Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 46, Issue 2

Volume 46, Issue 2, Spring 2018


ESTIMATION OF TRANSLOG COST FUNCTION OF BARLEY PRODUCTION IN WASIT

H. ESKANDER; MUNA A. ALHAMDANI; 1QAYS T. JASSAM

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161438

Model of translogy cost function does not pulling restrictions on elasticities of substitution and creating the model of declining total cost, the search applied on sample of farmers of barley crop which consists of 130 farmer distributing on 16 branch of wasit province the another used SUR method via using Evewis program to estimate the relation between total costs and prices of inputs and output, we found that strong relation between them in all functions through magnitude of R2 which was (0.73, 0.53, 0.93 )of function of translog costs and functions of labor and capital participation respectively . when we difrishiashing demand on labor factor from function of participation of labor wages in costs, we found that own – price demand elasticity of labor was (-0.88), while cross elasticity between labor and capital was (-0.16) that is mean increasing in labor wage by (1%) will decrease demand, capital by (0.16%), and that confirm the compliantary relation between two factors. paratial of substitution elasticity of Allen – Uzawa between capital and labor was (-1.4), while partial substitution elasticity of morishima between labor and capital was (-0.19) and that indicates that there is no shortage in demand of labor of there is increasing in price of capital .the study estimate efficiency of cost also via using frontier 4.1 program it was (0.61). the study recommended that nessisty of increasing the technical and knowledge level which helping to increase efficiency of products and decreasing costs.

RESPONES OF TWO GARLIC (Allium sativum L.) VARITIES TO DIFFERENT LEVLES OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZERS AND SOIL APPLICATION OF TWO TYPES OF HUMIC ACID FERTILIZERS

Mohammad Al-Habar; Omar Fateh.Y. Al-Zubayde

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 7-22
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161439

This study was conducted at experiment Farm of Horticulture and Landscape Design Dep. / College of Agriculture and Forestry / Mosul University during the growing season 2012-2013 to investigate the effects of three levels of nitrogen fertilizers at rate: zero, 100 and 150 Kg N / ha. The second factor included adding two types of organic fertilizer (humic acid): Matrex 15at 2 ml/ l. and Fitohum at 2 gm/ l. and control treatment, in order to study their effects on the vegetative growth, quantity and quality of the yield of two garlic varieties (Chinese and local). The result showed that local variety was significantly superior in head circumference and bulbs fresh weight per plant at second stage (220 days after planting), cloves and circumferences number per head Whereas, Chinese variety was significantly superior than local variety in leaves number per plant at two growing stages (167 and 220 days after planting).The vegetative growth and quantitative and qualitative characters of the yield i.e. leaves number, head circumference and bulbs fresh weight per plant at second stages (220 days after planting), cloves and circumferences number per head, mean weight of clove, total and marketable yield increased by increasing nitrogen fertilization levels. Whereas, the fertilized plants with 150 Kg N/ha. were significantly more superior than non-fertilized and fertilized plants in the previous mentioned characters. Whereas, plants fertilized with organic fertilizer Fitohum were significantly superior than non-fertilized plants and fertilized plants with organic fertilizer Matrex 15 in head circumference, bulbs fresh weight per plant (at two growing stages) and total and marketable yield. The result indicted that local variety plants that fertilized with nitrogen fertilizer at level 150 Kg N/ha and organic fertilizer Fitohum gave the highest values of total yield and marketable yield 10.998 and 10.992 ton / ha. for previous traits respectively.

EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND METHOD OF TRAINING IN SOME OF THE YIELD CHARACTERS QUANTITATIVE THREE GENOTYPES OF TOMATO (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill( GROWN UNDER GREENHOUSE CONDITIONS

Aziz Al-Shammari

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 23-31
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161440

The experiment was conducted field inside the greenhouse at the nursery Baquba new under the Directorate of Agriculture Diyala during the agricultural season 2010-2011, to study the effect of three levels of organic fertilization (poultry manure quantity of 3 kg/m ², and composting the Humobacter quantity of 0.5 kg / m ², and without fertilization) and two types methods of training (on one leg and legs) on the three genotypes (hybrids) of a tomato (Margreat, Dafnis and Tyrmes). Experiment carried out in accordance with the split - split adesign (SSP) in the RCBD system with three replications. Tested the moral differences between the averages according to LSD less significant difference between the averages and the level of probability of 0.5. The study proved the superiority plants Margreat on one leg and fertilized with poultry highest average fruit weight was 172.7 g. While recorded plants Tyrmes on two legs and fertilized Humobacter the highest rate for the number of fruits amounted to 73.65 fruit / plant, also gave the plants the same product was fertilized with poultry and on two legs higher quotient per plant was 8.67 kg, while outperformed plants Dafnis reared on one leg The fertilized with Humobacter highest hardness of fruits amounted to 10.60 kg /cm ². While the fruits of plants characterized Tyrmes on one leg and fertilized with Humobacter the highest proportion of the TSS Amounted to 6.27%.

