Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 45, Issue 4

Volume 45, Issue 4, Autumn 2017


THE SUSTAIN DEVELOPMENTS AND THEIR IN SELECTED ARABIC COUNTRIES FROM (1980-2008)

Salim Al-Youzbaki; Naseem Zuhair Hamad Abdullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 1-20
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161364

This study aims to measure the level in achieving the sustain development in countries under study by using the mathematic way in accounting the sustain development references and measuring the effective factors on some sustain development references by using the standard economical method in analyzing as it is the major economic transformations and the resulting economic growth at high rates in light of the negligence of usability standards and principles of economic resources, social and cultural life and its effects on natural resources, climate and its object and high economic costs of natural disasters and industrial waste and waste costs, the costs of climate change, the costs of breach of biodiversity and ecological balance, desertification costs of waste and the commercial exploitation of the resource- intensive industrial and agricultural) and this led to the concept of development and associated changes and economic growth in order to adopt policies of sustainable development and sustainable growth and are in Atarhma the rational use of resources and the preservation of life, climate, wealth and observance of human generations subsequent extension of the utilization of available resources. this researcher concluded that the sample countries have made achievements differentiated towards achieving sustainable developments as Jordan had the highest proportion of the total (100%) of the indicators sustainable development, followed by Syria and then Egypt, Morocco, and they (42.7, 39.4, 38.6, 23.5) respectively. But those achievements do not represent the required level, as the independent variable varied in its impact on some indicators of sustainable development, namely, (the proportion of total investment hard to GDP, the proportion of exports of good and services to imports of goods and services, the unemployment rate) for the sample countries

THE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION POLICIES IN GRAINS STRATEGIC TRADING IN SOME DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD 1985-2012

Kays Ghazal; Assad Ibrahim Al-Hayali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 21-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161365

There was many Opinions that studied the impact of policies of economic globalization in the grain trade strategy in developing countries, some of these pointed out that the policies of globalization, a big benefit in the economies of developing countries and in the grain trade strategy in these countries as it helps them to see the international economic decision and increase the interest standard specifications as well as other benefits can be utilized in various economic fields. Other opinions pointed out that the policies of economic globalization worked to lower the share of grain exports strategy of developing its gross domestic product increased its imports which brings the rate of trade in non-interest of developing countries, the opposite of its impact on the poor distribution of national income on national and global levels, which increased the under development of developing countries and contributed to the progress of developed countries; In this regard our study adopted on the premise that the policies of economic globalization have different impacts in the grain trade strategy in developing countries by the nature of their economic structures and efficiency of their systems to deal with these policies, in order to prove the hypothesis of this search we studied on a sample of developing countries including (Egypt, Indonesia, Malaysia, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey), where four strategy crops is (wheat, barley, rice, corn), had been selected and which has been relying on time-series data in the estimation of the phenomenon under Find and each country individually they reflect changes in the grain trade strategy according to their characteristics and attributes differ from one country to another.

DESERTIFICATION AND ITS IMPACT ON THE SITUATION OF AGRICUITURE AND VEGETATION IN IRAQ IN PERIOD FORM (1980-2010)

Salim Al-Youzbaki; Ali Subhie Abbas Al-Mshhdani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 37-46
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161366

Desertification and its impact on the situation of agriculture and vegetation in Iraq in period form (1980-2010). Mesopotamia J. of Agric., Vol. (43) No. (1) 2015: 33-41.
The wilderness is a dangerous environmental phenomenon, as well as it has became the most dangerous challenges which have faced the humanity in this century, because its negative effects on many countries especially these areas which have arid, or semi arid, and even semi humid climate, so this study has aimed to show the reasons and factors for this problem, where the economic and natural factors have played great role in existing this phenomenon the wild areas in Iraq have amounted (38,5%), and threatened with wilderness have amounted (54,4%) from the total area of Iraq. The problem of this research has included growing and increasing these wilderness & threatened with wilderness areas because of the negative effects (not appropriate) for the mentioned factors. This research has gained its importance from this situation which witnessed increasing the size of wilderness and its effect on the reduced agricultural production, losing of the cultivated areas, and its effect on the environment and the other social & economic conditions. In regard of increasing the size of wilderness in Iraq, a serious facing to prevent this problem must be taken, putting the solutions and treatments of it. Thus this study has depended on a hypothesis to the effect that there are several economic and natural (human) factors are contributing with different effects in growing the wilderness areas in Iraq during (1980_2010). This research aims to identify the nature of wild areas, its forms, and reasons in Iraq, the quantitative measurement for the factors impacting on this phenomenon in Iraq, and showing the different effects of this phenomenon, in addition to show the methods of treating the wilderness in Iraq. Conclusions have been reached are follows: Iraq is suffering from deficiency of water, therefore the farmers have resorted to use non beneficial water to irrigate the crops, and there are declining in plant cover because of the arid conditions, human factors, mismanagement of soil and water, arbitrary posturing, and the dust. The study has reached to several recommendations such as: educating of farmers to interest with agricultural lands, their production, and how treating with them through holding the seminars, field visits, prohibiting the wrong methods, committing with water rationed instruments for each crops to limit the problem of salts, encouraging to make repellents to protect the planted and postured areas, and more interesting with plant cover.

EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID AND PACLOBUTRAZOL ON FLOWERING THREE CULTIVARS OF Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. Hook.

E. AL-obedy.; A. O. Al- Atrakchii

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 47-56
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161367

This experiment was conducted in plastic house of Hort. and Land scape Dept. College of Agric. and Forestry. at the period from December 2011 to  July 2012. to evaluate three cultivar response of Gerbera jamesonii i.e Dameblanche (white flower). Laurance (yellow flower) and Arrow (red flower). to soil treatment with humic acid at: 0 and 120 mg/ m2 and three concentrations of Paclobutrazol i.e. 0. 60 and 120 mg/ L by spraying on vegetative growth. The factorial experiment conducted by using split-split plot within Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicate and 15 plants for treatment. The data showed: At the end of the experiment. red cultivar gave best results of number of inflorescences 7.49 inflorescences/plant. vase life 15.00 days compared with the other cultivars studied. While largest values of inflorescence diameter 93.81mm. scape length 50.85 cm. scape  diameter  6.51 mm were found yellow cultivar  plants. The white cultivars record the lowest value for total inflorescence number. inflorescence diameter. length of scape  and vase life. Treatment with paclobutrazol caused a significant decrease in inflorescence diameter. scape length. but didn’t affect on vase life. In general. red flower cultivar plants which not treated with humic acid interact with paclobutrazol treatment at 120 mg/ L gave higher number of inflorescence/ plant. inflorescence diameter. scape  diameter. vase life which increased to 16.00 days.

EFFECT OF PHOSPHATE FERTILIZATION AND SPRAYING WITH SEAWEED EXTRACT KELP 40 ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TWO CULTIVARS Pea. Pisum sativum L.

Abdulraheem Mohammed; Marwah M. Hamdoon

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 57-68
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161368

This study was conducted in vegetable farm/ Hort. & Landscape Dept./ College of Agric. & Forestry/ Mosul Univ. during the growing season 2011/2012, to study the effect of two levels of phosphate fertilizer, zero, 40 kg P2O5/Donum, and spraying with different levels of seaweed extract, "Kelp 40", zero, 2, 4, ml/l in two pea cv. namely: "Little Marvel, Kanadia". Plant sprayed twice, the first at 3-5 true leaf stage, the second after 15 days from the first spraying. Results showed that phosphate fertilizer and spraying with seaweed affected on the stem length, chlorophyll (%), maturity, number of pods/plant, No. seeds/pod, and total dry seeds yield in the two cultivars. Results indicated that twice spraying with "Kelp 40" at 4 ml/l gave greater increase in the percentage of dry seeds yield 23.45%, and showed that cultivars differ in all the studied parameters.

INBREEDING DEPRESSION AND EXPECTANT GENETIC ADVANCE IN F2 HYBRIDS FABA BEAN (Vicia faba L)

Shamil AL-Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 69-84
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161369

The study aimed to evaluate the performance of hybrids and their parents for identify promising hybrids and the objectives to develop single cross hybrids in addition to estimate inbreeding depression , some genetic parameters , phenotypic and genotypic correlation for the studied characters. An experiment was conducted by using four varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) viz., 1- French (Aguadulce) 2- Syrian (Shami) 3- Spain and 4- Holland , were Full diallel crossing carried out according to (Griffing 1956) first method (Model I) to produce F2-Hybrids of twelve single hybrid from self pollination of F1 hybrid during the growing season 2009/2010. The parents and F2 hybrid were planted by using Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replications at vegetable field of the Horticulture and landscape design department , College of Agriculture and Forestry , Mosul University , during the growing season  2010/2011.
Results showed that parents and F2S were significantly different for all the  studied characters , parent 1- French (Aguadulce) was found to be the best for green , dry pods yield , seeds yield and biological yield , whereas the hybrid (2×3) for the green , dry  pods yield and seeds yield , while the hybrid (2×1) for the biological yield. F2 hybrid exhibited a significant inbreeding depression for all the studied characters. A significant additive variance were found for all studied characters except date flowering and no.of seeds per pod. Narrow sense heritability was higher for: Plant height , no.of branches/plant , pod length , 100 seed weight ,  green , dry  pods yield and seeds yield , which indicated an additive gene action for these characters. Over dominance were found for: flowering , maturity date , no.of pods/plant , no.of seeds per pod and biological yield. Genetic advance expectant in F3 hybrid  were found for most studied characters , which indicates the importance of selection for improving these characters. The higher phenotypic and genotypic correlation were found between dry pods yield and seeds yield.

COMBINING ABILITY IN F2 HYBRIDS FABA BEAN (Vicia faba L.)

