Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 46, Issue 1

Volume 46, Issue 1, Winter 2018


ANALYZING THE IMPACT OF SOME FISCAL AND MONETARY POLICIES IN THE VALUE OF AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT IN SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD (1990-2010) COMPARATIVE STUDY

Ahmed Al-Mshhdani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161411

The research aims to identify some of the effects of fiscal and monetary policies in the value of agricultural output in selected Arab countries during the period (1990-2010). It has become necessary to know the role of fiscal and monetary policies tools applied during the study period, and its objectives towards the agricultural sector in the countries of the research sample. So the research presumer to know a number of factors affecting the value of agricultural output, to present these factors are: (inflation , the size of agricultural loans, surplus or budget deficit, the exchange rate), was the search explore know the effect of these factors on the value of agricultural output in Iraq and Egypt during the period (1990-2010) and the comparison between the two, so the search method depends on two main aspects: first, the descriptive side which was based on previous studies , who studied the same subject, and secondly, the quantitative aspect, which is based on the multiple linear regression model, and then interpret the results of the quantitative aspect to assess the practical side of the study. It also included research on the most important conclusions was including: the impact of fiscal and monetary policies in Iraq were limited due to economic conditions experienced by Iraq in the nineties and after the year (2003 ), which were not clear and dramatically reverse of what it was in Egypt, Accordingly, the research recommends: the use of fiscal and monetary policies more clearly by lawmakers and the need for state intervention in the formulation of these policies in an integrated manner to improve the performance of the economy and accelerate development and which are reflected directly in upgrading the performance of sectors , including the agricultural sector.

AFFECTING FACTORS OF AGRICULTURAL GDP VALUE IN IRAQ AND NEIGHBORING ARAB COUNTRIES DURING (1980-2010)

Dawood S; Basma K. S.

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161412

The research aims to identify the most important factors affecting the total value of agricultural GDP of Iraq and neighboring Arab countries (Syria, Jordan and Saudi Arabia) to grasp the relative importance of these factors during the period (1980-2010). The research depended on a hypothesis that there are a number of economic factors that vary in impact in the value of agricultural output in Iraq and its neighboring Arab countries for the period (1980-2010), and that there is a variation in the impact of these factors between Iraq and these countries. In order to prove the hypothesis of this search a number of economic factors that vary in their impact on the value of agricultural GDP and of (b crop area planted, the number of agricultural workers, agricultural tractors, combine harvesters agricultural, fertilizer, chemical, agricultural loans, farm subsidies, the exchange rate) had been selected the data had been used from those for time - series variables standing thirty -one-year– old. To get the best results has been used principal components analysis had been used. The research found a number of conclusions and recommendations in order to increase the value of agricultural GDP sample countries.

THE ECONOMIC EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION SHAMI GOAT IMPROVED AT BREEDERS IN SYRIAN ARABIC REPUBLIC

Moammar Dayoub; Mohammad Babily; Mouafak Mohammad; Ali Khnefis

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 23-33
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161413

The study was conducted in the province of Aleppo, a random sample of sheep farmers spread over more areas of administrative intensity of the goats in Aleppo, the sample was 76 farmers and mountain goats Shami who rear goats.
This study aimed to evaluate the performance of Shami goats when compared to educators with research stations and the statement following and Genetic effect of the improvement of the herd, which come in to him Shami goats improved.
Percentage increase in the amount of milk compared to the Shami goats and mountain goats Almassalb already existing educators in 74% - 121.1%, respectively
It was also noted the high proportion of twins in Shami goats by 27.3% - 56.7% compared with goats and mountain Almssalb respectively . The percentage of reproductive-Shami goats with educators in the sample of 147%, while 90% of the mountain. While the percentage of abortions among al-Shami in the sample studied 6%, while the mountain, reaching up to 9%. Shami goats achieved an increase in the milk worth for 3120.L .S in excess of the mountain and 2440' L.S. Almassalb in excess of the year. These results confirm the importance of improving animal breeder flock improved taken of agricultural research

THE IMPACT OF TRADE POLICIES ON AGRICULTURAL OUTPUT GROWTH IN SELECTED ARAB COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD 1990-2010 IRAQ AND SAUDI ARABIA, AMODEL

Lora AI-Saor

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 34-40
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161414