EFFECT OF HARVEST DATE ON STORAGE ABILITY AND QUALITY FACTORS OF "ALMESKAWY" LOCAL PEAR CULTIVARS

Y. Al Shoffe; . M. AL Safadi; Bo Soubeh. A.

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 33-45
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161441

Fruit of "Almeskawy" local pear cultivar were picked in three different periods, during two successive seasons 2008/2009. Harvested dates in the first season were 2/7, 9/7 and 16/7, and 12/7, 20/7 and 26/7 in the second season respectively. In addition, fruit were stored after pre-cooling at 0 ± 1 C° and 90- 95% RH, in storage units of pome and vine research department in Sweida. On the other hand, physical and chemical properties were measured monthly, also physiological disorders and decay were limited in every time, beside shelf life was studied. The results showed that the ability of storage of "Almeskawy" local pear cultivar for 4 months under cold storage conditions, depending on the best harvest date. Where the first harvest date during two successive seasons showed to has a great effected on quality. Which, decreased weight loss (1.53 %), decay (1.7 %) and titratable acidity %, on the other hand, delayed starch degradation and decreased firmness loss (6.3 kg cm-1). Moreover, TSS (12.9 %), total sugars %, pH, storage ability and shelf life were increased by improving fruit quality and marketability. Aside from, internal physiological disorders were absence in this date. As well as, the first date had significant differences with hedonic scales comparing to other harvest dates, in two successive seasons. This research to study the storage ability and quality indicators of "Almeskawy" local pear cultivar is considered the first one in Syria.

EFFECT OF THE PLANTING DATE ON QANTITIVE AND QUALITATIVE YIELD OF TWO CUCUMBER HYBRIDS (Cucmis sativus L.) GROWN IN UNHEATED PLASTIC HOUSE

G. Zedan; Kutaiba y. Aied; Wjdan S. Aziz

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 46-53
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161442

A field experiment was conducted in a plastic house of Horticulture and landscape design department / Agricultural College / Tikrit University during the season 2012 to study the effect of three planting dates (10/1 , 28/1 and 15/2) and two hybrids of cucumber (Summit and Maxeem) by using Split plot system. The treatments were distributed according to Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replications. The results showed that the planting date had no effect in all the studied characters. The Maxeem hybrid showed significant superiority in the fruit length and fruit numbers it gave higher rate reached 16.2718cm and 6.4720gm successively while Summit had significant increasing in fruit diameter , fruit weight. The interaction treatment between the third date and Maxeem hybrid showed significant increment in fruit length whereas the second date of Summit hybrid increased significant in fruit diameter character. The fruit weight character increased significant for the interaction treatment between the third date and Summit hybrid it gave higher rate reached 90.626 gm. 

RESPONSE of TOW POTATO CULTIVARS TO HUMIC ACID FERTILIZER

Fathel Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 54-61
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161443

This study was carried out at vegetables field of Horticulture and landscape department, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, Iraq., during spring season 2013, to investigate the effect of Humic Acid addition in three concentrations (0, 3 and 4 g/l), adding of Humic Acid was in three stages: first at full germination, second 20 days after first stage while third stage was 20 days after second stage in vegetative growth and yield characters of tow potato cultivars (Universa and Alaska). The obtained results could be summarized as follows: Universa cultivar showed a significant increase in fresh weight, dry weight and plant leaf area as compared Alaska cultivar. Humic Acid at 3gm/l leads to a significant increase all vegetative growth and yield characters with a significant decrease of non-marketable yield as compared to control plants and most of the treatment at 4 gm/l, whereas using of Humic Acid at 4 gm/l concentration leads to a significant increase in dry weight and leaf area/plant as compared to control plants with significant increase in dry weight/plant treated with 3 gm/l of Humic Acid as compared with the same treatment at 4 gm/l. The interaction between Universa cultivar and Humic Acid at 3 gm/l showed highest values in all study characters except stems number, tuber number and non-marketable yield as compared to other treatments.

EFFECT OF NITROGIN, HUMUS AND GIBBERELLIC ACID 0N VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF ALMOND SEEDLINGS AND ITS BUDDING SUCCESS PERCENTAGE

Jassim AL-A,areji; Ahmed T. Al Hayyat

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 62-71
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161444

Almond seedlings which were grown at fruit field / Horticulture and Land Scape Design / College of Agriculture and Forestry during 2012 growing season were fertilized with three levels of nitrogen (0, 50 and 100 gm N/seedling ) by using urea fertilizer (46 % N) as a sourse of nitrogen, three levels of humus liquid fertilizer (18% humic acid) (0, 5 and 10 ml humus/L/seedling) and foliar spray with two concentrations of gibberellic acid (0 and 75 mg GA3 / L), to improve seedlings vegetative growth and budding success percentage. Results indicated that the treatments of 100g N/seedling +5 ml humus / L / seedling + 0 mg GA3 / L. gave the highest means leaves N concentrations (1.14 %) and seedling leaves area (2119.40 cm2/seedling), Meanwhil the treatment of 100g N/seedling +10 ml humus / L / seedling + 0 mg GA3 / L. gave the highest means of leaves chlorophyll (60.20 SPAD unit) and budding successes (100 %). The highest means of seedling height increament was obtaind at the treatment of 100g N/seedling +0 ml humus / L / seedling + 0 mg GA3 / L. (100.49 cm).