Shamil AL-Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 85-98
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161370

Used in this study Four varieties of faba bean (Vicia faba L.) viz., 1- French (Aguadulce)  2- Syrian (Shami)  3- Spain and  4- Holland were Full diallel crossing carried out according to (Griffing 1956) first method (Model I) to produce F2 hybrids , of twelve single hybrid from self pollination of F1 hybrid during the growing season 2009/2010. The parents and F2 hybrid were planting by using Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D.) with three replications at vegetable field of the Horticulture and landscape design department , College of Agriculture and Forestry , Mosul University , during the growing season 2010/2011 , for evaluate the performance of full diallel hybrids and parents , to determine the best parental combinations through general and specific combining abilities analysis and estimating their effects and reciprocal effect of the yield and its components.
Analysis of variance results showed that mean squares of general combining ability was significant for all the studied characters except biological yield , and that of specific combining ability was significant for most studied characters , the reciprocal effects was significant for all studied characters except no. of pods per plant and seeds yield. The results showed that variance compound of general combining ability was higher than that of specific combining ability for pod length , 100 seed weight, green pods yield  and seeds yield , indicating that an additive gene action control the inheritance of these characters. Estimation of general combining ability effects showed that the parents French (Aguadulce) and Syrian (Shami) was significant and good combiners for most of the studied characters , indicating that the contains desired gene , the hybrids varied for their specific combining ability effects , the hybrid 1×4 have a good significant specific combining ability effects for the most desirable characters , and this due to the wide genetic diversity between their parents and their abilities to inherit their characters to their hybrids.  

EFFECT OF INORGANIC ZINC FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF FENUGREEK (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

Fatih Hasen

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 99-106
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161372

A pots experiment was carried out under plastic house conditions to study the effects of six zinc treatments(0ppm، 5ppm ,10ppm، 0ppm+foliar 50mg zn.L-1، 5ppm +foliar 50mg zn.L-1 and 10 ppm + foliar 50mg zn.L-1) on vegetative growth, yield and zinc concentration in seed of fenugreek planted in clay and silty clay soils.The treatment o، 5، 10 ppm added to soil before sowing and foliar applied after two months of sowing. Zinc added as ZnSO4.7H2O.. The results showed that addition of zinc caused a significant increase on most vegetative growth characters (dry matter, plant height، number of tiller and leaves)، yield constituents characters (number and weight of pods, grain yield) and also increase zinc concentration in seeds in the both soils. Treatment of 10 ppm Zn and foliar application with 50 mg Zn.liter-1 (F+Zn3) gave highest values among all treatments on characters studied.The studied soils differed in their response to zinc fertilization.

USING STATISTICAL APPROACHES IN STUDYING THE IN COMMON EFFECT OF SOME CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS ON PEDOGENIC DISTRIBUTION OF MANGANESE FOR SOME SOILS IN NINEVEH PROVINCE

Saleh Mawlood; Mohammed Tahir Said Khalil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 107-114
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161373

Forty soil samples were collected from eight soil profiles representing Fadhlia, Kara-Tapa, and Hamdania locations in Nineveh province / northern of Iraq.Soil manganese were extracted by DTPA, GAc and DCB. Statistical approaches were applied to predict levels of extractable manganese values. Results indicated that in common effect of some chemical and physical properties with dissolution methods on pedogenic distribution of manganese were existed. By using stepwise multiple linear regression models , highly qualified in common effect was noticed between pedogenic distribution of manganese extracted by DTPA with. organic matter, clay content and soil pH with total effect of 75.5% and a positive correlation (r = 0.869). However effect of EC , Ca+2, Na+ and Cl- was found on manganese extracted by glacial acetic acid with total effect of 27% and positive correlation (r = 0.520). Lower effect was found between pH , Mg+2 and K+ ions and DCB extractable manganese with total effect of 26% and correlation coefficient (r = 0.114). Mathematical models were contrived to predict manganese levels extracted by different methods due to characteristics effects for each.

EFFECT OF ORGINIC MATTER AND PHOSPHAT FERTILIZERS ON SOME GROWTH AND YIELD OF FENUGREEK (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.)

M. AL-jboury; W. AL-BADDRANI

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 115-130
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161374

An experiment was conducted on growing season of  2011 ـ 2012 of two soils to study  the effect four levels organic matter (0, 2, 4, 6) ton.ha-1 and four levels of phosphor (0, 80, 160, 240) kg.ha-1 and their interaction on the growth of fenugreek.The results showed that the use of higher levels of organic matter and phosphor fertilizer and their interactions caused a significant effect on yield by increasing the plant height, number of branches, yield per one plant and pods per plant. interaction effect of organic matter and phosphor fertilizer at higher concentration was more significant than each factor alone. Organic matter treatment at a rate of (6) ton.ha-1 with (240) kg P. ha-1 gave an increase in some of the charactes in both soils. first soil appeared a response for fertilizer of all levels studied compared with second soil

EFFECT OF QUAIL BREEDERS TREATMENT WITH FENUGREEK SEEDS , METHIONINE AND H2O2 ON REPRODUCTIVE ASPECTS AND ANTIOXIDANT STATUS OF QUAIL PROGENY

Saad Al-Nuaimmi; Saeb. Y. Abdul–Rahman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 131-138
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161375

