Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 45, Issue 2

Volume 45, Issue 2, Summer 2017


KNOWLEDGE NEEDS FOR AGRICULTURAL STAFF IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE IN WHITE FLY CONTROL

Aamel Al-Abbassi; Talal S. Al-Khafaf; Dhoha. M. Abdul-Faraje

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161293

The research aimed at determining the knowledge needed by Agricul­tural Staff in Nineveh Governorate in white fly control then to determine the relationship between knowledge needs, and some variables. The research population consisted of 129 respondents, data were collected from 97 of them, representing for 75% of the population. The data were collected through a Questionnaire after testing face validity, and alpha- chronbach was used to test the reliability which was 0.94. the means, frequencies and spearman-rank correlation were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that about 80% of the respondents feel medium to high knowledge needs in white fly control. The control of the pest occupied the first rank order with a mean of 2.722. The results also showed significant relationship between knowledge needs and the scientific qualification, while there were no significant correlation with specialization and gender and previous training and period of employment and race and level of exposure to agricultural knowledge sources. The research included some conclusions and recommendations .

ESTIMATING AND ANALYZING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE IMPORTS OF STRATEGIC CROPS IN SOME DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD (1980-2010)

Kays Ghazal; Mohammad Subhi Al-Mashhadani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161294

The agricultural imports are considered as one of the basis of the agricultural foreign commerce which most countries depend on for solving the shortage of agricultural products that are unable to provide for their people in a short term. The strategic corns have a great rank in the economies of developing countries because of their alimental importance and their contribution in the foreign commerce. Despite their importance, these crops are unavailable in these countries for several reasons: the first reason is disusing a correct agricultural policy, especially in the scope of organizing their productive resources to make a high economic efficiency in producing agricultural corps in order to increase the production of these corps, the second reason is the carelessness of lands reclamation and the third one is the lack of quantitative and qualitative incentives presented to the producers of the strategic crops. According to mentioned above, this study depends on a supposition that there are some variables are affect the imports of the strategic corns in some underdeveloped countries, hence, the following developing countries are chosen (Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Thailand, Indonesia, Morocco, Jordan, Pakistan), and four strategic corps are chosen: (Wheat, Barley, Rice, Maize). The time series data were used to estimate the phenomenon under study for every country separately, because it reflects the occurring changes in the imported quantities of the strategic corps, and they have features and characteristics differ from country to another according to the political and economic structure of these countries. To achieve best results, a standard model was applied with four formulas: (linear formula, double logarithm, semi-logarithm, reflected logarithm). The most important conclusions of this research were the alimental gap in the underdeveloped countries which results in depending grossly on importing the strategic corns under study in order to filling the increased alimental gap and increased local demand of these corps, and this has undesired economic effect like alimental dependence on the foreign countries.

ESTIMATING AND ANALYSING OF DEMAND FUNCTION FOR POULTRY IN IRAQ ROR THE PERIOD (1990 - 2009)

Salim Al-Youzbaki; Suha Mohammad Ahmad Al_Hmdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161322

The study aimed assessment and analysis of the demand function for poultry meat in Iraq for a period (1990-2009) once without changing time and again with the time factor as well as find food gap and the values ​​of elasticities (price and Aldkhalah and Cross) and predict the required quantities of this meat in the coming years. It was found that the variables (the average per capita income and the size of the population and the prices of poultry meat, red meat, and time) has been deleted variable V average prices of fish meat from the equation for not Manueth. Has appeared significant in influencing and varying in the degree of impact, it turns out that the coefficient of determination of the model with time has reached (97.9%), while the coefficient of determination with no time (97%) This indicates that analysis with time has increased from clarification impact on payment of poultry meat, and the results show the growing size of the food gap and rate 28.18 thousand tons of poultry meat in the period studied, also reached values ​​elasticities without and with time and sequentially price (-0.167, -0.123) and Aldkhalah (0.017, 0.032) and cross of red meat (0.192, .240) and cross the fish meat with time (-0.221) value price elasticity of demand 0.510, indicating that demand for poultry meat is flexible towards change in price, while the flexibility of domestic demand 0.017, indicating that the required quantity of the commodity changed much less than the change in income.

IRAQ'S AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY AND THE REALITY OF THE VARIABLRS AND THE RESULTS OBJECTIVE CURRICULUM AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE PERIOD (1990-2011)

Salim Al-Nuaimy; Mahasen. M Al-Jeboury

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 35-44
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161298

The research aims to formulate sober policies and practical actions contribute to adjust the course of the agricultural sector and to achieve its goals, which will make it easier to raise production and productivity, Variables of agricultural sector were agricultural work, capital accumulation agricultural, technical mechanism, technical chemical, agricultural loans, agricultural export, import of agricultural, national income, domestic consumption, the cultivatedareas, that have been expressed as (policies of productivity and investment, marketing and price) where its impact was deare on the growth of the agricultural sector and overall productivity during (1990-2010) and the development process and increase production and productivity in the agricultural sector associated with economic, social and institutional multiple and overlapping factors that effects the forms and varying proportions in its impact on agricultural output, which had been measured under function producing an aggregate of variables agricultural policy and its contribution to productivity growth as well as measuring productivity elements total (TFP) by using index (Malmaquist) depending on the (DEAP). Results of analysis showed that the adopted agricultural policies were not rise to the level of efficiency in the use and impact on low productivity total level agricultural sector, which calls for the need state intervention in the policy-making integrated farming, particularly production policy and investment, which proved its role in contributing to the evolution of the index of productivity for the advancement of Iraq's agricultural sector and enabling it to achieve food security.