A COMPARATIVE MINERALOGICAL STUDY OF SOME SOILS FORMED UNDER VARYING CLIMATIC CONDITIONS FROM NORTHERN IRAQ

Saleh Mawlood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 72-81
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161445

To determine factors controlling abundance and distribution pattern of clay minerals, four soil pedons derived from calcareous sedimentary parent rocks in Northern Iraq were investigated. Results revealed that the regional variation in annual rainfall plays a major role in determining amounts and distribution of clay minerals such as palygorskite,chlorite, vermiculite, smectite, illite and kaolinite. Palygorskite and smectite are available in three studied soils (Al-Khuder, Tel-Auskuf and Sumeel) with average annual precipitation of around 250 mm, 350 mm and 480 mm respectively, but these minerals are totally disappear in Batofa profile (Annual rainfall around 800mm).However vermiculite illite and kaolinite are the dominated clay minerals in Batofa soil.XRD analysis was detected a small amounts of random interstratified layer silicate minerals.Biotite-vermiculite mixed layers were found in Batofa soil,but in Al-Khuder soil an increasing amounts of (chlorite - smectite) mixed layer was detected while in Tel-Auskuf soils it appears that (chlorite-vermiculite) is the dominated mixed layer and (chlorite-smectite) is available at Sumeel soil. The general variations in clay minerals content and distributions in different soil locations can be attributed mainly to weathering conditions and mineral transformation. Palygorskite is considered to be inherited in soils of arid regions with gypsum content and limited annual rainfall, whereas illite, vermiculite and kaolinite occurs in soils with high annual rainfall.

DISTRIBUTION OF SOME MICRONUTRIENTS AND THEIR CONCENTRATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH CALCIUM CARBONATE IN SOME SELECTED SOIL ORDERS IN NINAVA AND DUHOK PROVINCES

Adel Al-Taee; Ahmed S. AL-Taee

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 82-91
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161446

Concentrations of some trace elements (Iron, Manganese, Copper and Zink) associated with calcium carbonate have been studied in four locations from different  soil orders (Entisols و Aridisols و Mollisols و Vertisol). The purpose  of this work is study the pedogenic distribution of these elements. Results showed a clear increase in the concentrations of iron, copper and zinc in Zawita soil followed by Sumeel soil. However the soil in Al-Fadlia was exclusively showed a high content of manganese, due to the presence  of manganese oxides deposits in these soils. The soil of Hawi Al-Kanisa was marked by relatively low concentrations of trace elements associated with calcium carbonate.
 The pedogenic distribution of these elements associated with calcium carbonate, the results showed homogeneous in iron concentrations with depth in  Zawita soil and increase with depth in Al-Fadlia soil, while concentration was slightly decreased with depth, then return to rise in Sumeel and Hawi Al-Kanisa soils.However soils of Zawita,Sumeel and Hawi Al-Kanisa showed a relative uniform distribution of manganese with depth, while highest concentrations was found in the third and fourth depths in Al-Fadlia soil. The elements copper and zinc associated with calcium carbonate did not show a specific behavior in pedogenic distribution in all  studied soils.

KINETIC APPROACH OF SODIUM LEACHING IN SOME CALCAREOUS SOILS AT NORTHERN IRAQ

H. Ahmed; M. A. J. Al-Obaidi; M. T. S. Khalil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 92-101
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161447

Four undisturbed soil samples were collected differ in their textures representing Rashidiya, Mustah and Talseen 1&2 locations in Nineveh province / northern of Iraq, classified within great soil group Calciorthids. Samples were put in soil columns and leached by using distilled water (rain water), Tigris water, chlorine and sulfuric water to describe sodium leaching from calcareous soils via kinetic approaches. Results indicated that quantity of leached sodium up to 30th pore volumes of waters was ranged from 19.93 mmolc. liter-1 for sandy loam soil by using distilled water to 455.63 mmolc liter-1 for silty clay soil by using sulfuric water which reflect the role of water ionic strength in sodium leaching from soils. Leaching curves also referred that sodium was desorbed and leached via two stages. First rapid stage up to the 10th pore volumes indicating for of sodium salts solubility role, while second stage continued up to 30th pore volumes indicating for the role of ionic exchange. Mathematical description appeared a high harmony for 1st order equation in sodium leaching description and determination coefficient values R2 were ranged from (0.87 - 0.99), leaching rates were from (22× 10-3). Hr-1 for silty clay soil by using distilled water to (40 × 10-3). Hr-1 for sandy loam soil by using sulfuric water referring that sodium desorption and leaching to soil liquid phase was simple and spontaneous and leaching free energy ∆G values were ranged from -2.26 to -1.19 kjole. mole-1.

FFECT OF ACCLIMATION AND TYPE OF ADDED FAT TO RATION FOR REDUCING THE NEGATIVE EFFECT OF HEAT STRESS OF BROILER CHICKENS REARED UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE

Duried Younis; A. R. Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 102-115
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161448

