Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 45, Issue 1

Volume 45, Issue 1, Winter 2017


SOME FACTORS RELATED TO ATTITUDES OF WHEAT FARMERS IN NINEVEH PROVINCE ABOUT ZERO TILLAGE FARMING

Bassam AL-Naqash

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161261

The objectives of this research were: studying of some factors related with attitudes of wheat farmers in the province of Nineveh, determining the general levels of respondents attitudes towards the zero tillage farming, Then to appoint the differences between attitudes according to personal and productivity characteristics of the farmers: age, full time of agricultural work, type of ownership, agricultural area, participation in extension agricultural activities, desire for renewal. The population of the study Included all farmers applying the technique of zero tillage and their numbers are 36 farmers, A random sample of 42 farmer who are not applying this technique where taken from the same area. Data was collected by questionnaire included two parts, the first contain the personal and productivity activities characteristics of the farmers the second part included a scale consisting 24 items to measure farmers' attitudes toward zero-tillage farming. The data were analyzed by using several statistical methods: percentages, the weighted mean, T-test, Kurskal-Wallis test. The results showed that about 90% attitudes of respondents with neutral tend to positive, The results also showed that there are differences between the attitudes of respondents towards zero tillage (no till)  with factors: ownership type and desire for renewal, while there are no differences with the factors: age, full time of  agricultural work, agricultural area, participation in extension agricultural. Result showed that there were significant differences between farmers who are applying this technique and who are not applying it

BARRIERS TO USING INTERNET IN TEACHING BY COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE FACULTY-UNIVERSITY OF MOSUL

Mohammed Jamil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161262

The purpose of this study was to provide baseline data concerning barriers to online teaching by the faculty of the college of agriculture-University of Mosul. 207 of the faculty in the college of agriculture were included in the survey, and 188 responded to instrument consisted measurements of faculty perceptions of  their level of competence to access related issues to teaching from internet, value of internet to teaching and learning, and level of administrative support to using online in teaching and learning. Findings indicated that faculty members had moderate ability to use internet in their teaching. The agricultural faculty members valued internet and recognized that it will be an important part of the instructional process. Infrastructure was perceived as multifaceted and in general lacking in this institution.

A STUDY OF THE DETERMINANTS OF THE OLIVE CROP PRODUCTION IN NINEVEH PROVINCE: BASHIQA DISTRICT AS A CASE STUDY FOR THE SEASON 2010

Abdul Salam Hussein; Salah Fahmi Shaba

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 25-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161263

The study aims to determinants of the olive crop production in Bashiqa, Nineveh province, as a stale for the 2010 season, The production function (Cobb - Douglas) was estimated using OSL to represent the relationship between the deltoid, which is the quantity of olive crop (y) produced in kg and the independent production factors used: labor vairable (l) worker, day; and the capital (K) dinars. The economic derivatives were identified, Also the total cost function for the short-term samples of the three farms was estimated. The Output of the olive crop was considered as the explanatory variable and the total cost in Iraqi Dinar is considered as dependant variable. The economic derivatives were identified and consequently the total profit was identified for the three categories. The quadratic function was the best one according to the standard statistical tests. Economic derivatives (marginal cost medium) and the ideal size that maximizes profit were calculated where it reached 862,779,714 kg/acre for the sample farms of the three categories noting that the level of actual output was 620,543, 595 kg /acre of the three categories, respectively, which is a clear indicator to the low level of economic efficiency in resource use for olive growers. Flexibility of the olive crop production has been derived for the three categories which are 0.888, 0.974, and 0.695. The flexibility costs amounted to 0.37, 0.33, and 0.17 which is less than the correct one, An indication that the farmers of this product was working the second phase of production.

INDEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT, AND THE A RANGE OF ITS ACHIEVEMENT IN CHOSEN ARABIC COUNTRIES FOR PERIOD (1980 -2010)

Salim Al-Youzbaki; Asmaa Mahmood Fathallah Al-Mansor

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 35-48
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161264

The aim of this study is measuring the range of achievement of indevelopment development in the countries of sample by using the mathematical method and measuring the factors which effect on indicators of independent  development by using the econometrica method in analysis , Independent development is considered the alternative distinguished style with balanced strategy with independence in identifying the needs and capabilities. It is a comprehensive, balanced and conscious with its trends, objectives and its relations with other countries. The countries of the sample (Iraq, Syria, Libya and Algeria) adopted this style to overcome their economic and social crises , to improve their conditions , to get rid of underdevelopment, dependency and to build and develop their societies. which become an important and critical issue now and in future. The research has concluded that the countries of the sample have capabilities and qualifications that enable them to achieve this independent development on one hand and that achieving this development varied amongst those countries on the other. We see that Syria is in the independence stage and this stage enables it from accomplishing its goals and providing its requirements to a large degree. For Algeria, it is currently in the transitional stage a way to accomplish independency. While Iraq and Libya now are in the stage of dependency in depending greatly on other countries in order to provide their goods and services. The research also reached several conclusions and recommendations

ALTERNATIVE FARM PLANS FOR VAGETABLE FARMERS A HIGHER PROFIT MARGIN AND EFFICIENCY IN USING OPTIMUM RESOURCE STYLE ASSALAMEYYAH REGION AS AMODEL

Salim Al-Nua’imi; Sura Sa’il Abed Al-Ugaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161265

The research aims at achieving economical objectives represented by increasing pure profit of distance unit for various crops in the light of economical resources characterized with their limits in order to meet the needs of the desired plans for the farmer to be able to achieve his objectives efficiently. Linear programming style is one of the economical planning styles at farm level. It is characterized by its ability to handle and solve problems that face the projects represented by optimum allocation of the rare resources among the available alternative uses to achieve the required objective. To achieve that, the study was performed on vegetable farms in Assalameyyah Region belonging to Al-Namroud sub-district irrigated by Assalameyyah irrigation project as a model for applying the alternative farm economical plans. The model is represented by increasing objective function in the light of (11) possible and available activity and (6) limits (land, seeds, compound fertilizer, Urea fertilizer, combating materials and capital). Some attempts on the model were performed and the productive plan (optimum plan) obtained at the level of sample (70) farmers in (10) villages within the project area. The analysis results indicated that it has achieved a total margin more than the achieved total margin according to the prevailed structure in the region at an average (11127%) for the sample. The results also indicated to the presence of a surplus in most of the productive resources except land resource which refers to the inefficiency in using and wastage of those resources. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the model to analyze the supposed changes. The test included raising the costs of the productive requirements at a rate (10%). Then , the prices of selling the planted crops at a rate (10%). The results of test analyzing referred to achieving total margin more than the achieved total margin according to the current productive plan in the region for the first case. In the second case , the results achieved a total margin less than the achieved total margin according to the current productive plan..

THE EFFECT OF THE AGRICULTURAL PRICE POLICIES ON THE AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION IN IRAQ WITH EMPHASIS ON THE STRATEGIC CROPS (WHEAT, BARLEY AND RICE) FOR THE PERIOD (1985-2008)

Abbas Al-Battah; Ahmed Jameel Ibrahim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 59-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161266

Price policy is considered one of the important policies carried out by the state in order to increase and improve the agricultural production from one hand and provide food for all individuals of the community in encouraging prices for the producers and suitable for the consumers with low income from the other hand. It also contributes in providing the necessary capital for the economic development operation,The research aims at recognizing the range of the agricultural price policy effect of the strategic agricultural crops in expanding and deflating their local production in order to take benefit from the value of the economic variables and their effective ranges in designing the agricultural price policy suitable for the Iraqi agriculture,We have chosen a number of agricultural crops whose prices have a great importance for they are considered of the important strategic crops in achieving food security of the country. Those crops have been represented by wheat, barley and rice. The study has depended on the concepts of the economic theory and the previous studies in determining the variable effective on the agricultural production model for the abovementioned crops that involve a number of independent variables. We have used data obtained from those variables for a period (24) years for analysis. In order to get best results, we have applied a standard model with different formulas (double linear and logarithmic and the semi logarithmic). In order to collect data, the research depends on several resources.