This study was carried out to know ability of Fenugreek seeds and Methionine on some biochemical parameters and both fertility & hatching aspects as well as GSH & MDA tissues levels in hatching quails were coming from eggs treatment with antioxidant materials noted above. The hatching birds reared on the universal basal diet and tap drinking water till 6th weeks age , each group reared alone depending on main group. The obtained results showed that the birds are coming from treated eggs with H2O2 suffering from deterioration in both fertility & hatching ratios as represented by (P ≤ 0.05) significant increase in embryonic mortality from fertilized eggs ratio, AST & ALT enzymes activities, Corticosterone hormone concentration (CS) and MDA tissues levels of pancreas & kidney and decrease in the fertilized & hatching eggs ratios comparing with control group. Fenugreek seeds & Methionine alone or with H2O2 Treatments caused a significant decrease in embryonic mortality from fertilized eggs ratio and significant increase in the  fertilized & hatching eggs ratios and GSH tissues levels of (Heart  , Liver , pancreas , kidney and ovary) comparing with H2O2 group. as well as Fenugreek seeds Treatment caused a significant increase in hatching eggs from fertilized eggs while embryonic mortality from fertilized eggs ratio was decreased significantly comparing with all the treatments as well as ALT enzyme  activity and MDA ovary tissue was decreased comparing with control group. All the treatments caused an elevation in ALT enzyme activity while AST activity decreased in both Fenugreek seeds & Methionine with H2O2 Treatments comparing with control group. Methionine Treatment caused a significant increase in Corticosterone hormone concentration (CS) comparing with all the treatments as well as in MDA tissues level comparing with control group. The results represented indicates to the ability of antioxidant materials and their roles to enhance preservative and improvement of some biochemical parameters and both fertility & hatching aspects as well as antioxidants status in hatching birds.                         

EFFECT OF GENETIC GROUP AND OIL SOURCE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LAYING QUAIL

M. AL-Neemy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 139-150
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161376

This study was conducted to evaluate the productive performance (Production period) of three genetic groups different with feather color White , Black and Desert when fed three diets with 3% from different oil sources compared with control diet (T1) namely: sunflower oil (T2) , vegetable fat (T3) and animal grease (T4). Two hundred fifty two females , each genetic group 84 females of 7 weeks age were used and distributed randomly to four treatments with 3 replicates per each treatment and every replicate had 7 females. The birds were reared in cages to 12 weeks (the data of first 2 wks. Were as a preliminary period) with ad-libitum feeding. The results revealed that the genetic group with white feather had a significant effect in : average egg number , egg production H.D. , feed consumption , shell with membranes weight and yolk diameter , While the desert birds showed higher live body weight. Also, the oil source had significant effect on the performance as the sunflower oil diet showed a significant effect in: live body weight , average egg number , egg production H.D. , feed consumption , feed conversion and albumen weight. While , there were no significant effect on egg weight. The interaction between genetic group and oil source showed significant effect on all production traits except egg weight.

STUDY OF OXYTOCIN INJECTION EFFECT ON SOME SEMEN TRAITS AND LIBIDO IN TURKISH AND LOCAL AWASSI RAMS

Falah AL-Hassan; Muhammad N. Abdullah; NaderY. Abbo; Ghassan I. Abdullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 151-158
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161377

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This study was conducted at AL-Rashidia animal breeding station / Nenava researches department. 20 rams (10 Turkish Awassi and 10 local Awassi rams) were used, every genetic group divided into two groups: The first group (5 rams) are injected with 0.5 ml. normal saline (control group) and the second group (5 rams) were injected with 0.5 ml. oxytocin (10 IU/ml.). The results showed that there was no significant effect for genotype on all semen traits in Turkish and local Awassi rams, on the other hand the treated group was significantly better than control group in all semen traits except individual motility and abnormal sperm. There was no significant differences between the two genotypes in libido traits. The treated group was significantly better than control group in the time and number of jumps for first mating only. There was no significant effect for interaction in all studied traits except the Turkish rams in number of jumps without breeding for Turkish rams as compard with control and treated group.

EFFECT OF NAA, IBA AND MS STRENGTH IN ROOTING OF Bauhinia purpurea L. IN VITRO

Sumood Alhadeedy; Evet Adward Youhannan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 159-166
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161378

This study aimed to assess the effect of concentrations 0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 3.0 mg/l of each of IBA and NAA and MS Strength in shoot rooting of Purple camel's foot the plantlet produced from the buds in multiplication stage on MS with 3.0 mg/l BA or 2.0 mg/l TDZ. Rooting results using full strength MS medium showed that 0.75 mg/l IBA produced largest average of root numbers (15.55). Also the same concentration of IBA have similar effect on lengths of roots (38.88 cm). On the other hand the response of shoots for rooting in different concentration of NAA was high and the 2.0 mg/l concentration of NAA was significant for roots numbers averages (8.44). The MS medium with half strength was tested for rooting with addition same concentrations of IBA and NAA, So 1.5 mg\l IBA have highest numbers of roots (9.88) and longest roots trait (25.05 cm.). but 3.0 mg/l NAA was superior in comparison with all the other concentrations and have largest numbers for shoots with recorde (11.66), but 0.25 mg\l NAA gave highest roots (15.77). In this study it was possible to acclimatized the plant growing in tubes, plantlets were hardened gradually by removed the plantlets from the tubes washing them thoroughly with water to remove the residual agar from the roots, then planted in pots containing mixture of sand and petmous (1:1). and covered with light permeable plastic sheets with pores to inter air. percentage (80%) was achieved.

THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHLOROPHYLL CONTENT AND THE LEAVE FORAGE VALUE OF SOME FOREST TREES

Y. Alalousy; M. H. Younis

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 167-178
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161379

This study was conducted at Mosul university compus. The samples were collected from four species of forest trees)Ceratonia siliqua , Robinia pseudoacacia, Morus alba , Leucaena leucocyphala(in nine dates namely (1/4 , 1/5, 1/6, 1/7, 1/8 , 1/9, 1/10, 1/11, 1/12).The characters (Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B, Chlorophyll AB , dry matter , crude protein , crude fiber)were studied to find the correlation relationship percent between Chlorophyll quantity (A,B,AB) and percentage of (dry matter,crude protein , crude fiber) to create prediction equations for calculate these three characters. The study showed significant differences between species , dates and its interaction in all the studied characters. Leucaena leucocyphala trees significantly superiority in (Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll AB , crude protein and less quantity of crude fiber) characters, first date (1/4) was significantly superiority in(Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B, Chlorophyll AB, crude protein and less quantity of crude fiber). There were significantly correlation between dependent variables ((dry matter,crude protein , crude fiber) and independent variables (Chlorophyll A, Chlorophyll B, Chlorophyll AB) , through this strong correlation we created nine equations represent the relation between these dependent and independent variables. The best equation (Crude protein = 18.4656 - 17.9462*1/x3) to find crude protein percentage depending on overturnedtotal chlorophyll.

RESPONSE OF SEEDLINGS Biota oreintalis Endl TO ORGANIC MANURE (POW HUMUS) AND GIBBERELLIC ACID (GA3) SPRAYED ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH

Mudhafar Abdullah; Muhammed Hamid Muhammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 179-196
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161380

This study has been conducted at the nursery of Forestry Department , College of Agriculture and Forestry , Mosul University , Mosul , Iraq.from the beginning of march until the end of December , 2012. This study was to investigate the effect of concentrations of organic manure (zero , 1, 2 gm/l) and the concentrations Gibberellic Acid (zero , 20 ,40 mg/l) and sprayings occation (two and four) on the growth of Biota oreintalis Endl. seedlings. The following characters were studied: increase of growth length (cm), Stem diameter (mm), increase of number of branches per seedling , Main root length (cm) , Main root diameter (mm). So results can be summarized as follows:

The concentrations of organic manure effected significantly in all characters and concentration (1 gm / l) caused significant increase in all characters.
Spraying with (40 mg/l) of gibberellic acid caused significant increase in the average of characters.
The results showed that the best sprayings occation was (four times) for most characters in comparison with (two sprayings).
The interaction between concentration organic manure (1 gm /l) and concentration gibberellic acid (40 mg/l) effected significantly in characteristics.
The effect of interaction No.2 between concentration organic manure (1 gm /l) and sprayings times (four sprayings) caused significant increase in the average of the characters.
The effects of interaction with gibberellic acid (40 mg /l) and sprayings occation (four sprayings) effected significantly in all characters studiced.
The results of triple interaction between (concentration organic manure and concentration gibberellic acid and sprayings occation) interaction (1gm /l organic manure, 40 mg / l gibberellic acid and four sprayings) was superior in increase of growth length, Stem diameter, increase of number of branches , Main root length , Main root diameter.

CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SOME PHENOLIC AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS OF Populus nigra L. BARK GROWING IN NINAVAH PLANTATION

Talal Al-Takay

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 197-204
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161381

Separation of some phenolic and carboxylic acidsfrom the bark of Populus nigra L. trees was carried out. Sequence of solvents system extraction by two different polar solvents (Benzene and Ethanol 95%) was done by using the Soxhlet in order to prepare crude extract. HPLC was used for separation, identification and also determination of some phenolic and carboxylic acids and its percentages .The results showed a remarkable variation in the kind, number, percentage and the peak area (represented the concentration) of each separated  compound. Oxalic acid, Acetic acid, Acetylsalicylic acid and Cinnamic acid were identified. 

BILOLOGICAL STUDY OF JOHNSONGRASS (Sorghum halepense L.) RHIZOMES

T. Al-Hially

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 205-214
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161382

The experiment was conducted out under the conditions of the greenhouse at the Field of Crop Science, Mosul University on 2012. The aim of the research is to study the effect of length and diameter of Johnsongrass rhizomes planted at different densities on the regeneration and produce shoots and roots at the ends of both cutting rhizome. The study included three factors, rhizome diameter < 4mm and < 3mm, number of buds on the rhizome cutting i.e (1, 2, 3 buds) and the third factor was planting densities at (2, 4, 8) rhizome segments in each pot. The experiment was set out as factorial system using complete randomized design with three replicates. The results clearly showed that none of the segments of one bud and with <3mm diameter and whether they were planted at densities of 2 or 4 cuttings were survived and the chances of survival segments were found to be proportional to their initial length up to 6 cm and diameter up to < 4mm in which the percentage of survival increased to 80%. Moreover it was observed that increasing the levels of the three factors led to a significant increase in the mean of plant height, number of leaves, the dry weight of leaves and roots

EFFECT OF SPRAYING OF NEW HERBICIDE CHALLENGE IN DIFFERENT CONCENTRRATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF Cicer arietinuml AND ACCOMPANYING WEEDS IN NORTH OF IRAQ

Salim Antar; Ammar. S. Salim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 215-234
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161383