This study was carried out on Poultry field department of animal resources-college of Agriculture and Forestry-University of Mosul for the period from 2/8/2013 to 19/9/2013 in order to study the effect of acclimation and type of added fat to alleviate the heat stress of broiler chickens reared under high temperature. Seven hundred of one day old unsexed broiler chickens (Ross 308). were division to two division, the first division reared on ordinary condition and called not acclimated and other division also reared on ordinary condition yet exposed to (37 ±2)°C temperature for six hours daily at age (5, 9, 13 and 17) day to acclimate to high temperature and called acclimated. At (22) days old birds divided into eight treatments as follows T1 reared on standard ration and acclimated, T2 reared on ration contain (4)% fat and acclimated, T3 reared on ration contain (4)% oil and acclimated, T4 reared on ration contain (2)% fat and (2)% oil and acclimated, T5 reared on standard ration and un acclimated, T6 reared on ration contain (4)% fat and un acclimated, T7 reared on ration contain (4)% oil and un acclimated, T8 reared on ration contain (2)% fat and (2)% oil and un acclimated. The house temperature have risen to rotatory temperature (25-35-25)°C and still age of marketing (49) day. Statistical Analysis of data showed Significantly increase in live body weight for T3 and T5. Significantly decrease in mortality rate for T3 and T5, rectal temperature for treatment of using oil, fat and mixed, packed call volume, glucose concentrate cholesterol concentrate, H/L cell for treating of using oil and mixture. No Significantly differences in weight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, dressing percentage, relative weight of breast, total protean, albumin, globulin concentrate in blood serum, also the histological study revealed the absence of any passive effect on the histological picture of intestine.

EFFECT OF VITAMIN E AND SELENIUM ON BODY WEIGHT OF MERIZ DOES AND IT'S KIDS AND MILK PRODUCTION AND CONSTITUENTS

Saeb Y Abdul–Rahman; Wassem Khalid Ahmed Khrofa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 116-123
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161449

The study was conducted on 21 pregnant Meriz Does investigate the effect of injection Vit E and Sodium Selenite during pregnancy and suckling stage on their kids , Milk yield and it's constituents. The animals were divided into three treatments (7 heads / treatment) ,control treatment was injected weekly subcutaneous with 1ml of normal saline, the second treatment was injected weekly with(2mg ofVit E and 40 µg Sodium Selenite) /Kg of body weight , the third treatment was injected weekly with (4mg of Vit E and 80 µg Sodium Selenite) / Kg of body weight. The results revealed that treating with Vit E and Sodium Selenite led to a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in does bodyweights during the1st , 2ndand3rd month of suckling in the (2nd and 3rd) treatment compared with control, and a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the Kid's weight at birth in the in 2nd and 3rd groups compared with control group during (2nd and 3rd) month of lactation , as well as , a significant increase of Kids body weight in the 3rd group during 1st month of lactation compared with other treatments. and in regard to the milk production and constituents , treatments with vitamin E and Sodium Selenite in 3rd group causes a significant increase in daily milk yield along Lactation period as compared with control group , also a significant increase in milk fat quantity on the 2nd and 12th week in 3rd group and a significant increase in milk protein quantity in 3rd group along the lactation except the 4th week m and a significant decrease in milk lactose quantity on 6th , 8th , 10th and 12th week of lactation.

EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT LEVELS OF FENUGREEK SEEDS IN FEEDS DAMASCUS GOAT ON MILK PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION AND OFFSPRING'S

Wissam Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 124-129
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161450

This study was conducted in the field of animal resource department-university of mosul on 15 Damascus Goat (2-3 years) were randomly divided into three equal groups,these groups were fed on three rations contain Isonitregeous protein and isoenergetic but are different in  Fenugreek seeds percentage(0,5, 10 %)  Fenugreek seeds recorded. milk yield and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose, and solid component) body weight was increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher milk yield groups 1,2 and control and decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) in fat percentage batwing group2 and control.Significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in the offspring body weight of the treated groups during the period

COMPARED TO SOME OF PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERS AND PHENOTYPIC CORRELATION For TWO STRAINS OF JAPANESE QUAIL BIRD (BLACK, BROWN)

Samawal Al-Tikriti

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 130-135
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161451

This study was conducted at domestic birds field belonging to College of Agriculture - University of Tikrit from 1/3/2011 to 15/6/2011;In this study, two breeds of Japanese quail black and brown birds were use by 60 females per breed. The results revealed that black breedwas significantly superior in egg production traits, age at sexual maturity(day), average weight of first egg (g),average eggs weight (g) average number ofeggs produced during the firsthundred days from laying the first egg (egg / bird) and the average of egg mass (g) were ​​(43.20, 7.36, 12.93, 81.13 and 1049.01) and (44.00, 6.42, 11.42, 76.36 and 872.30) for the black and brown breed, respectively.The phenotypic correlation coefficient between age at sexual maturity and all of the prescription weight first egg and egg weight were positive and high significant correlation, while age at sexual maturity and number of eggs and egg mass is negative and highly significant. The phenotypic correlation werepositive and highly significant between the rate of weight status with the first egg recipe average egg weight and negative with the character of the average number of eggs. Also there was a positive correlation between the average number of eggs and egg mass in both breeds.

EFFECT OF METHIONINE AND VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION IN THE RATION ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF BROILER CHICKENS REARED UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE

Duried Younis; Salem Th. Al-Deleemy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 136-147
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161452

This study was conducted in the poultry field - Animal Resources Department - College of Agriculture and Forestry - University of Mosul, for (56 days) from the 1st of September to the 27th of October 2010, The objective was to evaluate effects of methionine or vitamin E supplementation for reducing the heat stress effect in the broiler chicks reared under high temperature and its reflection on productive performance and some physiological characters. Three hundred and sixty one day old chicks were reared normally until 21 days of age. At age of 22 days, the chickens were weighted and randomly distributed into 4 treatments (3 replicates, 30 birds each). Chicks In the four groups were exposed to a cyclic artificial temperature of (25-36-25)°C and the treatments were T1 Treatment 1: (control) (heat stress),T2 Treatment 2: (heat stress, adding 1g methionine/Kg feed),T3 Treatment 3: (heat stress, adding 0.6g vitamin E/Kg feed),T4 Treatment 4: (heat stress, adding 1g methionine + 0.6g vitamin E/Kg feed).The results showed that T4 causes a significant increase (p£0.05) in live body weight, weight gain, breast weight as compared with T1, significant increase of total RBC, Ηb concentration, PCV, serum total protein, serum albumin and the reduction in body temperature, glucose, triglycerides, ALT, AST in serum, liver and heart glycogen concentration, percentage liver and heart fat in T2,T3 and T4 No significant effects in food consumption, dressing percentage, edible organs and mortality percentage.