EFFECT OF HUMIC ACID AND TRANSPLANTING CONTAINER SIZE ON GROWTH, QUANTITY AND QUALITY YIELD OF PLANT CABBAGE

Khaleda Omar; Ahmed Faris Al-Sawaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 45-56
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161299

The experiment was carried out at the field of During the growing season of 2010 – 2011. The aim was to study the effect of humic acid with threes concentration (0, 2.5 and 5 ml/litter) and two transplanting container size (7 , 10 cm) and the interaction treatments growth , quantity and quality yield of cabbage, The experiment design was arranged according to R.C.B.D with three replicates The results showed that adding humic acid with 5 ml/Litter caused significant increase in the growth parameters (the number of external leaves,chlorophyll percentage , leaf area , the Fresh weight for external and internal leaf , the percentage of dry matter for internal leaves). Meanwhile the big size of transplanting container caused a significant increase in the percentage of dry matter in the external leaves. The interaction treatment between the addition of humic acid with 5 ml/Litter and the big transplanting container size caused the best growth in the leaves , roots and added the highest production 34.23 T/hea.

EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAY WITH LIQUID FERTAILIZER STARTER PLUS, ZINC AND IAA IN GROWTH OF TWO FIG CULTIVARS TRANSPLANTS

Ayad. Shayal Alalam

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 57-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161300

This study were conducted on transplant of two fig cultivars "white adriatic" and "aswad diala", which were planting on plastic pags under lauth house conditional Horticulture and Landscape Design, throw 2012 growing season, to know the effect of foliar spray with two levels of each of liquid fertilizer Starter plus (8% N-32% P - 5% K) (1 and 2 ml.L-1), Zn (5 and 10 ml.L-1) and IAA(50,100 mg.L-1) in addition to control treatment. The foliar sprays of all factors were done of three times (21/5, 5/6 and 20/6), 15 days intervals.This study were conducted by using C.R.D Design, with three replicates and with four transplants for each experimental unit, The means were compared by using Duncan multiple range test of probability of 5%. Results indicated that the foliar spray with liquid fertilizer Starter plus of two concentrations (1 and 2 ml.L-1) significantly increased leaves chlorophyll content and increment of main stem height respectively.The foliar spray with zinc with concentration (5mg.L-1) significantly increase the increment of leaves number and with concentration (10 mg.L-1) significantly increase the increment of main stem diameter. The results clearly showed that "white adriatic" cv. Significantly dominated over "aswad diala" cv. in all studied parameters except dry matter percentage. The interaction effect showed that "white adriatic" transplants which were sprayed with 2 ml.L-1 of Starter plus significantly increased all studied parameters compared with other interaction.

EFFECT OF SPRAYING WITH BENZYL ADENINE, GIBBERELLIC ACID AND FOLIAGE FERTILIZER WITH SOME MICRONUTRIENTS ON SOME CHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF FUNGREEK PLANT Trigonella foenum-gracum L.

Gihan Saleh; Ammar Omer Al-Atrakchii

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 67-80
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161301

This experiment was carried out in the College of Agriculture and Forestry farm, from 5 November 2009 to 19 May 2011 for the two seasons respectively, on Trigonella foenum-graecum L. local Varity. to study the effect of Benzyl adenine, Gibberellic acid and micronutrient mixture composed of cheleated Iron, Zinc and Boron as boric acid at three levels, by spraying on twice vegetative growth. The Factorial Experiment within Split Split plot in Randomized Complete Block Design had been applied, each treatment replicated three times. The results can be summarizes as follows: The data showed that treatment with BA caused a significant increase in fixed oil quantity, caroten concentrations and ash percent for two season, while recorded a significant increase protein and total soluble sugar percent in first season, the plants sprayed with GA3 caused a significant increase in protein, total soluble sugar percent and the fixed oil quantity for two seasons. Similarly, the significantly largest value percent of protein, total soluble sugar percent, and fixed oil quantity when plants sprayed with 200 mg BA /L plus 30 mg GA3 /L and level 1 and 2 of micronutrients mixture in the first and second seasons compared with the control.

EFFECT OF SOIL IRRIGATION WITH TWO TYPES OF SEAPLANT EXTRACT AND HUMIC ACID ON GROWTH, QUANTITY AND QUALITY OF YIELD IN LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.)