ABSTRACT
The research aims to study and measure the impact of trade policies on the growth of agricultural output in some Arab countries, namely, (Iraq. Saudi Arabia) and adopted on the search a premise that the policies of trade hav different effects of varying the rate of financing agricultural output in the countries of the search sample, also adopted a search on the descriptive approach with the analysis quantification using multiple regression analysis. The search included a range of time series Twenty-one years (1990-2010). Were used method of least squares normal to see the impact of some economic indicators and agricultural independent variable approved financing agricultural output, and most important conclusions reached by the research is that the volume of agricultural imports exceeds the volume of agricultural exports, that features agricultural trade is negative during the period of the research. This reflects the level low capacity of the agricultural sector For both countries.  And show the results of the analysis also moral cultivation "(X1) for each of Iraq and Saudi Arabia, but for a variable agricultural exports (X2) has emerged not significant in its impact growth rate of agricultural output in both Iraq and Saudi Arabia, while the variable rate exposure economic agricultural (X3) has appeared in the moral influence on the growth of agricultural output in both countries, As for changing the relative importance of the surplus or deficit of the balance of payments to Total local output (X4) it has appeared in the moral influence on the growth of agricultural output in Iraq only and non Manuetha in Saudi Arabia  It has been found through analysis the lack of moral variable average real per capita income (X5) in both Iraq and Saudi Arabia, has also been reached to a set of findings and recommendations.                     

A COMPARATIVE STUDY FOR SEED EXTRACTION METHODS : AIR BLOWERING AND WATER SOAKING FOR TWO ONION VARIETIES

Mohammad Al-Habar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 41-48
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161415

A comparative study was done to evaluate quantitative efficiency of two methods for seed extraction: air blowering and water soaking of two onion varieties (Local White and Imported Texax Early Grano), and two methods for seeds extraction from a residual product resulted from the two previous methods i.e. water soaking to the residual product produced by air blowering and air blowering to the residual product produced by water soaking. Also the aims of this study is to evaluate seed viability and seed vigour of the extracted seeds. The results indicated that air blowering method was significantly superior in seeds weight and percentage of the extracted seeds, whereas, water soaking method gave the best results in seed purity percentage, seed index, true value of the extracted seeds and also seed viability and seedling vigour characters i.e. seedling and root length, fresh and dry weight of the seedling. The results also showed that the seeds resulted by water soaking from the residual product  by air blowering were ineffective as it gave a low weight of extracted seeds(2.53 %) and low viability and seedling vigour, whereas, the seeds resulted by air blowering from the residual product by water soaking gave a hight weight of extracted seeds (36.29 %)and a good quantity and quality of seed viability and vigour. The imported variety (Texax Early Grano) was superior than the local white variety in all traits of above mention studied.

EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZATION AND SPRAYING WITH SEAWEED EXTRACT KELP 40 ON QUALITY, MINERAL CONTENT AND BACTERIAL NODULES IN TWO PEA CULTIVARS

Abdulraheem Mohammed; Marwa M. Hamdoon

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161416

This study was conducted in the vegetable farm/Hort. & land scape Dept./College of Agric. & Forestry / Mosul Univ. to study the effect of two levels of phosphate fertilization, zero, 40 kg P2O5/Donum, and spraying with three levels of seaweed extract, kelp 40, Zero, 2,4 ml/l in two pea cultivars namely: "Little Marvel and Fabreca". Plants were sprayed twice, the first one at 3-5 true leaf stage, whereas the second after 15 days from the first spraying. Results indicated that phosphate fertilization & seaweed extract showed a clearly effects in TSS, protein percentage of seeds, nitrogen & phosphorus concentrations of leaves, in addition to number of root nodules/plant. Phosphate treatment gave the highest protein percentage (30.08%), while spraying with 4 ml/l of seaweed extract resulted in the highest values of nitrogen, phosphorus concentrations in leaves, and the large number of root nodules/plant. The results revealed also that cultivars varied between them in all parameters studied.

ROLE OF WATER IRRIGATION ON POTASSIUM RELEASE IN SOME CALCAREUS SOILS OF NORTHERN IRAQ

A. Alhadede

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 59-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161417

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of irrigation water quality on capacity and rate of potassium release in some calcareous soils in Nineveh province. It was constructed by miscible displacement technique with natural un disturbed soil columns using chlorine and sulfuric water of two different textured soils from location of Zummar of clayey and Sheikh Mohammed of loamy silt texture for ten irrigation epochs on the basis of porosity volume (PV). Results indicated for presence values of desorbed potassium rate with increase of porosity volumes passed through soil columns. Sulfuric water caused more desorption of potassium in comparison with chlorine water. Desorption capacity rate were 1.93, 2.92 c.mole.kg-1 for Sheikh Mohammed and Zummar locations respectively by using sulfuric water, while desorbed potassium by using chlorine water for the same Soils were 1.12, 2.01 c.mole.kg-1. Mathematical description for desorption process appeared harmony of diffusion equation, power function equation, first order equation, zero order equation, while Elovitch equation did not describe desorption process with the same efficiency. K+ desorption rate due to diffusion equation by using chlorine water were 0.06, 1.2 c.mole.kg-1.min for the Soil of Sheikh Mohammed and Zummar locations respectively, yet using sulfuric water increased desorption rate which were 0.14, 0.22 c.mole.kg-1.min for the same locations respectively.