THE EFFECT OF ECONOMIC REFORMTION PROGRAMS AND STRUCTURAL MODIFICATION ON THE ARABIC AGRICULTURE

Adnan Albadra; Taha Ahmed AbdulRaheem Al-Mshhdani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 67-80
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161267

Develop programs of economic reformtion and structural adjustment are of the main programs that attach economic policy in developing and Arab countries, because of their great importance in addressing the imbalance in the balance of payments and structural in balances at the level of economic sectors, and those key sectors “the agricultural sectors”, which is one of the important sectors, especially in countries that depend on this sector in its economy. In this study treating the disorder which happen in the agricultural sectors in (Egypt- Saudi) had been focused which have been chosen as samples for research that represent the Arab countries in their thinkable and input the changes which the researcher describe it as the greater changes in the dependence change and according the priority which these countries use to treat these disorders in their agricultural economic sectors differences also has been chosen, here remarkable changes noticed in the natural of dealing with these disorders as it's one of the problems which devoted the state of  duality Treating this disorders is the main aim because the varies of the national economic inputs and developing the agricultural sector in order to contribute activity in increasing the product and the production, and according to that (Egypt and Saudi) considered as the countries that use such a method.

POSSIBILITY OF APPLYING THE ISLAMIC FORMULAS IN AGRICULTURAL BANKS IN IRAQ BY USING SIMULATION METHOD

Dawood S; Mothana K. Rasheed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 81-90
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161268

The rate of farmers who participate in Agricultural Credit programs make up 5% -10% of the farming community of Muslims which is modest when compared to the number of workers in agriculture where most of them are small of farmers in need of capital, but because they forbid dealing benefit (RIBA),they do not benefit  of the essential services provided by agricultural banks, which accordingly  affects the amount of agricultural production, so included hypothesis search that there are Islamic banks exercised their operations according to the Islamic law and that there are included hypothesis formulas Islamic search alternative to interest rate can be adopted in dealing with farmers in the agricultural banks in Iraq, but in order to prove this hypothesis simulation method had been using through use Alqther Alhasan formula when disbursement of agricultural loans which showed that there was an increase in the quantity of agricultural production if this formula was used, time series for the period 1970-2010 for loans disbursed and the amount of agricultural production in Iraq had been taken.

RESPONSE OF VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF TWO CVS. FIG SEEDLINGS TO TREATMENT WITH HUMIC ACID , LIQUID ESSENTIAL PLUS AND GA3

Ayad Al-Alaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 91-102
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161269

Seedlings of two fig cvs. (Aswad Dyalla and White Adriatic) , planted polyethylene plastic  in the lath house were fertilized at three levels with humic acid (0 , 1 and 2 ml.L-1) liquid fertilizer (1-0-1) Essential plus (0 , 1 and 2 ml.L-1)and GA3 (0, 25 and 50 mg.L-1) to improve vegetative growth of the seedlings. The experiment was factorial design in (C.R.D) with 3 replicates and 4 seedlings within replicate, Dancant  test was used to compare the treatments mean, at the level 5% probability. The important results were as follows:

humic acid treatment improved shoots number , leaves number , leaves content of total chlorophyll, leaves dry weight , leaf area , significantly as compared with  the control treatment.
White Adriatic seedlings was superior on Aswad Dyalla , significantly in seedling height , shoot number , fresh and dry weight of the leaves , and leaf area.
Spray with GA3 (25 and 50 mg.L-1) increased stem height and diameter significantly
Interaction between 2 ml.L-1 of humic acid and White Adriatic was the superior in the most parameters.