Mohammad Al-Habar; Hussien Jawad Moharm Al-Bayati

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 81-88
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161302

This research was conducted during winter growing season of 2011-2012 at the vegetable Farm Hort. & Land Scape Design Department, Colloge of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul Universty,to study the effect of soil irrigation with two seaplant extracts at two concentrations for each: Alga600 at 2 and 4 gm/ L and Algamix at 3 and 6 ml/ L in addition to humic acid at 3 and 6 ml/ L, the Chemical fertilizer, and control (non- fertilizer) treatments on growth and yield components of lettuce.The experiment involved 8 treatments implemented Randomized Complet Block Design (RCBD) with three replications Results indicated that application of Algamix at concentration 3ml/ L significantly increased leaf area/ plant, head length, stem length, and wiegth, whereas the same seaplant extract at concentration of 6 ml/ L increased the dry matter percentage of leaves, percentage of head folding, average weight of total and marketable/head, total and marketable head yield.  

EFFECT OF SOME AMINO ACIDS AND VITAMINS ON CARDAMOM PROPAGATION ELETTARIA CARDAMOMUM MATON. IN VITRO

Wijdan Alnieb; Abdullah N. Alniemi; Ammar Zeki i Kassab Bash

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 89-100
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161303

Two experiments were carried out to propagate cardamom plants Elettaria cardamomum Maton. In vitro, The first involved the effect of using amino acids (Glycine, Methionine, Glutamine, Aspargine and Gasaine) at concentrations (100, 200, 300, 400, 500)mg/L, in addition the control treatment (2mg/L Glysin according to MS 1962 formula). The second experiment studied the effect of adding some vitamins group B (Thiamin, Nicotinic acid and Pyridoxine) at concentrations (10, 20, 30, 40) mg/L, as well as the control treatments (0.1, 0.5, 0.5) mg/L respectively each of them (according to MS 1962 formula). The results, after 8 weeks of culturing, indicated that adding Glycine 100 mg/L, Methionine 100mg/L, Gasain 100mg/L, Aspargine 400 mg/L to the media had a significant increase in number of shoots (9.44, 11.20, 12.33, 11.6 shoot/explant) respectively in comparison with control (2mg/L Glycine) giving 6.73 shoot/explant. Whereas, adding of Aspargine in studied concentration caused a significant increase in shoot length, number of leaves, number of roots and root length as compared with control treatment. As for the effect of Vitamins, the results showed that increasing of Thiamin concentration up to 10 mg/L caused a significant increase in number of shoots (8.14 shoot/explant) and up to 20 mg/L a significant increase in number of leaves (3.54 leaf/explant) in comparison with 4.5 shoot/explant and 2.74 leaf/explant in control treatment respectively. While adding 30 mg/L of Pyridoxine caused a significant increase in number of shoots (9.60 shoot/explant) and number of leaves (3.33 leaf/explant) in comparison with control treatment (8.67 , 2.90) respectively.

EFFECT OF PLANTING DATE, GA3, KNO3 ON SEED GERMINATION AND PLANTS GROWTH OF BAUHINIA spp

Bashar Kassab Bashi; Ahmed Emad Mahmood Alkhero

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 101-112
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161304

Seeds of B. purpurea L. of red flowers and B. alba ofwhite flowers cultured at fourth planting date, (1/8/2011), (1/10/2011), (1/12/2011), (1/3/2012) and treated with 100 and 200 mg/L KNO3 or 50 and 100 mg/L GA3 in addition to control treatment (socking in distilled water) to find best rate of germination and growth of the seedlings: the results indicated the highest germination percentage was 83.16 % from planting B. alba seeds. Highest germination percentage was 82.33 % obtained from culture seeds at fourth planting date. Highest germination percentage 66.45 % were achieved from control treatment and which was not significantly different with seeds treatment with 200 mg/L KNO3 or 100 mg/L. Also highest germination percentage 100 % were achieved from planting B. alba at fourth date and treated with 200 mg/L KNO3. Culture seeds of B. purpurea at fourth date and treated with 100 mg/L gave 100 % germination percentage. The lowest number of days for germination were obtained from planting seeds B. alba and B. purpurea at first date for different treatments compared with other dates. Highest length of seedlings and leaves number were achieved from planting B. alba and B. purpurea at first date of different treatment compared with other dates.    

FEFFECT OF MATRIX 15 AND ASCORBIC ACID ON YIELD AND SOME CHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF GOLDIN DELICIOUS APPLE FRUITS

Jassim Al-Aareji; Amjad O.M. Al-Barwari

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 113-124
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161305

The experiment was conducted on apple trees cv. Golden Delicious,12 years old planted at a distance of 4 × 4 m in a private orchards in Bagerat village (25 km northeast of the city of Dohuk), during the growing season 2012,to study the effect of Matrix 15 and ascorbic acid on yield and some chemical fruit parameters. Three levels of Matrix15 (15% humic acid) (0, 10 and 20 ml /L./ trees) were applied in two installments during the season (1/2L to Trevi each batch), the first after flowering (mid of April 15/4). The second after one month, and the trees were sprayed until wetness with three levels of of ascorbic acid (0, 150 , 300 mg /L.) and three times during the season of the study. All the spraying and sprinkles and addition were done early of the morning. Result showed that application of Matrix15 fertilizer (15% humic acid) significantly affected the fruit set , number of fruits at harvest ,yield of each tree, percentage of total acidity ,total sugars and ascorbic acid in fruit juice. Olso the spraying of ascorbic acid especially the concentration 150 mg /L. significantly increased the number of fruits at harvest ,yield of each tree mean while the foliar spray of 300 mg/L. significantly increased the percentage of total sugars in fruit juice. The interaction between the factors significantly affected on all studied parameters except fruit volume and TSS.