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF WATER HARVESTING WITH MICRO CATCHMENT FOR AGRICULTURAL WHEAT TO MEET THE WATER REQUIREMENTS IN MOSUL CITY/NORTH IRAQ

Thanoon A.

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 67-76
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161418

In this study the runoff collected from catchment area , is utilized directly to irrigated wheat crop to meet its the water requirements with design the micro catchment water harvesting system (ratio catchment C area to crop area CA) based on the climate , crop and soil data. The design rainfall was estimated at 80% probability and crop water requirement by Penman-Monteith. The experiment was divided to three ratioC:CA 3:1 , 8:1 and 10:1 on the area of 25m2 , dikes are used on the cropped area with 15 cm height to collect the maximal runoff from the catchment area and use water content in soil profile for increasing yield. The results showed that the grain yield increases from 1260 kg/ha to 1700 kg/ha with the increase in the size of catchment area , and that the water content in crop area and the collected runoff and its percentage of materiel suspended increase with the increase in depth of rain dropping on catchment area.

USING SOIL SURVEY FOR DETERMINING AGRICULTURAL LAND TAXES

Ibrahim Amin

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 77-86
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161419

The Present Study shows that the agricultural Land taxes represent 1/10 percentage. But now these taxes developed as a result of floor of the state and passing from guard state to interference state to end by recent producer state. The taxes became as active tool for the policy of financial and realization of goals for economic and social development. Many laws published to organize the rules of agricultural land taxes which its receptacle deal with agricultural land, cultured or un- cultured, virtuous or not virtuous for tillage and with a certain percentage of produce depending on the elements of rent value. And the taxes were imposed with an average from "1% to 15%", depending on the experience of experts in this field.   Our study confirms that, by using soil survey and classification and its attached map, and using equations deals with properties of soil, we get a rational estimation of tax or imposition on agricultural land in an equity and justice grade.

EFFECT OF FENUGREEK SEEDS (Trigonella foenum graecum), METHIONINE AND INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS AND ANTIOXIDANTS STATUS FOR SOME TISSUES IN QUAIL

Saad Al-Nuaimmi; Saeb. Y. Abdul-Rahman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 87-94
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161420

This study was designed to detect an improvement ability of Fenugreek seeds and Methionine on some biochemical parameters and antioxidants status in quail females.The trial included six treatments: first (fenugreek seeds), second (fenugreek + H2O2), third (methionine), fourth (methionine + H2O2), fifth Oxidative stress (H2O2), sixth (control). The results showed that H2O2 treatment caused a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in glucose,T.G, T. cholesterol, LDL-C, VLDL-C and atherogenic risk index in blood serum, while HDL-C decreased significantly, as well as MDA level was increased significantly in tissues such as (heart, liver, kidney, pancreas and ovary) whereas GSH level was decreased compared with control group, Corticosterone hormone as well as elevated. Fenugreek seeds alone or with H2O2 treatment caused a significant decrease in glucose & T.G levels as well as in AST & ALT enzymes,while GSH level of heart tissue was increased. Methionine treatment caused a significant increase in GSH level of heart tissue while Corticosterone hormone decreased significantly indicating the antioxidant ability of antioxidants materials to exerted and improvement of some biochemical parameters and antioxidants status in quail females.

EFFECT OF REPLACMENT CRUDE AND GERMINATED SORGHUM INSTEAD OF YELLOW CORN IN THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BROILER

Duried Younis; Nawaf Kazi Abood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 95-106
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161421

This study was conducted at Poultry Farm-Department of Animal Resources- Collage of Agriculture and Forestry University of Mosul. to identify the effect of replacement of different levels of sorghum instead of yellow corn in broiler diet and the effect of germinated of sorghum on broiler performance and some biochemical traits of blood. Four hundred twenty unsexed one day old Ross chickens were used in this study. Birds were weighted and distributed into 7 treatments (3 replicates each, 20 birds / replicate).Treatments continued for 49 days, as follows: T1: control (100 % yellow corn).T2, T4 and T6: replacement of 50, 75 and 100 % crud sorghum instead of yellow corn. T3, T5 and T7: replacement of 50 75 and 100 % germinated sorghum instead of yellow corn.The Results revealed. Significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in Feed consumption for birds in T3, improvement in feed conversion ratio in T7, Percentage of heart, gizzard and edible viscera in birds of T4 and T6. Percentage weight of pancreas and AST enzyme level in T6 .  Albumin level in the blood of birds in control, T5 and T7. Significant decrease in Body weight of birds in T6. Total protein concentration in treatments of sorghum replacement. In general, it was concluded from this study that the possibility of replacement of 100 % germinated local sorghum instead of yellow corn in broiler diets without any negative significant effects on productive performance.

