Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 45, Issue 3

Volume 45, Issue 3, Autumn 2017


SELF ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE NEEDS FOR FARMERS IN TALKAIF DISTRICT / NINEVAH GOVERNORATE OF SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE

Zahraa Albusso; Aamel.F. AL-Abbassi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161327

This study aimed at assessing knowledge needs in sustainable agriculture for farmers in Telkaif District/ Nineveh Governorate, and determining the correlation between these needs and some independent variables. Research population included all farmers of Tellkaif which are 3568 farmers. A random multi stages sample was chosen consists of 106 respondents. Data were collected through a questionnaire after testing its face validity, and alpha- cronbach was used to test the reliability which was 0.95. To analyze the data, the following statistical methods were used: arithmetic mean, spearman's rank correlation, person's correlation and multiple step – wise regression analyses. Results showed that the farmers have a great need of knowledge in sustainable agriculture, and that there were significant correlation between knowledge needs and the following variables: size of cultivated land, type of tenure, years of agricultural work,desire of newness, sources of agricultural information, while there was no significant correlation with level of education. Results also showed there are three variables contributed in interpreting 27,22% of the variation in knowledge needs, namely are: desire for newness, size of cultivated land, and sources of agricultural information.

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN THE KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ FOR TASKS IN THE AREAS OF PLANNING, IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION PROGRAMS

Hashim Murad; Bassam H. Azeez

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161328

The aim of this study was to determine of the implementation of agricultural extension workers in the Kurdistan region of Iraq for tasks in the areas of planning, implementation and evaluation of agricultural extension programs. Furthermore, the study of the factors that may be related of implementation by identifying correlation between implementation of agricultural extension workers as the following a independent factors: in accordance with the following independent factors: period of extension functional, specialization academic, career title, desire to work in agricultural extension, work full time and achievement motivation. Sample consisted of 105 responders their percentage is 51% of the total population. questionnaire was used to collect data for this study, and then were analyzed research data using several statistical methods including: weight percentile, the value of chi square, to find a correlation between personal and vocational characteristics of responders and their implementation of the tasks. The results showed that 95.239% of the responders were their implementation of tasks indicative medium to decrease, and the results show that there is a correlation in each of the following factors: period of extension functional, specialization academic, desire to work in agricultural extension work full time for indicative achievement motivation in the level 0.05, while The study revealed no significant correlation between the of implementation of tasks according to the title career in the level 0.01.

WHEAT IMPORTS REALITY IN SOME DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN THE LIGHT OF THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC GLOBALIZATION POLICES FOR THE PERIOD 1985-2010

Kays Gazal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161334

Globalization is considered one of the historical stages in which the Capital system is passing through and confirmed that the agricultures sector in advanced states had shared alot in securing the bases and necessary components to achieve high rates in economic growth. Most of these countries had adopted various strategies which led to the emergence of untraditional agricultural sector in these countries with high productive characteristics and conant rated huge surpluses of agricultural and strategic products especially the product of wheat, this created economic effects favorable to the exporters in advanced countries and unfavorable to the importers of this product in developing countries. This study depended upon hypothesis which says that the existence of anumber of economic factors are variant in their effects in imported quantities of that product in some developing countries in the light of the effect of economic globalization policies with its economic structure nature and the efficiency of systems in dealing with globalization policies. We had chosen six developing countries: Egypt, Jordan, Morocco, Thailan, Tunisia and Turkey. In this sample, we depended upon time series data in estimating the phenomenon of topic research for each country separately for it reflects the changes in imported quantities. In order to reach the best results, standard example had been applied with four forms: namely: the linear form, the double logarithmic, Semi-Logarithmic and the opposite we had reached a number of  conclusion and the most important was the sharing in globalization policies in directing the largest part of local and foreign investments towards non agricultural sectors and this led to the decrease of product quantities of wheat product with reflected its effect in increasing the imported quantities of that product.

DETERMINANTS OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND AND PRICES FOR SOME MAJOR CROPS IN GLOBAL MARKETS FOR THE PERIOD (1990-2010)

Lora AI-Saor; Salim Y. Sultain AI-Niaamy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 33-40
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161335

Supply and demand analysis is of a great importance in economic studies, especially the supply and demand of grain crops strategy in the global market because of its close link themes of food security and strategic stocks, and prices play an important role in influencing the volume of production, consumption and distribution in the structure of economic communities. This research adopted on analysis quantitative and economic method to achieve the objectives. The analysis has found that the trend overall time for each of the rate of growth of production and consumption has taken a growing trend rate (35.8) and (29.2) million tons, respectively. The results showed significant variables acreage and technological development in the influence function display World cereal and by (86.3%) of the total changes, as shown by significant variable size of the population only in function of global demand and by (89.6%) of the total changes, either for variables of global supply and global demand for grain only noon legal entities in their impact on the function world prices. The study  reached at a set of findings and recommendations. 