The experiment was carried out in an agricultural seasons (2011-2012) at two locations: Baasheka 25 km sowthren east mosul and Alkosh 30 km northern east mosul . The study was included two factors spraying time (pre and post emergence) and concentration of challenge herbicide (zero, 500, 750 and 1000 ml/h-1). The data were analysed according th the RCBD using Duncan test to compare between the treatments. Chickpea were planting at tow locations(Kab variety) at level of 15 kg /donum, with spraying challenge herbicide post emergence at 18 and 21 /4/2011 There was no significant different the tow locations for No. of narrow leaves, DW of narrow leaves and height of plants,At Basheka location. The No of broad leaves, DW of broad leaves No of nodes had a significant high values reach upto 49.6, 83.25 and 5.95 % as compared with Alkosh location. Wheares the weight of total yield and biological yield were significant higher at Alkosh location 4.68, 23.13 % respectively. The spring pre emergence superior in No. and DW of broad leaves 39.32 and 48.18 % for both parameters respectively. There were no significant effect for time of spraying for all other characters. The dose 750 ml/h-1 superior in decreasing of No and DW of narrow leaves, while all other doses were suprire in No and DW of broad leaves compared with the control. All doses a gave a significant increase in yield grain compared with control treatment.

RESPONSE OF TWO SPECIES OF ATRIPLEX TO DIFFERENT SOWING DATES OF NORTHEN IRAQ

K. Kasim; M. J. AbDul Rahman; Younis H. Kasim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 235-242
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161384

This study was conducted at Al-Rasheedia Research Station 5 Km North of Mosul city in plastic pot and placed under natural conditions and watered for the two consecutive growing seasons 2008/2009 and 2009/2010 to study the effect of five sowing dates (1st November. 15th November. 1st December. 15th December. 1st January) on two species of Atriplex; Atriplex halimus and Atriplex lentiformis. The data was analyzed as a factorial experiment in a completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six replicates. Results showed significantly superiority of the first date of sowing 1st November on other dates. Height of plant. root depth and root diameter for the two growing seasons 2008/2009 and 2009/2010. Also on the dry weight of leaves. stems. roots and plant for the two growing seasons. High values were recorded under the first date of sowing 1st November but the low values were recorded under the last date of sowing 1st January for all characters. Also. the results showed significantly superiority of Atriplex halimus on Atriplex lentiformis for all characters under study. There was a significant interaction between the two growing seasons in height of plant. root depth. root diameter and plant dry weight

EFFECT OF SOME ARTIFICIAL AND ALCOHOLIC SWEETENERS ON LIPID PROFILE AND BLOOD SUGAR IN GROWING RATS

M. Ayed; Basmaa S. Sheet; Omer Fawzi Abdulaziz

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 243-250
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161385

This study was designed to determine the impact of some artificial and alcoholicsweeteners (sucralose, T1, rebaudioside-A, T2 , xylitol ,T3 , and sorbitol, T4) on the level of some lipids and blood sugar in growing rats. The results showed a significant positive effect at (p≤0.05) on total cholesterol (TC) in serum in rats given sorbitol (T4) and xylitol (T3) which were 22.67 and 24.83 mg /dl respectively, compared with blank control (T *) and sucrose control (T0) (32.67 and 30.17 mg /dl). No significant decrease was noticed in triglycerides (TG) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) values in T4, T3, T2 and T1 treatments (40.83 and 8.17, 41.33 and 8.27, 47.33 and 9.47 and 48.50 and 9.75 mg/dl respectively), compared with T *(61.66 and 12.33) and T0 (52.50 and 10.50 mg /dl). A significant decrease in blood sugar in the rats given sucralose, rebaudioside-A , xylitol and sorbitol (97.00, 103.83 , 119.00 and 119.17 mg /dl respectively), while in blank control (T *) and sucrose control (T0) blood sugar found to be 129.83 and 143.00 mg/dl respectively. It was concluded that the artificial and alcoholic sweeteners, which used, play a positive role in reducing the level of blood lipids and blood sugar in rats.  

EFFECT OF SHEARING ON SAME PROPERTIES OF MILK FAT

Mowafak Ali; Abdullah A. Nafaa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 251-260
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161386

This study was performed to investigate the effect of shearing on viscosity, density, fat thickness and stability, acid degree value(ADV), peroxide number and cholesterol content in whole milk.The effect of shearing resulted from cream separation and butter cheering in cholesterol content, acid degree value and peroxide number in cream, butter, skim milk and butter milk. The results showed that the milk shearing resulted lower viscosity, density, fat thickness stability and cholesterol content, and higher in acid degree value and peroxide number. The effect of shearing on cream and butter, the result showed higher content in cholesterol content, acid degree value and peroxide number, comported to the lowest in skim milk and butter milk at 5, 25, 50°c.       