EFFECT OF FEEDING FORMALDEHYDE TREATED BARLEY ON PRODUCING COLOSTRUM AND MILK AND THEIR COMPENONTS AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN DAMASCUS GOATS

Omar ALMallah; M. N Abdullah,; , N.Y Abbo; G. K Khattab

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 148-157
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161453

This study was conducted in Al-Rashidiya animal breeding station, by using 16 (3-5 years old) of Damascus – Cyprus female goats in the last two months of pregnancy with average body weight 61.25 kg. Goats were divided according to their body weight and milk production during the previous season into two groups, the first was fed on ration contained untreated barley (UTB), while the second group fed on ration contained barley treated with acidic- formaldehyde solution (FTB). both groups were approximately born in the same expected period. Daily feed intake was restricted with 1.25 kg /goat through the experimental period. Results was indicated that feeding FTB led to non-significant improved in colostrums yield 135 g/ hr as compared UTB 109 g/ hr., but the protein 3.88 % and lactose 5.55% increased significantly (p<0.05) as compared with UTB 3.49 and 5.15 respectively. Also , it was noted a significant (p<0.05) increase in milk yield 1185 g/day and its content of fat 5.20%, total solid 8.94% and energy 841kcal/kg in FTB as compared with 959 g milk per day , total solid 8.68 % and energy 728 kcal/ kg in UTB group. Although, the significant (p<0.05) increased in birth weight 4.58 kg in the group that fed on FTB as compared with 3.29 kg for group fed on UTB, but average daily gain was not differ among treatments. Lowered barley degradability caused a significant (p<0.05) decreased blood total protein 5.98 g/dl as compared UTB group 7.03 g/ dl.   

Effect of Yeast Supplement to The Rations Differed in Degradable Protein in Milk Production and Components in Cow.

Omar Al- Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 158-165
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161454

       This study was conducted in the animal farm college of agriculture and forestry/ Mosul university by using three multiparous Friesian dairy cows in the 95 ± 12 of DIM, average body weight 399.67 kg, using latin square design (3 × 3) with three period each was lasted 21 days. The cows was placed in individual pen and fed with three rations; first one was control consist of barley, wheat bran, soybean meal and contained 10% rumen degradable protein as dry matter base (T1), second ration was similar to the control with addition 35 g / cow per day of yeast (Saccharomyces Cerevisiae) T2, while in the third, rumen degradable protein was increased to 12% of dry matter by urea with addition 35 g / cow per day (T3). Cows were fed with 7.5 kg of concentrate and 2.25 kg wheat straw ,with grazing for 5 – 6 hr daily. Results showed no significant increase in milk yield in T2 and T3 11.109 and 11.029 kg/ day, fat corrected milk 4% 9.365 and 9.795 kg/ day as compared with T1 9.826 and 8.402 kg/ day respectively. Also it was noted no significant differences in milk fat 3.05, 2.96, 3.20%, protein 2.85, 2.78, 2.81%, lactose 4.25, 4.15, 4.20% and energy 605, 589, 616 kcal/ kg. It was noted that the differences was not significant in blood parameters.

UTILIZING OF GLC TECHNIQUE FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SOME FATTY ACIDS OF Populus nigra L. BARK GROWING IN NINAVAH PLANTATION

Talal Al-Takay

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 166-171
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161455

The stem bark of three trees (15) years old Populus nigra L. (Salixaceae) was extracted with non-polar solvent (Benzene) by the Soxhlet apparatus and its fatty acids methyl ester was analyzed using gas liquid chromatography (GLC). The two components identified were Palmitic acid (saturated) (C16:0) and Linoleic acid (unsaturated) (C18:2) with low concentrations (0.23 %) and (0.03 %) respectively.

EFFECT OF ORGANIC FERTILIZER POW HUMUS AND TWO SEAWEED EXTRACTS HYPRA TONIC AND ALGA 300 ON GROWTH OF Pinus brutia Ten. AND Pinus pinea L. SEEDLINGS

Mudhafar Abdullah; Munther Younus Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 172-183
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161456

This study was carried out in forest department nursery \ college of agriculture and forestry, Mosul university, at spring season 2012. The aim of this research to study the effect of organic fertilizer Pow humus and two seaweed extracts Hypra tonic and Alga 300 on growth and development Pinus brutia Ten. and Pinus pinea L. seedlings. Pinus brutia was superior in most vegetative and root parameter length and diameter of stem, number of branchs and root length as compared with Pinus pinea except in shoot to root ratio only. Application of Pow humus matter gave a significant increases higher in stem length, number of branchs and root length . Adding Hypra tonic matter resulted in a significant increase higher in stem diameter, while foliar spraying of Alga 300 matter gave a significant increase higher in shoots to roots ratio. Low concentration was superior in most vegetative and root parameter as compared with high concentration. The tri-interaction (Pinus brutia, Pow humus and low concentration) gave a significant increase higher in stem length, number of branchs and root length, while (Pinus brutia, Alga 300 ana high concentration) recorded a significant increase higher in stem diameter, the interaction (Pinus pinea, Alga 300 and low concentration) gave a significant increase higher in shoots to roots ratio.

THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE TREATMENT OF Pinus halepensis Mill. SEEDS ULTRASONIC IRRADIATION AND GIBBERELLIC ACID IN SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS IN SUBSEQUENT SHOOTS

Mudhafar Abdullah; Zuhair A. Dawood; Sabah Gazi Shareef

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 184-195
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161457

The results of the chemical analysis showed that the values ​​of each of the leaves content of the Pinus halepensis Mill. seedlings of the total phenols and chlorophyll total and potassium have increased significantly when treating the seeds by 20 kHz ultrasound waves in comparison to that of 40 kHz. from these results of the chemical analysis. one can note that all periods of ultrasound waves caused a significant increase in the leaves content of the total carbohydrates. potassium and calcium compared to control treatment. the findings suggest that the treatment of seed immersion with Gibberellic acid solution at 100 and 200 mg. L-1 concentrations led to a significant increase in the leaves content of the total protein. while a 200 mg. L-1 concentration caused a significant increase in the leaves content of carbohydrates and total phenols in comparison to control treatment. A 100 mg. L-1 concentration led to a significant increase in the leaves content of potassium in comparison to control treatment.

THE EFFECT OF SOME PRESERVATIVES ON TO BLACK POPLAR Populus nigra L. WOOD WHICH TREATMENT BY SOME DETERIORATION FUNGI IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Z. Tememe; W.J. Kasir

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 196-209
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161458

The results showed the effect of preservatives chromate copper boron (CCB), chromated copper arsenate (CCA) and chromated zinc chloride (CZC)on some chemical properties of black poplar wood which treated with wood decay fungi)Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, Alternaria alternata, Acremonium camptosporum) such as ethanol - benzene and hot water soluble extracts, the results showed that both, the preservatives used and incubation period did not effect the above mentioned soluble extracts, while the three kinds of fungi showed a reduction in ethanol - benzene and hot water soluble extracts in the wood infected by them compared to untreated samples of wood. With regard to the effects of preservatives on the amount of lignin, the results revealed that the amount of lignin differed with respect to the incubation periods, it was noticed that, the percentage of lignin increased with increasing periods of incubation of the sample of woods infected by the three kinds of fungi, there was no significant difference among the kind of fungi in their effect on lignin percentages. also, three was no significant variation among the studied preservatives in their effects on lignin.The results also showed a reduction in ash percentage with the increase in incubation periods. for the three kinds of fungi N. dimidiatum caused the highest reduction in ash content compared to the other two fungi (A.alternata and Ac.camptosporum). generally, all preservatives used to protect the wood could maintained the amount of ash in wood without any reduction, their effects did not differ among them significantly. In case of holocellulose , the results indicated that the three kind of fungi caused a reduction in holocellulose percentages and this reduction increased with the increase in the incubation periods, all the studied preservatives showed superiority in keeping the holocellulose at its natural level and there was no significant differences among them in their protection.

THE EFFECT OF SOME PRESERVATIVES ON TO BLACK POPLAR Populus nigra L. WOOD WHICH TREATMENT BY SOME DETERIORATION FUNGI IN MECHANICAL PROPERTIES

Z. Tememe; W.J. Kasir

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 210-221
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161459

The results showed the effect of preservatives on some mechanical properties of black poplar wood which treated with wood decay fungi)Neoscytalidium dimidiatum, Alternaria alternata, Acremonium camptosporum)such as bending strength modulus of elasticity (MOE) and modulus of rupture )MOR). the results revealed the effects on static bending  property which  involved (MOE) and)MOR). It was shown that the highest decrease in the values of (MOE) and )MOR) were found at the last stage of incubation and the lower loss in these values appeared in the first  and second period of incubation.the results also showed that there were no significant differences among the fungi and the type of preservatives used in this study, while there was a significant differences between them and the control.          
With respect to the values of tensile parallel to the grain and hardness , the results showed a variation in their values according to the different in the  incubation times, the highest values of tensile and hardness appeared in the samples incubated for two months followed by the second incubation period(4 months) and then the lowest values of both properties obtained at the last stage of incubation.It is also found that the  three kinds of fungi decreased  the values of tension  and hardness in the wood samples but there was no  significant differences among them  in their effects on the same properties.it is also noticed, that , all the  used preservatives in this study preservated the decrease in the values of tensile parallel to the grain of the wood samples treated with them, also the infected samples of wood treated with the preservatives maintained a high values of  hardness , in which (CCA) was the best and differed significantly from (CCB) and (CZC).                     