SIGNIFICANCE OF SOIL DEVELOMENT AND IRON OXIDES CONTENT ON PROPERTIIES OF PERMENANT CHARGE ON CLAY SURFACES IN SOME SELECTED SOILS FROM NORTHERN IRAQ

Saleh Mawlood; Qahtan D. Essa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 125-134
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161306

The study was conducted on nine clay samples collected from three different soils of northern Iraq (Mukhmour, Shikhan and Zakho) which varied in climatic conditions (precipitations and temperatures).Permanent surface charge on clay surfaces was measured through adsorption of lithium chloride experience before and after removing iron oxides. Results showed that the highest values of permanent negative charge on clay surfaces before removing iron oxides was found in Mukhmour soil with average 34.5 C.mol. kg-1. clay, while the lowest values appeared in clay fraction of Zakho soil (18.1 C.mol. kg-1. clay), but in Shikhan soil,the negative charge values was at average of (20.0 C.mol. kg-1 clay). The highest stability of negative surface charge was found at pH between values (3-5). The distribution of negative charges within soil profiles showed an increase in values with depth and in all studied soils. Results also reveals very low positive surface charge compared with negative surface charge. However, the results of the lithium chloride adsorption experiment have indicated that the removal of iron oxides from clay fraction had a clear effect on increasing in the values of negative surface charge in all study soils.The rates of increase associated mainly with the iron oxides content of the clay fractions but the impact of removing iron oxides on the values of positive surface charge were minor and had no clear behavior. From the above study it can be concluded that the variations in the values of surface of clay surface charge clearly reflects the levels of weathering and the degrees of soil development.

STUDY THE VARIATIONS OF WEATHERING LEVELS FOR SOME SOILS FORMED UNDER DIFFERENT CLIMATEIC CONDITIONS / NORTHERN IRAQ

Saleh Mawlood; Qahtan D. Essa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 135-142
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161307

Nine soil samples were selected from three different locations in Ninavah and Duhok Governorates. The locations included Makhmour, Hamdania and Zakho. The studied areas were selected according the variation of annual temperature and rainfall. Soil orders of Makhmour and Hamdania are both within Aridisols, but Zakho soil is a Vertisols. Soil profiles were described according to USDA and three soil samples from each profile were collected from three depths (0-20, 20-40 and 40-60 cm). Chemical analysis was conducted using (XRF) Technique. Calculation of weathering parameters has been done such as chemical index of variations (CIA), index of chemical variation (ICV) and weathering index (WI). Results of weathering parameters included that the highest levels of weathering levels was found in Zakho soil (Average annual rainfall 550 mm) and the lowest weathering levels in Makhmour soil (Average annual rainfall 240 mm). Results of XRF Analysis also showed a clear increasing in immobile oxides of (SiO2, Fe2O3 and Al2O3) and trace (rare) elements (ZrO, MnO and TiO2) in Zakho soil and decreased in Makhmour soil. However the mobile oxides of (CaO) and the loss in ignition was increased in Makhmour soil and gradually decreased in Hamdania and reach its lowest levels in Zakho soil. 

EFFECT OF AZOTOBACTER INOCULATION AND PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZING BACTERIA ON SOME GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF WHEAT YIELD (Triticum aestivum L.)

Esraa Hameed; Mazin Faisal Said AL-Zubaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 143-155
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161308

A factorial pot experiment was conducted in plastic house using complete randomize design (CRD), to study the effect of inoculation with Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, organic manures and phosphorous fertilizer levels on some growth characteristics and wheat yield. The inoculation with Azotobacter, phosphorous solubilizing bacteris (local isolate) or both together caused significant increases in plant height of 5%, 4.32% and 9.76% respectively as compared with control treatment, however, no significant differences were noticed with all phosphorous fertilizer and organic manure levels. The inoculation ,phosphorous fertilizer levels and organic manure treatments caused a significant increases in both shoot dry weight and biological yield as compared with control treatment. The inoculation levels gave a significant increases in grain yield (ton.ha-1) of 12.95%, 12% and 25.16% respectively as compared with non-inoculated treatment Phosphorous fertilizer levels caused a significant increases in grain yield, however, no significant increases was noticed between 80 kg superpgosphate.ha-1 and rock phosphate treatment. Soil amended with 2% organic manure gave a significant increases in grain yield of 15.44% as compared with control treatment .Highest grain yield (3.98ton.ha-1) was obtained in soil treated with 160 kg superpgosphate.ha-1, 2% organic manure and inoculated with both Azotobacter and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria

EFFECT OF SULFUR AND ORGANIC FERTILIZERS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF GARLIC ALLIUM SATIVUM L.