EFFECT OF STORAGE PERIODS AND INFECTION LEVELS OF KHAPRA BEETLE ON SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME WHEAT VARIETIES

Nashwa Soleman; Emad Q. Al-Ebady

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 261-270
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161387

Result of studing the effect of three varieties of Wheat Eba 95 , Eba 99 , Sham 6 and three storage periods 2 , 4 , 6 months and three infection levels 10 , 20 , 30 larva of Khapra beetle showed variation varieties for susceptibility to Khapra beetle , the higher average of population density reached 430.9 larva for Eba 95 , the lowest average reached 209.9 larva for Sham 6 , the storage period showed a significant effect to the average of larva. for the varieties reached 31.2 , 541.9 , 326.3 larva respectively , there is positive relation between the increase of population density and infection levels reached 244.9 , 264.9 , 389.6 larva respectively. The study showed variation at the varieties for the insect average rate of increase it were 13.7 , 22.5 , 12.7 larva respectively , the storage period showed significant effect for insect average rate of increase it reached at 4 months storage period 28.3 larva , the infection levels showed variation for insect average rate of increase at level 10 larva it reached 23.5 larva , the influence of variety for the loss of food weight , Sham 6 showed a higher resistant for larva that the other varieties it reached 9.5 , 11.9 , 12.9 gm respectively. Increasing the period of storage increase the loss of food weight it reached 1.98 , 15.48 , 16.99 gm respectively the highest loss of food weight reached 14.4 gm at the level so larva. The Sham 6 variety showed higher resistant for average loss of food weight per larva , the storage period showed variation at average loss of food weight per larva it reached 13 , 4 , 7 gm respectively. the infection level have no significant effect on loss on food weight per larva it reached 7 , 8 , 9 gm respectively.

THE CONTROL OF Grapevine fanleaf virus VICTOR Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen. 1950

Firas Al Juboori,; , N. A. Qassem; i, M. Al-Maadhed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 271-282
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161388

The ectoparasitic nematode Xiphinema index Thorne and Allen is economically important in grapes Vitis vinifera L., both as a root parasite and as a vector for grapevine fan leaf virus (GFLV). The control of GFLV vector is one of the main strategies of the disease management. The using of nematicides and soil amendments is one of traditional methods for nematode controlling. The objective of this research was to evaluate the nematicidal effect of the nematicide Vyox, poultry manure and salicylic acid for controlling Xiphinema index on grapevines. The nematicidal was evaluated determining the nematode population densities in 200 ml of soil. The results revealed that both of nematicide Vyox and poultry manure have a significant activity against X. index 15.6 and 162.4 respectively compare to the positive control 557.4 nematode/200ml soil. The best results were obtained from the combination between nematicide Vyox, poultry manure and salicylic acid which significantly reduced X. index populations (P<0.05)  compare to the single treatments and positive control.

SCREENING OF EIGHT OLIVE CULTIVARS TO KNOT DISEASE

Ali Al-Taae; Ameena Ibrahim Salih Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 283-294
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161389

A Field survey conducted in 2012 revealed the occurrence of olive knot disease in Nineveh Province. The highest infection rate and infection degree were 29% and 1.8 degree respectively in Al-Fadhiliya, while the lowest infection rate was 8.4% in Barima and lowest infection degree was 0.8 in Al-Shallallat. As for all the scanned areas in the province we observe that an average percentage of  infection rate was 15.08% and infection degree was 1.2. Isolation and diagnosis of olive knot disease in Al-Fadhiliya resulted in that a single pure bacterial colonies caused by (Pss) bacteria. Pathogenicity test results on Baashiqi cultivar  of olive trees cuttings revealed detection of knots. Screening of eight olive cultivars  showed the variance of these cultivars  in number and diameter of the knots in the first and second readings. The most susceptible cultivars were (Baashiqi, Manzilino, Arbequina and Ashrasi) the infection rate were (2.33, 2.30, 2.12, 2.10, 3.17, 2.90, 2.86, 2.83) respectively. These cultivars did not differ significantly. The less affected cultivars in the number of knots was (Sourani) where the infection rate was 0.70 and 1.00 knots, compared to (Khodeiri) type that showed no infection in both first and second readings. The disease affect in the knot diameter average showed that (Manzilino) was the most  susceptible, because of developed knots to 10.19 and 12.41 mm for both readings respectively. Followed by (Baashiqi) 9.10 and 11.10 mm for both readings. The less average of knot diameter was (Sourani) cultivar  share rate was 3.65 and 4.06 mm respectively both readings..

EFFECT OF BREED, BODY CONDITION SCORE AND AGE ON SOME ECONOMIC TRAITS OF LOCAL FLOCKS EWES

Salim Raoof

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 295-302
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161359

This study aimed to estimate the effect of breed, Body Condition Score (BCS) and age on some economic traitsof local flock’s ewes. The ewes studied in the present investigation represent three local breeds (53 karadi, 44 Awassi and 47 Mamesh) bred in Erbil plain during the period from January/ 2009 to June /2010.The results showed a highly significant breed effect (p <0.01) on all the studied traits. Mamesh ewes surpassed both Karadi and Awassi ewes in milk yield (102.269, 88.254 and 92.684 kg), respectively, besides the lambs of the same breed were superior in birth weight (4.885kg) and weaning weight (27.612kg) compared with karadi and Awassi lambs. Greasy fleece weights of the Karadi, Awassi and Mamesh ewes were 2.220, 1.829 and 2.585kg respectively. The superiority of Mamesh ewes were found to be highly significant (p <0.01). The study also revealed that the (BCS) exerts an important effect on milk yield, greasy fleece weight and birth weight. Ewes with (BCS) 4 showed a higher milk yield (102.883kg) as comparing with ewes having (BCS) 3(95.083kg) and that having (BCS) 2 (86.391kg) .Correlation coefficient highly significant (p <0.01) between birth weight and milk yield was 0.32and between birth weight and weaning weight was 0.38and between ewes body weight and greasy fleece weight was 0.43.