EFFECT OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF PRO.SOL NUTRIENT SOLUTION AND LIQUORICE EXTRACT ON GROWTH AND FLOWERING OF GERANIUM ( Pelargonium zonale L.)

Zahraa Naser; Jamal Ahmed Abbass

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 41-51
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161336

An Experiment was conducted during growing 1/7/2010 until 30/5/2011. in a private nursery at Hilla governorate (Jannata Ahlam), to study the effect of foliar application of PRO.SOL nutrient solution and Liquorice extract on growth and flowering of Geranium (Pelargonium zonale L). Cultivar Hans Rigler.was experiment included test of three concentrations of Nutrient Solution PRO.SOL (0.0,1.0 and 1.5) g.L­¹ and three concentrations of Liquorice Extract (0,1.5 and 3.0)g.L­¹. The Experiment conducted as a Factorial Experiment Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D).Duncans Multiple Range test was used at probability of 0.05 to compare means. Results revealed that the interaction between Nutrient Solution of PRO.SOL at concentration of (1.5) g.L­¹ and Liquorice Extract concentration of (3.0) g.L­¹ significantly increased in this parameters ( leaf area, leaf contents of total chlorophyll, total carbohydrate solubility, leaf content of nitrogen, phosphorus, zinc, number florets.plant­­¹, dry weight of florets and content flowers of anthocyanin by increasing percentage 35%, 25%, 19%, 15%, 71%, 44%, 48% and 27%, 31% and 32% and 46% and 41% for two period first and second respectively, Meanwhile, result revealed that the interaction between Nutrient Solution PRO.SOL at concentration of (1.5) g.L­­¹ and Liquorice Extract concentration of (1.5) g.L­­¹ significantly increased total branch number and shoot dry weight by increasing percentage 20% and 18% as compared to least values in the control treatment.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FERTILIZER LEVELS OF (CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC) ON THE YIELD OF THYME ( Thymus vulgaris )

Abdul Jabbar Al-Hubaity; Mohammed D. AL-Sawaf; Mothafer A. AL-Mosuly

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 53-60
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.161337

The Thyme transplants were grown in pots containing 3 Kg. weight of sandy soil in the greenhouse, to study six fertilizer treatments (Chemical + Organic) as follows: (0.0% + 100%), (25% + 75%), (50% + 50%), (75% + 25%), (100% + 0.0%), (0.0% + 0.0%), Sheep manure was applied as a source of organic fertilizer in addition to the available chemical fertilizer. At the end of the experiment the following traits were measured plant height (cm), fresh and dry weight of the vegetative growth (gm), number of branches, % of flowering plants and chlorophyll %, N%, P%, K%, of the vegetative growth, in addition to the physical properties of oil viz., oil %, density of oil mg/ml, specific gravity and refractive index. The results revealed that the second and forth treatments (Chemical + Organic) (25% + 75%), (75% + 25%) were the best in most traits, whereas, the first treatment (0.0% + 100%) was superior in oil %, while the third treatment  (50% + 50%) was distinguished in the physical properties of oil viz., density of oil, specific gravity and refraction index.

RESPONSE OF LOCAL ORANGE SEEDLINGS (Citrus sinensis L.) TO BUDDING DATE AND FOLIAR SPRAYING OF PROSOL FERTILIZE ON SUCCESS BUDDING PERCENTAGE AND VEGETATIVE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS

Nadhem Al- Kayssi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 61-70
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161338

The present study was carried out in lath House /Horticultural Department /College of Agriculture / Tikrit university during 2008-2009 season. The aim was to study five budding dates (16/7, 6/8, 26 /8, 16/9, 16 /10)on sour orange root stock and foliar nutrition (Brossol)(Zero,2 gm/L.Brossol / month) on sweet orange to know the effect on percentage of budding success and all studied vegetative characteristics..The treatments were factarially combing randomized complete block design (R.C.B.D.) replicated four times. The results could be summarized as follow: Budding date shows significant effect on the percentage of budding success. The budding time 26/8 significantly increased budding success percentage (% 80.00) vegetative length growth, number lateral branches, dimeter scion, grith dimeter root stock (grith)and gave nonsignificant increased in leaves number (100.99 cm. / plant), 4.65 branch /plant, 12.05 mm. /plant, 14.99 mm. / plant, 94.80 leaf/ plant.The Nutrition solution effect non significant and increased in stem length, shoot length scion, and effect significant increased in leaves number and root stock grith. % 87.35 cm./plant, 3.99 branch / plant, 9.83 mm. /plant,94.20leaf/ plant and 13.29 mm./ plant.The treatment interaction shows as significant effect where budding date. Nutrition solution on all the vegetative characteristics studied. stem length107.52cm / plant, branch length 5.15 branch / plant, leaves number 122.54 leaf / plant, scion grith 12.70 mm.and root stock grith 15.60 mm.