ESTIMATION OF SOME GENETIC AND NON GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR BODY WEIGHT AND SCROTAL SIZE IN AWASSI RAM LAMBS

Falah AL-Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 107-114
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161422

This study was carried out on Awassi sheep in two flocks: the first the flock of college of Agriculture and Forestry/ University of Mosul and the second flock of AL- Rashidia Animal Breeding for two years. A hundred and five ram lambs were used in this study , body weight and scrotal size were measured at 4 , 5 , 6 and 7 months of age. The results showed a non significant effect of year of birth on body weight, the ram lambs of AL-Rashidia flock were significant succeeded in their body weight, a significant differences were found in body weight of ram lambs at 4 months of age due to age of dam, and the single were better significantly than twins in body weight at 4 months of age only. There were a significant effect of year of birth on scrotal size at 5, 6 and 7 months of age , the effect of flock was a significant on scrotal size at all ages , s significant  differences were found in scrotal size at 5 and 6 months of age due to age of dam , in other hand  no significant effects was observed for type of birth on scrotal size at all ages. Heritabity  estimates at 4 , 5 , 6 and 7 months of age were (0.58 , 0.64 , 0.52 and 0.44) for body weight  and (0.30 , 0.22 , 0.21 and 0.31)for scrotal size respectively , all genetic and phenotypic correlations between the studied traits were positive and highly significant.

EFFECT OF USING FENUGREEK SEEDS ON SOME PHYSICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF BLOOD IN AWASSI RAMS

Mohammad Al-Moteoty

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 115-122
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161423

This study was conducted in the field of animal resources department-university of mosul on 15 Awassi males (2-3 years) were randomly divided into three equal group and these groups were fed on three rations contain same crude protein and metabolizable energy but different in Fenugreek seeds percentage(0,5, 10 %) for seventy five days(15/11/2012 - 1/2/2013). Results showed that feeding of Fenugreek seeds was increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) on Hemoglobin concentration (Hb), Red Blood Cells (RBC), globulin, urea concentration, calcium in blood serum and decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) on Erythrocyte Sedimentation seeds on, urine (Ph), total protein, albumin, albumin / globulin, Potassium, in Rate (ESR), Whit Blood Cells (WBC), cholesterol, triglyceride and sodium in blood serum and There were no significantly effects (P ≤ 0.05)of the Fenugreek blood serum,Packed Cell Volum (PCV),), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (M.C.H),Mean Corpuscular volume (M.C.V).,Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (M.C.H.C), glucose sugar, were recorded as compared with the control group rams.

EFFECTIVENESS OF TREATING OF Pinus halepensis Mill. SEEDS WITH ELECTRIC SHOCK AND PERIODS AND GIBBERELLIC ACID IN CHANGES OF METABOLIC SOME THE PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESSES OF SEEDLINGS

Sabah Shareef; Mudhafar O. Abdullah; Zuhair A. Dawood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 123-134
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161424

The results of the chemical analysis showed that the values ​​of each of the leaves content of the Pinus halepensis Mill. seedlings of the total proteins , chlorophyll have increased significantly with increasing the power of electrocution at 4 and 6 amp. Also each of leaves content of the total phenols and potassium increased at 6 amp power of electrocution. So, one can note that all periods of electrocution caused a significant outweigh in all the investigated chemical characteristics in comparison to control treatment except for attribute of the leaves content of potassium. The obtained results indicate treating seeds with Gibberellic acid led to a significant increase in all the chemical characteristics of seedlings compared to the comparative treatment except seedling leaf content of the total chlorophyll.

VARATION OF RINGS WIDTH AND LTS EFFECT ON WOOD SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF Pinus brutia TEN. AND Cupressus sempervirens VAR. Pyramidalis TOZZ. TREES GROWN IN NINAVAH PLANTATION

Talal Al-Takay

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 135-142
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161425

Four trees growing in Ninavah plantation were chosen, two of them are Pinus brutiaTen.and the others are Cupressus sempervirens var. pyramidalis Tozz.. The trees were filled, from each tree six sample discs of (25 mm) thick were taken, three of them directly above (1.3m) and the others below, then each disc were radially sawn in the four directions of the radius, the test specimens were cut from these with the dimensions of (25 × 25 × 25 mm) used for measuring annual ring width and wood specific gravity. A significant difference in ring width and wood specific gravity was observed along the radial axis from pith to bark, the value of ring width decreases while wood specific gravity increase, and significant negative relationships had been found between ring width and wood specific gravity in both pine and cypress. There were significant difference between the trees. The mean value of ring width was (3.951mm) for pine while it was (3.141mm) for cypress, and the mean wood specific gravity of pine was (0.556) while it was (0.505) for cypress.