OCCURRENCE OF Diphyllobothriasis IN HUMAN FROM KURDISTAN REGION, IRAQ.

Karwan Al-Marjan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 303-308
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161360

A man of 42 yare, from Merga -Sur village (135km to the northwest of Erbil city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq) was complaining of the presence a small white fragments in his stool. Morphological examination of these piceces, macroscopically and confirmed that the patient was affected with the broad fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum which is causediphyllobothriasis. He was treated with antihelminthes (praziquantel, 10mg / Kg single dose) in the hospital.

INHERITANCE OF SOME QUANTITATIVE CHARACTERS IN BREAD WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.)

Ali Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 309-320
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161361

In this experiment, the means of the six populations (P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2) of each of two bread wheat crosses; Mexipak × Acsad- 8 and Ipa- 99 × Attla were used to estimate gene effects, component of variance and heterosis for some quantitative traits viz: Plant height, days to heading, flag leaf area, spike length, spikes/plant, grains no./spike, biomass yield/plant, grain yield/plant and harvest index. These generations were produced during two growing seasons, 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. The generations were grown in a Randomized Complete Block Design with six replications at the Research Field of the College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University, Erbil, Iraq. Genetic analysis was performed using the joint scaling test based on three and six parameter models. The results revealed that inheritance of the traits could not be explained by additive-dominance model. Additive and dominance gene effects were significant for most traits in both crosses due to different origins of the parents. The values of (dominance × dominance) were greater than (additive × additive) and (additive × dominance) of most studied traits in both crosses in addition to greater values of dominance gene effect than the additive in most traits. It was suggested that selection all of them should be effective in advanced segregating generations due to epistatic gene effects. High narrow and broad sense heritability (0.94) was obtained for flag leaf area in Mexipak × Acsad- 8 cross, while high narrow sense heritability (0.86) and high broad sense heritability (0.98) were obtained for spike length and flag leaf area in Ipa- 99 × Attla, so the early generation testing and selection might be recommended for these traits. Heterosis was found to be positive for most traits in both crosses.

MILK CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF MERIZE (Capra abegar sp.) AND MILK CONSTITUENTS DISTRIBUTION THROUGH LACTATING SEASON IN MOSUL AREA AND THE EFFECT OF MOTHER AGE ON IT

Khalid Sharaf; Mowaffak Y. Hamdoon; Adnan I. Abou

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 321-330
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161362

Eighty Hundred individual's morning and evening milk samples were collected from sixteen Iraqi merize goat mothers for five weeks (35 days) milking and lactating period at spring season with climate temperature ranged between 14-23°C. Milk samples were analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, total solids (TS), and solid nonfat (SNF) percentages, and pH value. The general average of merize goat's milk composition were 3.91, 3.39, 4.60 , 85.52, 8.84, and 12.81% for fat, protein, lactose, water, SNF, and TS respectively. While the pH value was 6.73 at milking time. Those milk chemicals constituents were affected by the Merize goat age. Which affect all the milk chemical constituents, while the pH value was not affected with the goat's age. The fat and lactose of goat's milk distribution along the lactating period were elevated from the first week to the maximal values 4.95 and 4.73% respectively in the second and third weeks for fat and lactose alternatively, and then declined to the minimum values 3.31 and4.44% respectively at the fifth week of lactating period. While the milk water content was adversely proportional to the protein, SNF, and TS percentages. The water percent elevated from the minimum value 83.10% in the first week to the maximum value 87.25% in the fifth week, while the protein, SNF and TS were declined from the maximum values 3.78, 9.38, and 14.16% respectively in the first week to the minimum values 3.25, 8.42, and 11.20% respectively in the fifth week. The milk pH distribution value was elevated from 6.71 in the first to the maximum value 6.78 at the third week then declined to the minimum value 6.66 at the fifth week along the studied lactating period.

HISTOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL STUDY IN MICE EXPERIMENTALLY INFECTED WITH TOXOPLASMA GONDII AND EXPOSED TO AFLATOXIN

Zakaria Zakaria

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 4, Pages 331-345
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161363

This study was conducted for examine the histological effects of aflatoxin and Toxoplasma gondii on some organs like liver, heart, kidney and brain in mice. Were , mice divided into six equal groups; group 1 (untreated control), group 2 were injected intraperitonealy with T. gondii tissue cysts, group 3 fed diets contaminated with 0.5 ppm of aflatoxin, group 4 were fed diets contaminated with 1 ppm aflatoxin, group 5 were fed 0.5 ppm of aflatoxin and injected with T. gondii cysts and group 6 were fed 1 ppm aflatoxin with injected T. gondii tissue cysts. The experiment maintained for 40 days.
At the end of the experiment, histological changes were increased specially at groups 5 and 6 including necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration, there are significantly increased in the level of MDA and significantly decrease of GSH level in liver tissue specially in groups (2) and (4) as compared with group (1) normal healthy control.