EFFECT OF SPRAYING WITH BENZYL ADENINE, GIBBERELLIC ACID AND FOLIAGE FERTILIZER WITH SOME MICRONUTRIENTS ON SOME VEGETATIVE CHARACTES AND SEED YIELD OF FUNGREEK PLANT Trigonella foenum-gracum L.

Gihan Saleh; Ammar Omer Al-Atrakchii

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 71-82
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161339

This experiment was carried out in the College of Agriculture and Forestry farm, (Sada and Baweza) location for the first and second seasons respectively, from 5 November 2009 to 19 May 2011, on Trigonella foenum-graecum L. localvarity, to study the effect of Benzyl adenine, Gibberellic acid and micronutrients mixture at for three levels by spraying twice on vegetative growth for all factors studied interval The Factorial Experiment within Split Split plot in Randomized Complete Black Design. The results can be summarizes Plants sprayed with BA at 200 mg/L superiority in shoots, bud number and total seeds yield compared with control. spraying plants with GA3 30 mg/L caused a significant increase in shoots and bods number and total seeds yield compared with the control for two seasons respectively. While spraying plant with 2 level of micronutrients mixture caused significantly to increase shoots, pods number and total seeds yield for second season. Finally, the largest significant value recorded for total seeds yield when plants sprayed with 100 mg BA /L plus 30 GA3mg/L and 2 level of micronutrients mixture 2053.2 kg/ha, so when treated with 200 mg BA /L with 30 mg GA3/L and any level of micronutrients mixturefor shoots and bods number.

EFFECT OF ZINK AND BORON FOLIAR APPLICATION ON SOME NUTRIENTS CONTENT OF SUGER BEET PLANT Beta Vulgaris L.

Wheeda Al-Badrani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 83-96
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161340

The use of higher levels of boron and zinc fertilizer by spray to the leaves of sugar beet and their interactions caused a significant effect on yield quantity by increasing the total yield, weight per one root , and content roots of elements nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and boron In both location study. The effect of the interaction of boron and zinc at higher concentration was more significant than each factor alone. Boron and zinc fertilizer treatment with 10 ppm Boron and 10 ppm Zinc gave an increase in each of the characterize at two locations. Higher response to fertilizer B and /or Zn application was found in the Aridsols soil of second location compared  with first location Entisols, in the root yield quantity and content roots of elements (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and boron of sugar beet. Again the fertilizer efficiency and inter needed of the elements were higher in Aridisols soil compared with Entisols soil at all levels of added Zinc and boron fertilizers. Also the fertilizer efficiency and inter needed of the elements were higher in Aridisols soil compared with soil of Entisols at all levels of added Zinc and boron fertilizer sprayed.

RESPONSE OF SNAPDRAGON PLANTS Anterhinum majus TO PINCHING, SPRAYING WITH CALCIUM AND BORON

Ammar AL-Atrakchii; Hala Abdel-Rahman; Asmaa Mohammed Adil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 97-108
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161341

This experiment was conducted in the field of Horticulture and Landscape Design Department, College of Agriculture and Forestry/ Mosul University, at the period from February to July / 2011 on Snapdragon plant Antirrhinum magus cv. Potomac cool. To study the effect of pinching the main stem, spraying with Calcium chloride at concentration 0 and 30 mg/L, and boron at concentration 0, 30 and 60 mg/L of boric acid by using factorial experiment within split plot in randomized complete block design with three replicates by 5 plants for each replicate. Results showed that pinching caused a significant increase of shoots, leave and inflorescence number and the number of florets in inflorescence, in addition to dry weight of plant. While spraying plant with calcium chloride at 300 mg/L caused a significant increase in shoots, leave and inflorescence number in addition to dry weight and calcium percentage. Spraying plants with boron at 30 and 60 mg/L gave a significantly best result of leave number, inflorescence length and plants dry weight. On the other hand, best results obtained from the plants pinched, sprayed with 300 mg/L.of calcium and 60 mg/L boron for plant height 43.50 cm shoot number 14.00 flowering shoots 13.33 and floret number in inflorescence 136.00 floret.

EFFECT OF ORGANIC CONDITIONERS ON POTASSIUM INTENSITY- QUANTITY RELATIONSHIPS IN CALCAREOUS SOILS / NORTHERN IRAQ

Rana allAlabdy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 109-124
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161342

Fertility status of some calcareous soil in Nineveh governorate North Iraq. were evalued studying K buffering capacity using Beckett method. The thermodynamic parameter included intensity factor, (DK) amount of adsorbed K as quantity factor
(PBCK) and free energy (-∆G), The results showed (ARKe) ranged between 28-353 (mole.L-1) and 71-355 (mole.L-1)- 1/2without and with the addition of sulfur respectively. The results for K- desorption ranged 102-28 (mole.L-1)-1/2 and 112-68 (mole.L-1)-1/2 for the some trend mentioned. potassium potential Buffering Capacity (PBCK) were ranged between (201-31),(236-1483) after adsorption experiment and (239 -169), (146-2469) C. mole.K (mole.L)-1/2 after desorption experiment for treatment, without and with sulfur respectively. The results free for  energy of potassium replacement ranged between (-3480,-3342), and (-3339,-4292),(-4066 -3480) and (-4022, -2954) Cal.mole-1 for potassium adsorption and desorption after sulfur application respectively. The result showed sulfur has a significant increasing on potassium availiabity parameter. Accordingly, the study revealed that sulfur has a singifant effect on K availabity.