Dena Shaheen; Raida Ismail Al-Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 156-168
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161309

A field experiment was carried out during agricultural season 2011/2012 to study the effect of sulfur addition with some organic fertilizers on plant growth and the yield of garlic Allium sativum L. which has been got as cloves from local markets. Experiment was conducted according to the randomized complete block designe withing factorial experiments by three replicates. Using Duncan test polynomial on possibility of 5% to compare averages of treatments, Eighteent sulfur addition was applied levels of zero and 1000 kg.ha-1 and poultry manures of 10 and 20 tons.ha-1. Some fertilizers and organic extracts such as Italpollin in levels 1 and 2 tons.ha-1. Afoiler organic extracts were applied on levels 2.5 and 5 ml.liter-1.
The results showed that sulfur addition at a rate of 1000 kg.ha-1 caused a significant increase on chlorophyll leaves content and plants harvested, cloves number, mean clove weight, total heads yield and biological yield, poultry manure application at the level of 20 tons.ha-1 appeared also a significant increase as above, also intraction between sulfur and levels of added organic fertilizers increased the above studied properties, 1000 kg.ha-1 of sulfur with (20 tons.ha-1) of organic fertilized had a significant increase on studied properties accept mean weight of clove and 

EFFECT OF WATER IRRIGATION QUALITY ON POTASSIUM DESORPTION IN SOME CALCAREOUS SOILS IN NINEVH PROVINCE

Mohammed Khalil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 169-178
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161310

A laboratory study was conducted to determine the effect of irrigation water quality on potassium desorption in some calcareous soils. It was constructed by miscible displacement technique using chlorine and sulfuric water via two different textured soils from Fadhlia and Hamdania locations in Nineveh province / northern Iraq for 240 minute with 10 minutes interval at a rate flow 1 ml.minute-1. Results showed higher values of desorbed potassium rate in sulfuric water which were 3.57, 2.128 c.mole.kg-1, while these rates referred to be much lower than that resulted by using chlorine water 2.25, 1.15 c.mole.kg-1 for both locations respectively. Also high correlation appeared between K+ desorption capacity and flow time (R2 = 0.96 , R2 = 0.79) for both water qualities in Fadhlia location , while these rates were (R2 = 0.98, R2 = 0.95) for Hamdania location respectively. Mathematical description for diffusion equation appeared to be of higher values of K+ desorption capacity rates for sulfuric water which were 0.26, 0.13 c.mole.kg-1.min. for Fadhlia and Hamdania locations respectively, while these rates for chlorine water were 0.146, 0.048 c.mole.kg-1.min. for both locations respectively.

EFFECT OF ADDING PHOSPHATE FERTILIZER LEVELS. DEPTHS AND DISTANCES ON THE GROWTH AND GRAIN YIELD OF WHEAT IN CALCAREOUS SOIL

Mohammed Abdullah; Nazar Mustafa Al-Nauimi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 179-188
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161311

Field experiment located at Nineveh province was carried out by using randomized complete block design RCBD to study the effect of phosphate fertilizer levels (32 and 64 and 96 kg P / ha) with two depths 10 and 20 cm. and using four placement fertilizer distances (10. 20. 30 and 40 cm). with three replications wheat crop cultivar sham-6 was cultivated in a calcareous soil (clayey texture) with 10 mg p / kg soil. Results revealed that maximum yield. P- grain content and number of spikes were found in treatments received high levels of super phosphate        (96 kg p / ha). Beside that the treatments of depth 20 cm and distance 40 cm at all levels of P gave an increase in yield compared to other treatments. However T24   (96 kg p / ha. 40 cm distance. and 20 cm depth) was the best treatment that gave  a significant increase in yields. P- grain content and number of spikes.

INFLUENCE OF BIO-FERTILIZERS (RHIZOBIA, MYCORRHIZAE) AND PHOSPHOROUS ON NODULATION SOME GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BROAD BEAN (VICIA FABA. L)

Hesham Saad Aldeen; Mowaffaq Yonis Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 189-200
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161312

An experiment was conducted in the green house Soil Science and Water Resources/College of Agriculture and Forestry University of Mosul, during winter season 2011 to study the effect of Bio (Rhizobia, Mycorrhizea) and Phosphate (Super phosphate, Rock phosphate)fertilizers on Nodulation and some properties of Broad bean growth. Result showed that (Rhizobia+Mycorrhizea+S.P2) treatment significantly was increased in the plant height with increasing rate (55.34%) compared to the control. Also the (Mycorrhizea + R.P1) and (Mycorrhizea+R.P2) treatments gave significant increase in the fresh weight of shoots system with increasing rate (45.12 and 40.70%) respectively compared with the control. While (Mycorrhizea + R.P1 (gave high significant increasing in the number and dry weight of nodule with (223.30and 308.38%) respectively compared to the control. (Mycorrhizea + S.P2) and (Rhizobia +Mycorrhizea) treatments were achieved compared to the control. The highest content of total chlorophyll in plant was achieved in the (Mycorrhizea+R.P2)treatment    which gave significant increase with increasing rate (9,9%) compared to the control.