COMPARISON OF CENTROID METHOD AND TREE STANDARD FORMULA FOR ESTIMATION LOG VOLUME

Mohammed Al-allaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 143-150
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161426

Centroid method with three of the traditional methods used to estimate the volume of logs (Newton`s, Smalien`s, Huber`s) and four species Eucalyptus, Platanus, Cypress and Pine. Different in terms of natural growth had been adopted to determine which of these equations are the best and most accurate in estimating the volume of these species so (30) tree of each species were taken. The measurements taken are the diameter at the breast, height and elevations at various levels began to 0.3, 1.3, 2.3 and up to 6.3 m which represents length of the piece of wood desired in market, and through the use of ordinary models for Newton`s, Smalien`s, Huber`s, Centroid and the real comparing of the volume of the equations and the true volume by using bias, standard error and T-test, we found that equations of comparisons have no-significant effect, but the equation of Newton`s have best estimate for rest of equations in roughly, we recommend using the equation of Newton`s was the best in estimate of volume of the logs of wood.         

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BIOFERTILIZER EM1 AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH TRAITS AND YIELD IN WHEAT

Saleh Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 151-168
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161427

Afield experiment was carried out during the winter seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in Salamya which is located at 34 Km southern from Mosul city. The split plot arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications was used. The experiment included four levels of biofertilization EM1 (0, 1, 2, 3 cc/Liter), five levels of nitrogen fertilization (0,30,60,90,120Kg N/ha). Nitrogen fertilization levels and biofertilization EM1 were represented as Main plots, and sub plots respectively. The results indicated that biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index in first season it was significantly superior in stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2, spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield,protein percentage and yield.Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield witch is stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2 , spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield, harvest index,  protein percentage and yield in both seasons . Biofertilization EM1 and Nitrogen fertilization interacted significantly for all growth and yield characters in both seasons, biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter and Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha  interaction was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index which was at the interaction between biofertilization EM1 level1cc/Liter and nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha.

EFFECT OF SOWING DATES IN GROWTH CHARACTER,SILAGE AND GRAIN YIELD OF CORN (Zea mays L.)

Salim Younis; Abbas. M. Al-Hasan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 169-174
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161428

A Field experiment  was Carried out  in Autumn Season  2012 at Mosul  and  AL- Hemidat / Thaljah village(20km West of  Mosul city)  to  study the effect of three sowing dates(1/6, 15/6and1/7 ( on the growth characters, silag and grain yield for Four corn varieties Bohoth 106, Rabee, Sara and Danay  The experiment was set out as Arandomized Compelt Blok Desing with three replications. Results showed that all growth character and at both Location were affected  by the interaction between sowing dates and varieties  except  that for silage yield, ears/ plant at mosul location and grain/ plant, grain yield at both locations.  non- significant  differfnces were found between corn varieties at both study locations except of leaves percentage at Mosul location and leaves/ plant at both locations.The Interaction between Sowing dates and varieties was significantly Effected all the growth characters  and yield at both locations except for silage yield at Mosul location and ears/ plant, grain /plant and total grain yield at both locations.                                       

USING NATURAL VENTILATION TO DISSIPATE THE EXCESS HEAT AND HUMIDITY FROM PLASTICHOUSES AND ITS IMPACT ON THE PROPERTIES OF CUCUMBER CROP PRODUCTIVITY

Arkan Seddiq; Hussain Hamed Ahmad; Ibrahim Mahmod Ayed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 175-190
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161429

This study was conducted in plastichouses belonging to Agriculture and Forestry College / University of Mosul in 2012 – 2013. The current research includes a design of tubes and ventilation vents in the plastic plastic house to dissipate heat a cumulated gets inside the plastic house naturally. This heat is calculated theoretically and practically. Moreover, exit the excessive moisture to the outsidewhich affects plant growth and increases disease spread especially fungal infections. Five Plastic houses were planted with cucumber crop and the first one has been selected to be reference which is without ventilation, while the other four houses were supplied by vents and ventilation tubes for as follows: Vents and tubes of 0.4m diameter and 2.5m distance, 0.4m diameter and 5m distance, 0.6m diameter and 2.5m distance, of 0.6m diameter and 5 m distance. Data were taken for the studied properties from temperature and relative humidity, as well as vegetative and fruit crop recipes. Also severity of pathological casualty were accounted. The forth treatment which is in 60cm tube diameter and 2.5m distance recorded highest heat dissipate in terms of the rate of mass transfer (ṁr) 5.31 kg/s, number of air changing in the plastic house (N) 26 /hour, amount of heat disputed (Q-) 4442 kJ/day, less pathological casualty 0.24 and highest chlorophyll rate 41.56. While the best average productivity recorded for crop weight 303.80 kg/190 m² and number of fruits 4111 was in the fifth treatment which, 60cm tube diameter and 5m distance. This treatment where provided an convent environment for planted crop and gave the highest crop productivity with lowest construction cost as compared to the other treatments. The data were analyzed statistically for crop properties by using randomized complete block design in a split experience, where harvested yield sited ​​in the main plots and ventilation treatments sited in sub split plot.