ABILITY OF GROUND WATER IN PRECIPITATION DISSOLUTION MINERAL SALTS IN RELATION TO GEOLOGICAL FORMATION IN NINEVEH PROVENCE

A. Alhadede; M. A. Aljubory; M. A. J. Alobaddy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 125-138
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161343

This study was conducted by using the chemical analysis of soluble ions data from nine ground water wells of Nineveh Provence to study their tendency for precipitation and dissolution of associated minerals by using Geo-Chemo equilibrium program Visual MinteqA2 to calculate the saturation index values for predicted associated minerals. The results of the output of geo – chemo program showed a different tendency of these water in dissolution / precipitation of salts minerals with location, also the sulfate water at Hamam Al-Alil has a high quality in these different minerals like (calcite, order and disorder dolomite, aragonite, vaterite, and gypsum). While the well waters at shykan and fadlia were less ability to precipitate only (order dolomite). The results were correlated with the geological formation at these locations , the results show that was high content of salt minerals as calcite and gypsum within fatha formation at Hamam Al-Alil, while there are increasing in clastic and carbonate minerals inconstract  the salts minerals at shykan and kadia locations.                   

EFFECT OF WATER IONIC STRENGTH ON CALCIUM AND MAGNESIUM DESORPTION FROM SOME CALCAREOUS SOILS IN NINEVEH PROVINCE

M. Al-Obaidi; H. M. Ahmed; M. T. S. Khalil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 139-148
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161344

A laboratory study was conducted to determine desorption behavior of Ca+2 and Mg+2 from of solid phase and dissolution of their holding minerals by using quiet water flow of different ionic strength and SAR constructed by miscible displacement technique via two Aridisols disturbed soil columns sampled from Fadhlia and Hamdania locations in Nineveh province northern of Iraq for 10 irrigation cycles elongated for 240 minute, and also to determine Ca+2&Mg+2 and desorption coefficient rates at 298˚ Kelvin. Results referred two desorption process pathways. First denoted to contributing of exchangeable phase in desorption process and enrichment of soil solution with a highly desorption rate. Second stage denotes to dissolution of minerals holding Ca+2&Mg+2 which supply soil solution for long period by water ionic strength action in presence of in common ion. Parabolic diffusion and power function models appeared high significant of desorption process. Water of high ionic strength 11.2×10-5 mole.L-1 gave highest desorption capacity 456.4 c.mole.kg-1 in comparison with that of low ionic strength 1.12×10-5 mole.L-1 24.9 c.mole.kg-1. Highest desorption coefficient rate 35.51 mg. kg-1.mint in Fadhlia location for water of high ionic strength while it reduced to 2.225 mg. kg-1.mint for low water ionic strength. Desorption coefficient rate in Fadhlia was higher than that in Hamdania location due to difference of waters ionic strength.

EFFECT OF WATER IONIC STRENGTH ON SODIUM DESORPTION FOR SOME CALCAREOUS SOILS IN NINEVEH PROVINCE

H. Ahmed; M. A. J. Al-Obaidi; M. T. S. Khalil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 149-158
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161345

A laboratory study was conducted to determine sodium desorption behavior from exchange positions of soil solid phase because of a quiet water flow. Using sulfuric water collected from a sulfuric spring and a chlorine water from Tigris river. The flow was through two disturbed soil columns. Soils were sampled from Fadhlia and Hamdania locations in Nineveh province/ northern Iraq. Waters flow were persisted for 240 minutes with 4 cm highness over soils surface was maintained. Leachates were collected every 10 minutes for a total ten extracts which analyzed for Na+. Three mathematical kinetic description were considered as an accumulative soluble Na+, Na+ expressed by SAR and ESP concepts , sequences as parabolic diffusion, zero order, 1st order, Elovitch and power function (poly ordered) models were applied. Mathematical descriptions revealed succession of 1st order and power function models. Na+ desorption coefficient rate values by 1st order model were ranged from 96 ×10-3 - 185 × 10-3 minute for chlorine water, for sulfuric water were from 10 ×10-3 - 34×10-3 minute for both locations respectively, while desorption coefficient rate values according to power function model were 686 ×10-3 , 683×10-3 , 634×10-3 mg.kg-1.min..-1 respectively. Results referred also that Na+ desorption coefficient rate values was proportionally increased with waters ionic strength.