BIOLOGICALAND ECOLOGICAL STUDYOF POPLAR BUG (Monosteira buccata HORV.TINGIDAE : HETEROPTERA)

Almaroof Almaroof; Khalid K. Abdul-latiff

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 222-229
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161460

The life cycle of Monosteira buccata Horv. which attack some poplar species was studied in Iraq in 2009.The eggs was laid singly with the majority on the lower surface of the leaf in comparison with the upper one. The average number of eggs laid per female. incubation period. eggs viability (150.9.8.33.85%) respectively. The sex ratio of male to female was 1:1.M.buccata was observed to have five nymph instars. The newly hatched nymph is oval in shape and transparent white in color. In the case of the fifth instars. the mesotergum become prominent. forming solid pentagonal sclerotic extending backward to cover the third thorax and the first abdominal segments. Ecological study has shown that the area and percentage of damage started with the primary appearance of the poplar bag species adults at the beginning of may. The increasing of insects number caused an increase in the area and percentage of damage which reached their maximum means (10.39, 23.62, 6.99) cm and (30.19, 33.36, 26.72)% respectively for Populus nigra. P.deltoides and P.euphratica respectively. this happened when the insect number means reached the maximum (16.63, 19.84, 9.86) insect / leaves for the above mentioned poplar species. The statistical analysis showed that there is a significant correlation between the mean insect number and mean of area and percentage of damage in the 3 poplar species.

UTILIZING OF HPLC TECHNIQUE FOR QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF SOME SECONDARY COMPOUNDS IN THE BARK AND WOOD OF Ziziphus spina-christi L. GROWING IN MOSUL

Talal Al-Takay

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 230-237
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161462

Sequence of solvents system  extraction using two different polar solvents (Benzene and Ethanol 95%) was done by using the Soxhlet apparatus then Rotary Vacuum Evaporator in order to prepare crude extract, HPLC technique was used to separate, identify and also determine some secondary compounds and its percentages from the bark and wood of Ziziphus spina-christi L.trees. The results showed a remarkable variation in the kind, number, percentage and the peak area (represented the concentration) of each separated compound. Gallic acid, Acetic acid and Salicylic acid were identified in the bark, Citric acid, Gallic acid, Acetylsalicylic acid and Salicylic acid were identified in thewood. The percentages of the compoundsat Ethanolic crude is the highest.

EFFECT OF BA AND TDZ IN VEGETATIVE MULTIPLICATION OF SHOOT TIPS AND NODES OF Buahinia purpurea L. In vitro

Sumood Alhadeedy; Evet A. Youhannan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 238-247
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161464

This study aimed to develop a system for propagating of Camel's Foot Bauhinia purpurea L. by tissue culture technology. Seeds were germinated after removal the external coats in agar-solidified MS medium without growth regulators, In order to get fresh explants and sterilized for use in the following study stages. After 4 weeks of germination and a suitable high of seedlings explants from growing tips and nodes were excised and cultured in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ and BA (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mg/l) of each during initiation and replication stages in order to get a highest number of multiplied new shoots, Cultured growing tips showed that 1.5 mg/l of BA produced the shoots numerous average 2.66 using 2.5 and 3.0 mg/l of TDZ also have largest shoots average 3.10. On the other hand, nodes cultured on 3.0 mg/l BA have highest shoots average 6.44 at a time TDZ with concentration of 2.0 mg/l also have highest shoots number 7.44. Results showed in multiplication stage for growing tips and nodes which we have from initiation stage cultured in solid MS medium with same concentration of BA and TDZ have a good responses. So BA with 1.5 mg/l of concentration has largest shoots numbers 7.55 when 2.5 mg/l BA was the best in case of shoots length with 33.94 cm. But culturing nodes showed that 3.0 mg/l of BA was the best and have largest averages of shoot numbers 8.22 when in the case of shoots numbers characteristics we found that the concentration of 2.0 mg/l BA was the best with record of 21.49 cm. The results proved that TDZ in 2.0 mg/l have largest average shoots numbers 9.66.

THE EFFECT OF DIFFERENT OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR THE DRIVER OF THE COMBINED HARVESTER ON THE EFFICIENCY OF PERFORMANCE IN TERMS OF SOME FUNCTIONAL INDICATORS

Arkan Muhammed Ameen; Muhammed Toufeeq Authman; Mansour Mohammad Hani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 248-265
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161465

A field study has been conducted during the Agricultural season (2013) in the governorate of Nineveh to study the operating conditions that surround the combined harvester driver during harvesting barley. These conditions; the degree of noise of and without an ear protector, different shifts three to five hours and different types of harvesters of conditioned environments type of the harvester john deer 2054 new-Holland Bizonz110 with unconditioned environments to the harvester john deer 80.The study aims at finding the best operating conditions and the less effective ones on surface side for harvester drivers and the effect of these conditions on the efficiency of production and the components of wastage in the harvest . The results showed that the Machinery indicators of the harvester john deer 2054 with noise and ear-protector and three-hour shift outperformed gave less value of Quantitative loss. Whereas, the non-ear protector harvester new-Holland and with five-hour shift showed higher productivity .Whereas the non-ear protector harvester new-Holland with noise and with five-hour shift showed higher efficiency of the harvester. The best results for the Health Indicators the non-ear protector harvester new-holland with noise and the three-hours shift showed outperformance in giving less absolute difference in the property of body temperature and blood sugar. In comparison, also the harvester john deer 2054 with noise and without using an ear-protector outperformed in giving higher absolute difference for pulse rate.