STUDY THE CHARACTERISTIES Of VARIABLE CHARGES OF SOME SELECTED SOILS FROM NORTHERN IRAQ

Saleh Mawlood; Qahtan D. Essa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 201-210
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161313

This study was carried out in three selected areas from North Iraq included (Makhmour, Shikhan and Zakho).these location Varied in annual temperature and rainfall .Nine soil samples were collected from three soil profiles (one soil profile from each location). Clay was separated without using any corrosive acid or base, except sodium acetate in order to remove calcium carbonate. Variable charge (pH-dependent charge) was measured using potentiometric titration. Results from titration curves showed a clear variations in positions of (ZPC) and the amounts of negative and positive charges from different samples. The extent of (ZPC) varies from (pH 4.4-5.8).However the amount of negative varies between(100-180) Cmole/kg. and the positive charge between(150-350) C.mole/kg. These variations in potentiometric titration curves are partially related to the presence of varying amounts of iron oxides and also the variations in type of minerals dominant in clay samples .In addition to that, there is a possibility of the presence of some calcium carbonate in clay that not completely removed by treatments with sodium-acetate.

PRODUTION OF THE MICROBIAL GELLAN BY SPHINGOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS BACTERIA. 1. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PHYSICAL CULTURAL CONDITIONS

N. B Jafar; M. M. Ahmad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 211-220
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.161319

The purpose of this study was to find the optimal physical cultural condition to produce the microbial exopolysaccharide, gellan, by the bacteria Sphingomonas paucimobilis in laboratory media using batch culture method. The physical cultural conditions included incubation period, inoculums size, initial pH, incubation temperature, as well as, agitation speed using basal cultural medium. Results indicated that the optimum incubation period for gellan production was 48 hrs, inoculums size was 10% of media, the pH optimum was 7.0, and the incubation temperature was 30oc, while the agitation speed was 250 rpm. Results also showed that gellan production was largely cell growth dependant as indicated by dry mass weight.

PRODUCTION OF THE MICROBIAL EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE, GELLAN, BY SPHINGOMONAS PAUCIMOBILIS BACTERIA. 2.OPTIMIZATION OF GROWTH CULTURAL COMPOSITION

N. B Jafar; Moafak M. Ahmad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 221-234
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.161320

The purpose of this study was to find the optimum growth cultural composition for the production of the microbial exopolysaccharide, gellan, by the bacteria Sphingomonas paucimobilis using batch cultural method in laboratory media. The study included the effect of the type and concentration of organic  compounds as a sole carbon source, type and concentration of organic and non-organic nitrogen source, as well as, the effect of adding of some amino acids and non-ionic surfactants to the gellan production basal medium. The physical cultural conditions were fixed, and the production was carried for 48hrs incubation period, 10% inoculums volume, initial pH of 7.0, incubation temperature at 30oc and agitation speed of 250 rpm in an orbital shaker incubator. Results indicated that the best organic source was glucose at a concentration of 2% as it resulted in 4.44g of gellan/l of production medium, and the best organic nitrogen source was yeast extract at 0.05% and the best non-organic nitrogen source was ammonium chloride at 0.1% concentration, as they gave 4.27 and 4.41 g/l, respectively. On the other hand, the amino acid threonine at 0.05% was the best among other amino acids, and the non-ionic surfactant Triton X-100 at 0.1% was the best and they produced 5029 and 5.59 g of gellan/l of the medium.
 

ANALYTICAL STUDAY OF CLIMATIC CHANGES AND ITS EFFECT ON THE VARIATION OF PRECIPITATION AND WATER BALANCE IN NORTH OF IRAQ

Mohammed Kashmoula

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 235-248
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161314

This study was carried out in Mosul city depending of the meteorological station records of Dohuk city since 1976 to 2010. while a large variation of annual precipitation during this period (212.4-888.6mm) while the annual precipitation during the study period was 525.5mm in which the dry and wet years were determined. in addition to the possibility and return period which were determined using the hazen formula. The return period of the large deficiency year was 9.5 year with probability of 10.2% while wet years which has amount of precipitation more than (656mm) has frequency one time within (3.8) year with probability equal to (26.5%). Results also showed that there was a reverse correlation between annual mean temperature. winter mean temperature and annual precipitation water balance of the last ten years showed that there was severe water deficiency and limited water surplus.                     

STUDY OF TAXONOMICAL AND IDENTIFICATION FROM SOME PHENOLIC FOR SOME PLANT SPECIES GROWING AT ATRUSH REGION NORTHERN IRAQ USING HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY (HPLC)

T. Al-Tikriti; Y. M Q . Al- alousy; . Y. S. Al-Naman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 249-264
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161315

This study  was carried out in the laboratory of collage of agriculture and Forestry to identifying the  phenolic compounds for  ten kinds of  plants of the species used in plant identification, The crude lipid free extract was  prepared by using soxhlet and  Petroleum ether and Ethanol as a solvent, HPLC High performers liquid Chromatography was used for determining phenolic compounds in the extract. The  results showed the  isolation  of 8phenolic compounds including (Hydroquino,  Salicylis acid, Coumarin, Cinnamic acid, Thymol,Quercetin, Rutin,Gallic acid), The results were showed many differences in the number and  rates of these phenolic compounds  between the species, Salicylic acid was the purulent in species of Fabaceae family,(Trifolium purpureum, T. campestre,T. palaestin),foure importent phenolic compounds in the Asteraceae family differ according to the species (Centaurea pallascens, Centaurea  solstitialis, Centaurea calcitrapa)in clouding (Quercetin, Coumarin, Cinnamic acid, Salicylic acid), while  in Fagaceae family Quercus infectoria four types of phenolic compounds were identified, Rutin  was the only identified of the phenolic compounds, the remaning compounds were unknown glycosides,while  in Quercus aegilops  two chemical compounds(Quercietin and Salicylic acid) were identified. These differences in chemical  compounds  could be used as an indicator  for plant identification .