EFFECT OF ADDED FAT SOURCES IN GROWING RATIONS IN SOME PRODUCTIVE TRIATS OF WHITE QUIAL

Thaeer Abul-Baki

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 159-168
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161346

This experiment was conducted on 120 white quails during 4-6 weeks of age which were divided into 4 treatments with 3 replicates (10 birds in each replicate).The experimental treatments were  T1 (control group) reared on standard ration without adding fat، while the treatments T2،T3 and T4 were feed the standard rations with adding 3% of vegetable oil، vegetable hydrolyzed fat and animal tallow respectively. Results showed that  there was a significant increase (p≤0.05) in body weight، body gain in T4. While there were no significant differences in relative growth rate for all treatments except in fifth week، where the third treatment was better than second and fourth treatment but feed and protein consumption did not differ between all treatments. There were a significant improvement in feed conversion ratio and protein conversion ratio in  T4 treatment comparing with other treatments. The third treatment had best economic efficiency while the fourth treatment had the best production index.

EFFECT OF SINGLE- DOSE OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF BOILED CINNAMON EXTRACT ON GLUCOSE LEVEL AND LIPID PROFILE IN BLOOD SERUM OF WHITE MALE NEW ZEALAND RABBITS

Muntaha AL-Kattan; Zaid Shaker AL-Ani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 169-176
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161347

This study designed to determine the effect of  different levels boiled cinnamon 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg of body weight on the glucose level and lipid profile in blood serum of white male New eland rabbits after  six hours of drenching. Sixteen male rabbits aged 9-10 months had been divided into four groups.(4 rabbits  each). First group that considered as a control had been given a standard ration and drenched normal salin. While the others had been drenched boiled cinnamon extract 500, 1000, 2000 mg/kg body weight in addition to the standard ration. Blood had been taken directly after 6hs of drenched from the heart and biochemical tests had been accomplished. Result revealed that there was a significant decrease in the blood glucose level in rabbits drenched boiled cinnamon extracts compared with control group. And this decrease appeared  better in the fourth group that drenched 2000 mg/kg body weight boiled cinnamon extract on the probability level (P ≥ 0.05). While lipid profile of blood showed a significant decrease in cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins, and very low density lipoproteins. In  contrast to the high density lipoproteins that show a significant increase in the three boiled cinnamon extract drenched groups compared with the control at portability (P ≥ 0.05).

HEAVY METALS IN BARK AND LEAVES OF TREES AS A BIOMONITOR FOR AIR POLLUTION IN MOSUL CITY

Ibrahim A.; F. K. Ammar,

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 177-192
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161348

This study was conducted in Mosul city to assess the level of atmospheric contamination by some of heavy metals (Mn , Zn , Cu , Pb , Fe), five plant species such as Pinusbrutia, Cupressussempervirens, Platanusoccidentalis, Populusnigra and Eucalyptus camaldulensis were selected to study their potential as biomonitor of trace elements, bark and leaves samples were taken through spring and autumn 2011 and from different regions (Ninevah plantation, roadsides, Hammam al Alil, and Cement factory), concentrations of heavy metals were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and the results showed that the concentrations of most of the heavy metals increased in the leaves and bark of roadside sample trees compared to the other locations, Also high concentrations of heavy metals found in spring's samples compared to the autumn samples also high correlation  found among most of these heavy metals. These results are important for the development of proper management strategies to decrease atmospheric pollutant by using forest trees. 

BULK PRECIPITATION AND THROUGHFALL QUALITY AT DIFFERENTS FOREST STANDS IN NINEVA GOVERNMENT

Ibrahim A.; F. K Ammar,

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 193-206
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161349

The present study investigates the chemical composition of wet atmospheric precipitation over Mosul city ,bulk precipitation and throughfall under five different stands (Pinus brutia, Cupressus sempervirens, Platanus occidentalis, Populus nigra and Eucalyptus camaldulensis) were collected through rainy events during 2011-2012. The concentrations of the chemical constituents of water soluble ions included some cations such as (Ca+2 , Mg+2 ,Na+1 , and K+1) and anions (HCO3-, SO4-2,and Cl- ) and five of heavy metals (Zn ,Cu , Fe , Mn , and Pb)Electrical conductivity and pH of rain water and throughfall were also Measured . Results of the present study showed that mean value of the precipitation pH indicates that rainfall was slightly acidic whereas throughfall was almost neutral , also the concentration of most cations , anions and heavy metals increased in throughfall compared to open area precipitation 

STUDY OF TAXONOMICAL AND IDENTIFICATION FROM SOME PHENOLIC FOR SOME PLANT SPECIES GROWING AT ATRUSH REGION NORTHERN IRAQ USING THIN LAYER TECHNIQUE

T. Al-Tikriti; Y. M Q. Al-Alousy; A. Y. S. Al-Naman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 207-222
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161350