DESIGNING AND MANUFACTURING LANDSIDE BY DIFFERENT LENGTH OF MOLDBOARD PLOW AND STUDYING EFFECT IN SOME NOTES OF FIELD PERFORMANCE UNDER TWO LEVELS OF MOISTURE

Adel Abdullah; Ziyad S. Ahmed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 191-202
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161430

A field experiment conducted In the agronomic season (2012) to study the influence of landside through two levels traditional landside with moldboard plow and the plow with manufactured landside with two levels of moisture content (9.22 – 18.36)%. according to RCBD which has been used with split plot method and its influence in measuring performance (draw bar force. slippage percentage. adhesion force. vertical and horizontal deviation percentage. the coefficient of working width exploitation and performance efficiency). Results of using plow with manufactured landside led to decrease the draw bar force. slippage percentage. adhesion force soil and horizontal deviation percentage, it also led to increase the coefficient of working width exploitation and performance efficiency. While the increase of  moisture content led to decrease the draw bar force, slippage percentage, and to increase the performance efficiency. The interference between the moisture content 18.36% with manufactured landside recorded a decrease in the draw bar force and high value for performance efficiency while the interference between the moisture content 18.36% for the plow with traditional landsiderecorded less slippage percentage and recording less adhesion force with moisture content 9.22% for the plow with manufactured landside

EFFECT OF ADDING EXTRACTS OF MINT AND THYME ON THE GROWTH OF MICROORGANISMS IN WHITE SOFT CHEESE MANUFACTURED IN LABORATORY

Maha Yousif; Alia S. Kamil; Moazaz Abd-Alrytha

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 203-212
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161431

This study aimed to detect the effect of adding two plant extracts namely; Spearmint (Mintha spicata L.) and Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) at different concentrations on some microbiological and sensory properties of white soft cheese manufactured in the laboratory. Cow milk was used in processing the cheese. Control cheese manufactured by using the rennet only, while the other cheese treatments were made by adding separately different concentrations (10, 20, and 30 ml/100 grams of curd) of mint and thyme extracts to the curd. The produced cheese samples were studied microbiologically and organoleptic ally during storage at intervals (fresh, 3, 6, 9, and 12 days) at 4 C° in the refrigerator. The results of the microbiological tests revealed, the superiority of cheese samples produced by adding the plant extracts in extending the shelf-life of the cheese compared to control samples. Using higher concentrations (20 and 30) of either mint or thyme extract was found to be the most effective in decreasing the total bacterial count, and in earlier disappearance of coliform and staphylococcus compared to the control cheese. The yeast and mold appeared late during the storage in the treated cheese, while they appeared earlier in the control. The results of the organoleptic properties during cold storage revealed, that, all samples of cheese manufactured in this study got scores which made them acceptable by the consumers. It is also found that, there was no negative affect as a result of adding the two types of extracts on the sensory properties of the manufactured white soft cheese.

EFFECT OF USING FLAXSEED OIL SOURCE OF OMEGA-3 ACIDS AS A PARTIAL REPLACEMENT FOR MILK FAT IN THE CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN ICE CREAM

Y. Aladwani; S. K Badawi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 213-224
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161432

The study showed the effect of using Flaxseed oil as a source for Omega-3 in ice-cream and as a partial substitute for milk fat in preparing the mixture. Two treatments were made with replacement rates of (1.5, 2.5, 5, and 7.5%). Flaxseed oil, fortified with Vitamin E as an antioxidant, was added to one of them, while the Vitamin E was not added to the other. The results showed there was increase in melting property increase rates of replacement, while the overrun and viscosity increase rates of replacement, compared with a sample comparison, but there was a decrease in cholesterol while increased peroxide value and acidity during extended storage amounting to one day and (7 and 14) days, Omega-3- fortified treatments showed degrees of noticeable evaluation lower than the comparison sample, but there was a preference for the sample fortified with Vitamin E.

SUSCEPTIBILITY OF KINDS OF LEGUME SEEDS TO INFESTATION BY KHAPRA BEETLE (Trogoderma granarium Everts, Coleoptera, Dermestidae)

M. Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 225-230
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161433

The results indicated that the kinds of legume seeds and storage period affect to the activity of khapra beetle which represented in the population density of the insects and loss weight of infested seeds and growth rate of insect. The results indicated that the chick pea, Caw pea and green gram had more preferred for insect feeding than another legume seeds as lentil, broad bean, pea and bean, and had a high general mean for insect numbers was 245.67 insect for chick pea and followed caw pea seeds 188.00 insect and green gram seeds 140.89 insect. The general mean of insect numbers were increased with increasing storage period which were 26.05, 72.57 and 171.57 insect for storage period of 3, 6 and 9 moths respectively. According to other characteristics as loss weight, loss percentage of weight and growth rate were higher on the chick pea from another kinds. These characters that arranged between zero on the broad bean seeds and 15.67 gm., 62.68 % and 3.51 individual / month of the chick pea seeds.