EFFECT OF ASPECTS AND ELEVATIONS IN THE QUALITATIVE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE VEGETATION COVER GROWING IN THE ASPECTS ON ASHAWA RESORT AT NORTHERN IRAQ

Y. Al-alousy; Kh. H. Ab. Al-Botany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 265-288
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161316

This study was conducted during spring of 2010 at Ashawa resort of Duhok governorate to identify the value of the vegetation cover according to the qualitative characters(ash, organic matter, ether extract, crude protein, crude fibers, soluble carbohydrate, calcium, potassium and phosphorus) percentages of understory vegetation and canopy cover common between aspects surrounding Ashawa resort with two elevations, The study found that there are significant differences between species, aspects and elevations for Grasses and herbs. Lathyrus sativa was significantly superior compared with other species,the east aspect was significantly superior in (potassium, crud protein and ash) percentage, the north aspect was significantly superior in (phosphorus , calcium and carbohydrate) percentage,the first level was significantly superior in (phosphorus, potassium, crud protein and ether extract) percentage, compared with the second level. As for trees and shrubs Cotoneaster racemiflorous shrubswere significantly superiorover other species for ash, carbohydrate, potassium and phosphorus percentage while it did not recorded any significancy with Quercus aegilops for ether extract. Percentage, but Q. infectoria was significantly superiorover cotoneaster racemiflorous shrubsin crude protein percentage, There were no significantly differences between both elevations levels in ether extract., crude protein, potassium and calcium percentage, while there were significantly differences between those elevations in ash, organic matter, crude fibers, soluble carbohydrate and phosphorus percentages.

GENETIC PERFORMANCE AND INTERACTION FOR SEEDYIELD AND COMPONENTS FOR FABA BEAN GENOTYPES (Vicia faba L.)

Mowafaq Al-Layla; H.S. ASKANDAR

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 289-304
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161317

Five faba bean genotypes (Syrian,Turky,Italy,spanish and local variety koshtaba) were planted in two locations (Sumail and Zakho) for two seasons (2010/2011 and 2011/2012) using randomized complete block design with three replications. Four stability techniques has been compared with Safety-first selection indices,vis, variance a cross environments (EV), Eberhart and Russell (ER), Finaly and Wilkinson (FW) and Shukla (SH).combined analysis of stability exhibited significant differences between genotypes and environments for all characters excepted no. of tellers/plant and no. of seed/code. High broad sense heritability for all characters excepted no.of seed/pod in zakho (season,2010/2011) Simple correlation coefficient was positive and significant for grain yield/plant and for 100 seed weight and plant height. Turkish and Sayrian genotypes was in the first rank by FW, ER, SH, indices for plant height and long pod and no.of seed/pod and seed yield.

EFFECT OF PLANT DENSITIES ON GROWTH CHARACTERS, SILAGE AND GRAIN YIELD OE CORN (Zea mays L.)

Salim Younis; Abbas. M. Al-Hasans.

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 305-312
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161318

A Field experiment was Carried out in autumn Season of 2012 at AL- Hemidat / thaljah village 20km to the West of Mosul city and Bhashiqa / Tobzawh village 25 km east of Mosul City to Study the effect of three Plant densities(200, 300 and400 thousand plant/ha) on growth characters, silage and grain yield of two corn varieties The experiment was applied by using Randomized Compelt Blok Desing (R.C.B.D) with three replications. The results showed that there were no significant differences between the variety Bohoth 106 and Sara for all growth characteristics, silage and Grain yield at both locations except that for leaf area index and leaves percentage at Tobzawh and Number of Leaves at both locations The plant density 400 Thousand Plant/ha gave a highest silage yield for both locations, while The plant density 200 Thousand Plant/ha gave a highest grain yield at both locations The interaction between plant density and varieties was significantly affected on silage growth characters, grain yield at both locations except for Leaves percentage at / thaljah locations, plant height and number of leaves at both locations The highest silage yield was obtained from Bohoth106at 400000 plant/ha in Tobzawh (52.0tons/ha) and Thaljah (50.0tons/ha) The highest grain yield was acheaved with Sara at 200000 plant/ha in Tobzawh (3.25.tons/ha) and Thaljah (3.28tons/ha).               