This study was carried out in the laboratory of college of agriculture and forestry to identifying the phenolic compounds for twenty kinds of plants used in plant identification, The crude lipid free extract was prepared by using soxhlet and Petroleum ether and Ethanol as a solvent, Thin layer technique was used for determine phenolic compounds in the extract. The results showed the isolation of 27 phenol compounds including Salicylic acid, Vanillin, Catechol, Gallic acid,
p–Hydroxybenzoic acid Resorcenol, Coumarin, Phenol, Cinnamic acid, Rutin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Hydroquinone, Syringic acid, Ellagic acid, Myricetin, Apigenin, Ferulic acid, Lutelen, Catiechin, Afzelechin, Epiafzelechin) Esuliten, Apicathichin, Gallocatechin, Herniaren, Thymol) phenolic compounds between the species, Salicylic acid was the purulent.
The results were showed many differences in the number and rates of Salicylic acid, Vanillin, Catechol, Gallic acid, p – Hydroxybenzoic acid Resorcenol,, Coumarin, Phenol, Cinnamic acid, Rutin, Quercetin, Kaempferol, Hydroquinone, Syringic acid, Ellagic acid, Myricetin, Apigenin, Ferulic acid, Lutelen, Catiechin, Afzelechin, Epiafzelechin), Esuliten, Apicathichin, Gallocatechin, Herniaren, Thymol)
The result showed many differences in phenolic compounds in the Genus and between the species and semelirty of species in same Genus in some of phenolic compounds (Salicylic acid, Quercetin) were the purulent in Fabaceae family (Trifolium, Onobrychis) Genus, also the result showed differences between (Hordeum bulbosum, H. glaucum) in Poaceae family,some differences showed between (Quercus aegilops, Q. infectoria) in Fagaceae family,the result appeared many differences in kind and number and percentage of phenolic compounds between species in chemical compounds could be used as an indicator for plant identification                      

MODELS OF VARIOGRAM ANALYSIS FOR Pinus brutia TEN. IN ZAWITA FOREST

Muzahim Saeed; Ammar Jasim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 223-232
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161351

Pine is one of the prevalent trees in Zawita forest and a grows naturally on the mountain slopes, to study the competition and spatial analysis in a forest of Zawita, (13) samples were taken from areas of dimensions (60 X 60) m, to each samples measurements of trees and geographical coordinates of each tree and all trees were taken with in each sample. Variogram analysis show that the range of variogram out put for the basal area for all samples did not show any relation between basal area of trees and their locations, as well as, with crown area and with the interaction between them, except for some samples when were excluded the suppressed and medium trees from the variation between the variables. After that, the analysis of Variogram showed a significant correlation the stand variables. The coefficient of determination between the location and basal area, crown area, and their interaction were 0.619, 0.652, and 0.671 respectively.

ESTIMATION OF VARIANCE COMPONINTS , HERTIBILITY AND PATH ANALYSIS OF LENTIL GENOTYPES UNDER RAINFED CONDITIONS OF NINAVAHA GOVERNORETE

M. Al-Taweel; , A.Th Al-Niaymi; , M.M Salah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 233-246
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161352

Estimation of genetic parameters, genetic, phenotypic and path coefficient analysis were conducted to evaluate forty eight genotypes of lentil introduced from International Center for Agricultural Research In the Dry Areas ICARDA, in addition the local variety Ebaa 98. The genotype seeds were planted at the Experimental Fields of Technical Agricultural College Mosul under to rainfall conditions in the spring season of 2011-2012. The following characters were studied: number of days 50% flowering , plant height , number of primary and secondary branches/plant, number of pods/plant , number of seeds/pod,1000- seed weight, biological yield , seed yield (kg/ha) and harvest index. The results showed that there were a significant genetic and phenotypic differences from zero for all traits. Genetic and phenotypic coefficients variances were high for 1000-seed weight, harvest index and number of pods/plant. Heritability values in broad sense ​​were higher for plant height, number of seeds/ pod and seed yield. The values of expected genetic advance as a percentage were high for number of pods/plant, 1000-seed weight, seed yield and harvest index. The indirect effects values for phenotypic path coefficient on seed yield were positive and low for number of pods in plant, number of seeds/pod and number of primary branches

CORRELATIONS, PATH COFFICIEN ANALYSIS AND EVALUATON SELECTION INDICES FOR GENOTYPES OF DURUM WHEAT

M. Al-Tawel

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 247-258
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161353

Twenty tow genotypes of durum wheat in addition to local grown variety(Om Rabee -5) of durum wheat were used in this study. The seeds of the genotypes were sown at research station of plant production, Department of Agricultural Technical College/Mosul-Iraq. In the growing season 2011-2012 using R.C.B.D. design in three replications. The following characters were studied: Number of days to 50% flowering, plant height, spike length, number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2, biological yield, grain yield, harvest index and1000-grain weight. The results showed that phenotypic and genetic correlations were positive and highly significant between grain yield and each of spike length, number of spikes/m2, biological yield, grain yield and harvest index. Phenotypic and genetic path coefficient analyses revealed that there were high effect of number of grain/spike on grain yield. The selection index included grain yield, number of spikes/m2 and number of grain/spike was superior than other.