Isolation and identification fungi from spoilage fruits and vegetables and study ability of it to produce enzymes lyase of cell wall

Hiba Taha

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 266-277
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161467

The objective of this study was to isolate a potential fungi and characterize it from  local markets fruits and vegetables during the period between October 2013 to March 2014 , 22 fungal strains were isolated as follow Alternaria alternata , three species of Aspergillus sp. Cephalosporium sp. ، Cladosporium sp., Colletotrichum sp., Curvularia lunata , Epicoccum sp., two species of Fusarium spp., Geotrichum sp., Macrophomina phaseolina , Penicillium sp., Pythium sp., Rhizoctonia solani, Rhizopus stolonifer, Stemphylium  sp., Trichoderma  harzianum and Trichothecium sp. . A.alternata and  Penicillium sp. were  most frequents during October ,November, December and January while Penicillium was most frequents during February and March. Observations showed that fungal species were significantly differed for their ability to produse Pectinase , Cellulase and Amylase . Curvularia lunata , Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp.,  Rhizoctonia solani , Stemphylium, were produced the three enzymes while Fusarium oxysporum, Macrophomina phaseolina  and Colletorichum sp., produced both Pectinase and Cellulase , Cladosporium sp., was predicted to be not produce  of the three enzymes Macrophomina  phaseolina  predicted to be fungus to record  highest activity for Pectinase test , low activity was recorded for Pectinase test with Alternaria alternata all isolated fungi showed positive response to Cellulase with one exeption  Cladosporium sp., highest activity for cellulase by Fusarium solani . Rhizoctonia solani recorded highest activity for amylase while Stemphylium sp. was the lowest.                                                                            

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ICE CREAM WHICH REPLACED MILK POWDER WITH DIFFRENT CEREALS FLOUR

Ghanim Hasan; Saja M. Kassem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 278-291
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161468

The aim of this study was to know the effect of partial or total substitution of dry skim milk in ice milk mixtures by using different cereals flour of oat. barley and corn treatments were prepared by substitution of 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% from dried skim milk. In the other treatment, 0.1% of cinnamon and ginger were used to conceal or cover undesirable flavors and to use them as antibacterial agents.  Results show that specific weight was increased in all samples contained cereal flours compared with control sample.  The highest values were 1.1178 and 0.9874 for mixtures and product respectively of samples contained oat flour of 100% substitution and the lowest values were in mixture contained corn flour. The relative viscosity was increased in mixtures with increasing of substitution compared with control sample. The highest viscosity value (21.607) was in sample substituted 100% oat flour. whereas the lowest value (18.160) was in sample substituted with corn flour. The agitating ability was decreased with increasing of substitution. in which the lowest agitating ability was in samples substituted wit oat flour and the highest was in samples substituted with corn flour. The revenue percent was decreased in ice cream product of samples substituted with cereal flours compared with control sample and the decreasing was continued with increasing of substitution percent. The revenue percent was the lowest (62.173) in samples substituted with 100% oat flour. Shrinkage percent was decreased in samples substituted with cereal flours. Freezing point was also decreased with increasing of substitution in which the lowest value was -1.777 ºC for the sample substituted with 100% oat flour. Concerning melting point. the samples substituted with oat flour was more resist to melting followed by corn flour.

IDENTIFICATION OF BACTERIA THAT CAUSED FIRE BLIGHT ON PEAR AND APPLE IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE AND IT’S CONTROL

Ahmed Saeed; Rasmia Omar Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 292-301
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161469

A field survey conducted in 2013 revealed the occurrence of Fire blight disease in the three surveyed areas (Nineveh agricultural station, Al-Rasheediya and Hawi Al-Kaneesa) in Nineveh Province. The highest infection rate was 88% for pear and apple trees in Hawi Al-Kaneesa while the infection degree was 0.61 and 0.43 degree respectively highest in Nineveh agricultural station for pear and apple trees. The pathogen was isolated from infected fruits, flowers and twigs, identified by many biochemical tests and confirmed by Agglutination test and Pathogenecity on pear seedlings and fruits. The results indicated that the isolated bacteria was Erwinia amylovora. The effect of three bactericides on the bacterial growth was tested in vitro the results indicated that ciprofloxacin was more effective than Cupprosate and Revanol.

THE EFFECT OF WHEAT TYPE AND METHOD OF EXPOSURE IN RESPONSE KHABRA BEETLE TO MICROWAVE RADIATION

Emad Qassem Al-Ebady

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 2, Pages 302-311
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161470

The results of the recent study of the effect of the wheat variety (Hard Tamuz 2 and Soft Semito) and method of insect exposure to microwave radiation (mixed and un mixed with food) to energy level 200, 500, 800 watt to different exposure times zero, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 Sec. revealed the killing percentage in adults, larvae, pupae were varied according to the wheat variety and reached for hard and soft variety 40%, 32.59% for adults, 32.87%, 30.15% for larvae and 38.15%, 41.39% for the pupae. The results also showed that the killing percentages were higher when exposed the insects and food together in comparison with the exposed insect only, and reached 40.19%, 32.41% for adults and 32.59%, 30.46% for larvae and 41.39%, 38.15% for the pupae. The killing percentage mean of the insects stages proportionally increased with increasing the energy level 200, 500, 800 watt and reached 17.36%, 42.64% and 48.89% for adults and 6.94%, 34.86% and 52.78% for larvae and 24.86%, 35.14% and 59.31% for the pupae. The results also exhibited that the killing percentage of insect stages were increased with increasing the exposure time.