THE SUSCEPTBILITY OF SOME BARLEY CULTIVARS TO ROOT ROT INFECTION AND ITʼS BIOLOGCAL WITH MYCORRHIZA AND CHEMICAL CONTROL

Ali Al kubicy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 313-330
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161321

This study aimed to biological and chemical control for the most important root rot disease on barley in Iraq. Seven barley culivars were tested to barley root rot pathogens showed that all the cultivars have root rot infections and Iba cuv. has been the lowest level (0.45) in the greenhouse. At the field, All the cuvs. also have shown the infection of root rot and Al- Jazerah cuv. has the lowest class under natural conditions. Also, this cuv. characterized by an increase in the flag leaf (10.93cm2) and produced a greater number of spikes (2.13 spike / plant) and the highest rate of dry weight (4.53 gm/plant). The local Aswad cuv. characterized with the high content of salsilic acid (1.03%). Using the Veiscular Arbsuculur Mycorrhiza (VAM) fungus (Glomus intradices) has shown a decrease in the infection of two barley classes (Jazerah and Zanbaca) by root rot and in improving some characteristics of barley classes under the conditions of industrial infection which reflects on improving some plant characteristics in the greenhouse. At the field, Glomus intradices were efficient in decreasing the disease sevenity of barley root rot (0.34) which was morally equivalent to the best Fungicide (Vitavax) (0.65),This reflects on some plant characteristics and on the barley productivity. Thus, the productivity has increased from 697.3 to 1313.5 ton/hectare.fungicide. Under the industrial conditions of infection in the greenhouse, the fungicide (Vitavax and Raxil) had been the best for controlling disease and improving some characteristics of barley, followed by Mancozeb and Dividend. At the field, the pesticide (Vitavax) had shown superiority in decreasing the disease severity from 0.65 to 0.29 and improving some yield characteristics and raising the productivity from 697.3 to 1268 ton/hectare as well as the pesticide  Mancozeb which raises productivity from 697.3 to 1340.5 ton/hectare.

DETERMINATION OF OPTIMUM SOWING DATE AND PLANT POPULATION OF SOME SAFFLOWER CULTIVARS (Carthamus tinctorius L.) UNDER MOSUL CITY CONDITIONS

Saad A. M Al-Doori

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 331-342
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161290

To determine the optimum sowing date and plant population for safflower crop (Carthamus tinctorius L.), a factorial experiment was conducted by using randomized completed block design with three replications in AL-Rashidia location about (20 km) west north Nineveh province, Iraq, during the 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 winter growing seasons. Three sowing dates (1st, 3rd October, 4th, 5th November and 2nd,1st December for two seasons 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 respectively) and two plant populations (50000 and 100000 plants.ha-1) were selected. Hartinan, Syrian and Gila cultivars were used. The results showed that the different sowing dates had significant effect on growth characters, yield, yield components and quality, except linoleic acid in 2009-2010 season, the highest mean values were obtained at second sowing date in the two seasons 2008-2009 and 2009-2010. Safflower cultivars significantly differed for all the studied yield, its component and seed quality traits in both seasons, the highest mean values were obtained from Syrian cultivar in both seasons. Seed yield and oil yield influenced by different plant population significantly. Plant population of 50000 plants.ha-1 gave the highest mean for seed oil content and oil yield, while increasing the plant population to 100000 plants.ha-1 caused a significant increase of plant height and palmitic acid percentage in both growing seasons. The result of interaction among sowing dates, cultivars and plant population showed that the highest seed yield was obtained in Syrian cultivar sown in November using plant population of 50000 plants.ha-1. Therefore, Syrian cultivar sown in November with plant population of 50000 plants.ha-1 is recommended for this region.

EFFECT OF ULTRA HIGH TEMPERATURE PROCESSING ON LIPIDS OXIDATION IN MILK-FORTIFIED WITH SOME MINERAL ELEMENTS

Atallah Abdulghani; Mahmood Younis Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 343-352
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161291

The hypothesis of the present study was that the Ultra-high temperature (UHT) processing of fluid milk-fortified with Zn, Fe or Mg individually might change the perception of milk flavor as compared to normal UHT milk without fortification. Samples of fortified milk with zinc, iron and magnesium have been processed by a bench-top UHT plant (145 ºC/6 s) and filled into transparent polyethylene terephthalate containers. The milk samples were stored in closed incubator at 30 ºC for 60 days without exposing to light. At 10 and 30 days intervals, the samples were assessed for TBA test and sensory evaluation respectively. The main concern of this work was to evaluate the effect of UHT processing on the level of oxidation by both chemical and sensory evaluation of the fortified milks. Results showed that the values of TBA test increased significantly (p≤0.05) at the end of the storage life (60 d/30 ºC). Sensory evaluation of fortified milks with Zn, Fe and Mg showed miscellaneous results.

EFFECT OF SOIL MOISTURE STATE ON THE SURFACE RUNOFF AND SOIL LOSS UNDER NATURAL PRECIPITATION

Khalid Hassan; Mohanned A. Al-Shamma

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 353-360
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161292

Field experiment was preformed to determine the effect of  soil moisture state on the runoff volume and soil loss by using standard flumes with dimension of 100*12*30 cm. The flumes were filled with soil materials The results of this study pointed out that the moist state primarily appeared increasing the runoff volume and soil loss in comparison with dry state. The rate of soil loss under water erosion was found to be proportionally related with the soil moisture content. Also the results of the statistical analysis by regressing rainfall depth against runoff depth showed that threshold value of the surface runoff resulted from moist soil state were less than that of dry state.