ESTIMASTION OF PERFORMANCE, HERTABILITY AND RESPONSE TO SELECTION FOR NAKED BARLEY UNDER THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT

Mothanah Al-Amrei

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 259-270
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161354

This experiment was conducted at Mosul University–college of Agriculture and Forestry  during the seasons 2010-2011 and 2011-2012, Seven of naked  barley entries introduced from ICARDA in addition to the locally grown variety Rihane-3 were grown under the rain fed conditions. The characters studied were: number of days to 50 % flowering, maturity date, plant height, spike length, number of grains/ spike, number of tillers/ plant, number of spikes/ m2 , biological yield, grain yield, harvest index and 100-grain weight. Highly significant differences between entries were found for : number of days to 50 % flowering, maturity date, number of grains/ spike, and grain yield/ plant. The variance spike length was high for significant at 5%. The result  recoated  highly significant difference were found for characters: number of days to 50 % flowering, maturity date, number of tillers/ plant, number of spikes/ m2 , number of grains/ spike, and grain yield. The interaction  between entries and years were highly significant different for characters: number of days to 50 % flowering, maturity date, spike length, number of grains/ spike, grain yield/ plant. While significant at 5% for 100-grain weight. Heritability values in broad-sense were high for characters grain yield/ plant. The expected genetic advance in season 2010-2011high for: number of tillers/ plant, number of grains/ spike and medium for plant height, spike length, number of spikes/ m2, grain yield harvest index and 100-grain weight. Values of phenotypic and genetic coefficient variances were high for number of grains/ spike in 2010-2011 season .

MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF GRAPEVINE FANLEAF VIRUS

Firas Al Juboori,; N. A. Qassem,; , M. Al-Maadhedi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 271-274
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161355

This study was conducted to molecular diagnostics of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) in leaf samples of grapevine were collected from the grapevine yards in Salahuddin governorate, where grapevines are commonly grown in Iraq. The virus was detected in the samples by using SuperScriptTM III RT kit and pair of specific primers GFLV2231F and GFLV2533R was used to amplify fragments of the coat protein gene (CP) in rapid direct one tube RT-PCR.

EFFECT OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS AND OTHER COMPOUNDS IN Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV)

B. Ahmed; N.A m

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 275-286
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161356

ELIZA test using antiserum to Watermelon mosaic virus (WMV) positive reaction with extract from squash plants showing mosaic, blistering and malformation leaves which indicate that the virus under study is WMV, the identification was confirmed by biological assay using quantitative indicator plant Chenopodium amaranticolor which respect chlorotic local lesions. The antibiotic Mitomycin, Para aminophenol, Chenopodium, alcoholic and aquatic extracts of thuja and chenopodium, and alcoholic extract of Eucalyptus at a high conc. showed  a high inhibition on WMV in vitro when mixed with disease plant juice directly whereas the lowest inhibition effect resulted when used Bavastin at conc.0.5ml/L (3.8 spot / leaf). The alcoholic extract of Eucalyptus and Para aminophenol showed a high inhibitor effect on WMV in vivo, followed by  alcoholic extract of Thuja and aquatic extract of Chenopodium, Bavastin and aquatic extract of Eucalyptus showed restricted effects on virus at 0.5ml /L and 12.5mg / ml respectively,. The higher inhibition of all treatments particularly at a high concentration were compatible with  ELISA test results at 405nm. 

PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL OF GRAPEVINE CUTTING BLACK FOOT DISEASE IN NURSARY

Zahra Saeed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 287-298
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161357

The study aimed to control the black foot disease of grapes using Physical control by immersing the cuttings in hot water (50o c for 30 minute) which reduced the severity of infected roots to 0.203 and in the Foliage decline from 0.560 (control) to 0.230. and hot water was also enhanced some characters of young plants throughout increasing of number of internode , plant height , number of Roots , dry weight for each of the roots and foliage.In vitro the hot water inhibited the ratio of the colony forming units of pathogens on PDA to 18.62 - 59.09 %, compared to the liquid Parafine which was not effective in reducing the severity of black foot. Fungicides of kareptanol SL , Topsin M and Tachigaren L in proved to be highly efficient in inhibiting fungal growth and their sporulation. Topsin M and kareptanol SL, were the best fungicides since reducing the infection of black foot from 0.553 to 0.210. affectivity of Topsin M and Tachigaren L were not varying significantly. Application of kareptanol SL produced highest number of internodes (8.95/young plant), with 20.50 cm in plant height largest number of roots and dry weight for each of the foliage and root growth (8.57 and 10.05 gm /plant respectively).