BILOGICAL EFFECT OF Beauvera bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. ON THE FIRST LARVAL INSTAR OF TOMATO LEAF MINOR Tuta absoluta (Meyrick)

Saeed Merza; Suaad I. Abdullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 231-238
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161434

Study were conducted to evaluate the biological effect of Beauveria bassiana with four concentrations (105, 106, 10and 108) spores/ ml after  two exposure times (one & two day) and two application methods as biocontrol agents against tomato leaf miner 1st  instar larvae and its residual effect on other stages. Results indicated that B. bassiana  was pathogenic to the first instar larvae of tomato leaf miner although. Its capability differed according to the application method, fungus concentration and exposure duration. The larval mortality percentages increased significantly with B. bassiana  at 108 spores/ ml. to reach 58.146%   and 40% for larvae directly sprayed and larvae feed on tomato leaves sprayed with B. bassiana  conidial suspension  respectively. The results also showed that B. bassiana had a residual effect on the survivous larvae after treatment, that the lowest adult emergency percentage was 0.00%   from the first instar larvae treated directly with B. bassiana  conidial suspension at both 10and  108  spores/ml. compared with 96.66 % in control treatment.

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE PREDIATION EFFICIENCY BETWEEN Coccinella novemnotata Herbst. AND C. undecimpunctata L. (COLEOPTERA:COCCINELLIDAE) ON Hyalopterus pruni Geoffr. (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE)

Juma'a Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 239-246
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161435

The results of studying the prediation efficiency of the Lady beetles Coccinella novemnotata Herbstand Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coleoptera:Coccinellidae) on Hyalopterus pruni Geoffr. (Hemiptera:Aphididae), showed that there is no significant effects between the means of the dialy and total prediation efficiency for the fourth larval stages of the two predators, but the fourth stages showed significant effects when compared with the other stages of the two predators in the means of dialy prediation efficiency which reached 4.85,14.73,37.03 and 63.88 aphid/larvae for the fourth larval stages of C. novemnotata Herbst respectively, in comparison with 4.43,13.63,35.24 and 61.72 aphid/larvae for C. undecimpunctata L. respectively, and for the means of total prediation efficiency for the two predators which reached 13.40,38.60,126.60 and 232.00 aphid/larvae for the fourth larval stages of C. novemnotata Herbst respectively,but it reached 11.20,38.00,115.80 and 222.20 aphid/larvae for C. undecimpunctata L. Respectively. While there is no significant effects between the total means of the dialy and total prediation efficiency for the fourth larval stages of the two predators, which reached 120.49, 408.60 aphid/larvae for C. novemnotata Herbst respectively and 115.02,387.60 aphid/larvae for C. undecimpunctata L. respectively. Also the study showed there is no significant effects between the means of the dialy prediation efficiency during preoviposition and postoviposition period between two predators which reached 164.43,106.52 aphid/pair adults for the C. novemnotata Herbst respectively and 158.13,105.67 aphid/pair adults for the C. undecimpunctata L. Respectively. And there is no significant effects between the means of the total prediation efficiency during preoviposition and postoviposition period between two predators which reached 766.00,463.00 aphid/pair adults for the C. novemnotata Herbst respectively and 684.67,528.33 aphid/pair adults for the C. undecimpunctata L. Respectively. While there is asignificant effects between the means of the dialy and total prediation efficiency during oviposition period between two predators which reached 184.41,5246.33 aphid/pair adults for the C. novemnotata Herbst respectively and 161.96,4052.67 aphid/pair adults for the C. undecimpunctata L. Respectively.    

EFFECT OF TOMATO VARIETY, SOME CHEMICAL TREATMENT AND TIME FROM THE SEASON ON MEAN PERCENTAGE OF LEAVES BY TOMATO FRUITWORMS

Nazar Al-Malaah; Shiler R. Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 247-254
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161436

The results of the recent study showed no signification difference in general mean of leaf attack by T. absoluta according to kind of chemical treatment in comparison with control , although that the treated tomatoes varieties by leaf fertilizer exhibit the highest general mean leaf attack reached 35.49% and the highest leaf attack was found on Speedy variety in comparison with 33.31 and 30.99 % for Rocky and G.S variety respectively. The highest general mean leaf attack by T. absoluta was registered during September and reached 60.3 %. For the tomato worm H. armigera the results showed no significant difference also , in general mean of leaf attack between tomato varieties in treatments and control , and the highest general mean of attack reached 88.92 % in varieties treated by growth regulator in comparison with control 80.33 %. The G.S. variety was most preferred and got the highest attack found in September and reached 90.14 %. The percentage of leaf attack by both worms kinds was decreased.

