. undecimpunctata L. respectively, but there is significant effects between the means of pupal period which was 4.2 and 5.2 days for two predators respectively, the results also shows a significant effects on the means of oviposition period which was 26.67 and 22.33 days for C. novemnotata Herbst and C. undecimpunctata L. respectively but there is no significant effects between the means of preoviposition and postoviposition period which were 4.67,4.33,4.33 and 5.00 days for C. novemnotata Herbst and C. undecimpunctata L. respectively and thus the significant effects on the means of number of egg per female, dialy deposited and eggs hatching percentage which reached 2030.67 egg/ female,67.17egg/female/day and 89.22% for C. novemnotata Herbst respectively in comparison with 758.00 egg/ female, 36.46 egg/ female/day and 85.54% for C. undecimpunctata L. respectively but there is no significant effects between the means of incubation period which reached 2.35and 2.70 days for C. novemnotata Herbst and C. undecimpunctata L. respectively.                         
Keywords: Coccinella novemnotata, C. undecimpunctata, Hyalopterus pruni, Biological characters.       

Effect of some Bioinsecticides and Chitin Inhibitors on some Plant Pathogenic Fungi

Nazar M. Al-Mallah; Nidal younis Almurad; Suad Yahya Muhammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 337-344
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161512

The results of studying the effect of some insecticides (Spinosyn, Emamectin- benzoate, Cyromazine and Flufenoxuron) on mycelial and sporulation inhibition percentage of the fungi (Fusarium avenea, Bipolaris sorkinian , Alternaria alternata, Helminthosporium sativum) showed that the mycelial and sporulation inhibition percentage were varied according to insecticides kind and fungi species.
The results of statistical analysis confirmed the existence of significant variation between the treatments. The spinosyn exhibit the highest general mean of mycelial and sporulation inhibition percentage, which reached %45,6 and %33,75 respectively.
The fungi A. alternata revealed the highest mycelial inhibition reached %54.78. The general mean of sporulation inhibition of B. sorkinian and A. alternata reached %25,70 and %24,79 respectively in comparison with %40,17 and %40,09 for A. alternata and H. sativum respectively.

STUDIES ON POPLAR LEAFMINER Japanagromyza salicifollii Collin (Agromyzidae; Diptera)

Nazar M. Al.Mallah; Wafa A. Yehya; Mohammed k. Al.Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 345-354
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161513

The results of the recent study, showed that their, were two generation for the Japanagromyza salicifollii. The spring generation start at the 1st week of may/2011  and  end at last week of  June/2011,while the autum generation insects appeared at the 1st week of September/2011 and lasted at the 4th week of  November/2011.The insects trees attack was the  highest during autum generation in comparison with spring generation ,the general mean infection of tree branches,reached %47.83 and %100 for spring and autum generation respectively. The results also revealed a significant and positive correlation between temperature and relative humidity with number of infected leaves and its percentage and number of infected branches and its percentage for spring and autum generation. The values of distribution index of mines on poplar leaves showed that the mines takes an aggregate pattern of distribution. The general mean of damaged leaf area by the leaf miners reached %5.84.

Isolation and identification of squash blossom end rot and fruit rot fungi and their control

Nidal Younis Al-Murad; Selda Mohammed Baker

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 3, Pages 355-368
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161514

Alternaria alternate, Choanephora cucurbitarum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium proliferatum Fusarium sporotrichioides, were isolated from squash plants showed blossom end rot symptoms,with different isolation frequencies.  Pathogenicity test for previous fungi were fulfilled. In laboratory trials, Amcoton was  applied to PDA to determine its  effect  on dry weight of  previous fungi, the result showed significant inhibitions on dry weight to C. cucurbitarum and   F.culmorum with  16.12% when it was used with 20 mg  and 10 mg/ L respectively,  while  Amcoton application showed   activation effect to  A.alternata dry weight  with  activation  percent 41.3 % when it was used with 20 mg / L. Amcoton application also caused   significant  inhibition to fungal mycelium growth  the highest  inhibition  was recorded with C.cucurbitarum 23,54 % ,while Activation effective was observed with  A.alternata   with 11.2%