THE EFFECT OF HEAT AND MICROWAVE TREATMENTS ON ORANGE JUICE QUALITY DURING STORAGE

Thamer A. Khalil Khalil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 299-312
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161323

The effect of heat and microwave (MW) treatments on quality related parameters as ascorbic acid (AA), browning index (BI), reducing sugar (RS), total soluble solid percentage (TSS %), and pH of orange juice (OJ) were investigated directly after the treatments and after storage at 4 and 20°C for 2 months. Microwave treatment induced little reduction in AA compared to heat treatment. Microwave treatment ensured the quality stability of orange juice stored for 2 months under refrigeration (4°C) but inferior orange juice quality was detected after 2 month storage at 20°C. Using MW exposure above 60 sec gave better studied parameters than heat treatments. However, microwave exposure for more than 60 sec. was sufficient to preserve the OJ quality. Accordingly, the use of microwave energy may be proposed as an alternative to traditional heat treatment in order to preserve the OJ quality.

EFFECT OF ULTRA HIGH TEMPERATURE PROCESSING ON THE VISCOSITY OF WHOLE BOVINE MILK FORTIFIED WITH ZINC, FERROUS AND MAGNESIUM

Atallah Abdulghani; Mahmood Younis Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 313-320
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161324

Age gelation is a main defect in Ultra-high temperature (UHT) processed milk. It is a process with two stages which distinguished by loss of viscosity. It can be followed by measuring the apparent viscosity of the milk. A control (T0) and four whole milk (fat 3.85%) samples fortified with Zinc (T1), Ferrous (T2) and Magnesium (T3) individually and collectively (T4) was processed by indirect heating UHT system at 145 ºC for six seconds. The UHT-processed milk samples were filled aseptically into Gamma ray pre-sterilized PET containers in a laminar flow cabinet sterilized shortly before filling by UV. The samples stored at 30 ºC for 60 days to investigate at 15 days intervals the effect of processing on apparent viscosity and appearance of the fortified milk and compared to control UHT milk (T0). Results recorded during 60 days of storage showed a slight rise in viscosity in all samples. No changes in appearance have been observed during the storage period. UHT Zinc-milk has shown at all intervals insignificant increase. Only after 30 days of storage, milk-fortified with ferrous showed a significant increase in viscosity measured by spindle speed of 30 rpm (SS30). Significant increases (p≤0.05) in viscosity were recorded within the fortified UHT-milk samples. Appearance and apparent viscosity can be adopted to follow gel forming in fortified milk with some minerals.

TESTING ACCURACY OF BUTT LOG VOLUME ESTIMATED BY USING SEVEN FORMULAS FOR CALIBRAIN PINE ( Pinus brutia Ten )

Mohammed Obeyed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 321-330
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161325

The observed volumes obtained by several volume calculation methods for the butt log volume of Calibrain pine (Pinus brutia Ten.). These butt logs were compared with true volume of each butt log which was determined by aggregating the volumes of measured short (1m) using Smalian’s formula. 150 of sample trees were measured into Zaweta and Atrush districts of Dohuk province. The sample trees presented diameter at breast height from 13.9 to 37.6 cm. and total height from 8 - 19.2 meter.The volume of each butt log was estimated by using (Smalian’s, Huber’s, Newton’s, Hossfeld’s, Bruce’s, Sorenson’s and Centroid method). The accuracy of these seven procedures was analyzed considering volume of butt log lengths 6-m. The results showed that Centroid method was superior for all volumes. As expected, Sorenson formula was the procedure with the worst performance. 
TESTING ACCURACY OF BUTT LOG VOLUME ESTIMATED BY USING SEVEN FORMULAS FOR CALIBRAIN PINE ( Pinus brutia Ten )
 

CATION SELECTIVITY OF VERTISOLS

Amer Abdul-Kareem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 3, Pages 331-339
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161326

The effect of salinity and SAR on Gapon selectivity coefficient  of two Vertisols , collected from Duhok Governorate in northern Iraq(Summel and Zakho) classified taxonomically as (fine clay-smectitic-calcareous-cracked soils), were studied in a laboratory experiment. Twenty solutions , including five TEC levels (5,10, 20, 50 and 100 mmolc.l-1 and four SAR levels 2.5, 5.0 ,10 and 25( mmol.l)0.5 were synthesized to equilibrate the soil samples using chloride salts of sodium and calcium, magnesium . SAR of equilibrium solution decreased compared to equilibrating solution especially at high SAR and low electrolyte solutions . At low salt concentrations , the dissolution of CaCO3 and Ca bearing minerals causes a decrease in SAR of the equilibrium solution but their effect becomes less at high electrolyte concentrations . Exchangeable sodium  increased with increase in SAR and TEC . Irrecpective of TEC , NaX increased by about 2.8-fold and 0.8-fold and irrecpective of SAR , the increase was about 1.3-fold and 2.1-fold for Summel and Zakho sites respectively. An increase in ESP was observed when correction for anion exclusion was calculated especially at higher TEC level. All relationships between ESR and SAR were significant for each salinity level and when the treatments were handled as a composite data .  The values of Gapon constant were in the range of (0.0057- 0.0259) and (0.0155- 0.0425)( mmol.l)-0.5 and  Correction for anion exclusion caused an increase  by about 18% and 11% for Summel and Zakho sites respectively compared to not corrected samples .