SEASONAL ACTIVITY AND SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME POTATO VARIETIES TO INFECTION BY TOMATO LEAFMINOR Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) AND THE OTHER PESTS OF ARTHROPODS

Nabil Almallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 255-264
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161437

ABSTRACT
The study showed to testing susceptibility of some Potato varieties univresa, safran, Alaska, Revira,Alaadin, Borin in Ninevah Governorate during the year 2011 to infection by Tomato leafminor and other Arthropod pests was infected in different degrees with Tomato leafminor Tuta abosluta (Meyrick), colorado beetle Leptinotarsa decimelineuta(say), green peach aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) Potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas),leafhoppers Empoasca spp, whitefly Bemisia tabac! Gen and red mite Tetranychus urticae Koch, the general mean numbers of these pests was oscilliating during eight period for taking samples (from 17/4 to 8/6) which reached respectively 6.52, 10.56, 3.18, 2.23, 4.07,1.11, 1.33, 13.54 individual/50 leave, the first appearance of whitfly and red mite was on 8/6 on all potato varieties. The general mean numbers of these pests on varieties universa, safran, Alaska, Revira, Alaaldin and Borin was 11.4, 3.05, 3.78, 4.01, 2.96, 6.49 individual/50 leave respectively. the numbers of leafhoppers was the highest significanlty 10.81 individual/50 leave. accrording to pest density parameter(individual/ 50 leaves) the highest sensitivity with infection of Tomato leafminor, Colorado beetle, leafhoppers, peach Aphid, Potato Aphid, whitefly and red mite were Revira, universa, universa, universa, universa,Borin, Borin respectively which reached 3.83, 25.19, 20.59, 4.08, 7.75, 5.52,93.75: respectively.

EFFECTS OF STATIC MAGNETIC FIELD ON Escherichia coli MUTATION

Fouad Kamel; Ashti M. Amin; Saleem Saaed Qader

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 265-270
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161390

The effects of a dipolar static magnetic field of strength 400, 800, 1200 and 1600 Gauss were prepared locally, on the ultra-structure of E. coli type 1 bacterium cells have been studied. Equal volumes of liquid culture media were exposed to the magnetic field for different periods, the three most effective periods, namely: 24 hrs, 48 hrs and 72 hrs were chosen for all our experimental studies. After API kit test of treated E. coli culture media as control group.  Results indicated that exposure of the microorganisms to the demonstrated magnetic field caused pronounced changes in the Arginine dihydrolase (ADH), Citrate utilization (CIT) and Gelatinase (GEL) were observed on the cell growth.  Besides, changes in the morphology of the E. coli colonies were observed after exposure period and subculture on MacConkey agar. Furthermore, the bacterial growth subculture tested for morphological and biological activity, the results suggested that a mutation occurred in bacterial cells.

IDENTIFICATION AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF BASAL STEM AND ROOT ROT DISEASE OF SNAPDRAGON

Nadeem Ramadan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 271-278
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161391

For the first time wilt symptoms have been detected on the Snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus L) plants cultivated in the parks of Mosul University. The isolation of fungi from wilted plants on PDA medium revealed the presence of seven genera including; Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Macrophomina, Penicillium and Stemphyllium. Fusarium oxysporum was the most frequent fungi approached 36.0 x 102 Colony Forming Unit/gm soil. F.oxysporum reduced significantly the chlorophyll content of infected plants, and the percentage of its inhibition increased up to 81.88 in severe infections. The infection caused significance stunting of plants when plant height inhibited by 58.09% in dead plants. Antagonism ability of Trichoderma species as T.harzianum, T. viride, and T. reesei  against F. oxysporum showed control efficiency of.1.666, 2.333, and 2.666 respectively.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND SALT LOAD IN RAINWATER OF MOSUL CITY-NINEVEH GOVERNORATE

Amer Abdul-Kareem; M.T. S. Khalil; K.E. AL-Hadidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 279-285
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161410

The present study reports the chemical composition and atmospheric salt load rainwater of Mosul city/ Nineveh Governorate / Iraq. The sampling were done from October 2012 to March 2013. Twenty six samples were collected and analyzed for pH, ion concentration (Ca++, Mg++, K+, Na+, CI-, HCO3-, SO4--) and electrical conductivity. Total rainwater was 338.55mm. The results show that the volume weighted mean (VWM) pH and electrical conductivity in the rainwater were 6.83 and 114.22µS.cm-1 respectively. Cation and anion concentration took the  following order : Ca++ ˃ Mg++ ˃ Na+ ˃ K+ and HCO3- ˃ CI- ˃ SO4=.  HCO3- and Ca++ contributed 65.3% of the total ions in the rainwater. Equivalents ratios for different ionic components to sodium, revealed higher values in rainwater than that of seawater. This indicates the dominance of non-marine in studied samples. Analyses  revealed  that loads delivered from the fallen precipitation in the urban city of Mosul was about 0.1167kg cl-/m3 of chloride in rainwater  which equal numerically to 395kg  NaCI. h-1 of land.