SHOOT TIPS AND NODES MULTIPLICATION, CALLUS INTIATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS L. CULTURE IN VITRO

Bashar A.Kasab Bashi; Khaula M. Y. AL-Nooh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 103-112
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161270

This investigation was carried out in the laboratory of cells and plant tissue culture at department of Horticulture and Landscape Design,College of Agriculture and Forestry,Mosul university,to propagate Calendula officinalis L. cv. Lemon Queen in vitro by multiplication shoot tips and nodes taken from field culture on MS medium supplemented with (0.0,0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) mg /l BA,shoot produced in vitro cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0.0,0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0) mg/l IBA,moreover parts of leaves had been cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg /l 2,4-D for callus initiation, callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with (0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0) mg/l BA interacted with(0.0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0) mg/l IBA for differentiation. Data refer that best multiplication 7.8 shoots/explants with 2.7 cm length were obtained from cultured shoot tip drived from field cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BA after eight weeks compared with nodes which gave 3.6 shoots / explants with 2.8 cm length from cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BA after eight weeks, highest rooting 70% with highest roots number 8.8 obtained from shoot tips produced in vitro cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg /l IBA, highest fresh weight of callus 15.9 gm was initiated from callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg /l IBA or from callus cultured on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA and 1.0 mg /l IBA, 4.0 shoot /explant regenerated from callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l IBA, 10.2 root /explant obtained from callus cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg
/l BA after eight weeks.

EFFECT OF ROOTS LICORICE EXTRACT AND SUCROSE ON VASE LIFE AND SOME CHARACTERISTIC CHIMICALS OF Dendranthema grandiflorum FLOWER

Khetam Rashed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 113-120
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161271

This study was conducted in the physiology lab of the Department of Horticulture / Faculty of Agriculture / University of Dohuk during the period from 3rd of November 2009 to 20th of March 2010 to test the effects of preservation the flowers of extract of liquorice root at (0، 2.5، 5 g.l-1) and with sucrose at (0، 0.5، 1 g.l-1) on vase life، and some characteristic chemicals Dendranthema grandiflorum flower. Results showed that the highest increasing percentage founded at 1g.l-1 sucrose reached 1.63%, 10.15%, 9.18%, 5.66 %, 2.49%, 2.84%, 1.99%, 2.58% and 11.94 day for nitrogen percentage، protein percentage، carbohydrate percentage، C/N ratio، α- carotene، β – carotene، Astaxanthin، zeaxanthin and vase life، also the extract of liquorice root caused significantly increase on nitrogen percentage، protein percentage، carbohydrate percentage، C/N ratio- β carotene، α - carotene، Astaxanthin zeaxanthin and vase life، compared with non treated flowers the highest increasing where founded with high level 5g.l-1، all interactions between factors had significantly effect on all characters where studies.

A COMPARATIVE PRODUCATION OF GREEN ONION BY SEEDS AND SETS METHODS AND THE EFFECT WITH SOME CULTURAL PRACTICES ON GROWTH , YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS

Mohammad El-Habar; Ghalia Ghanem Younis Al–Obeidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 121-136
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161272

This study was conducted to compare the production of green onion (cv. Taxes Early Grano) by two planting methods (seed and set) which were planted in the field in two planting dates:18 Oct. and 2 Dec. The third factor was to compare the use of three organic fertilizers i. e. chicken manufactured manure (melfert 25 kg/100 m2) , Rotten sheep manure (60 m3/ha.) and organic pow humus manure (2 gm/l.) with the chemical fertilizer as recommended by The Iraqi Agriculture ministry. The results showed that Plants produced from the 1st planting date and planted with sets were significantly greater than the plants produced from the 2nd planting date and planted with seed on most vegetative growth traits. Whereas, the two dates did not differ differ significantly in fresh weight of necks. The results also showed that the 1st planting date led to a significant increase in mean of the marketable plant weight and its yield per hectar as compared with plant planted in second planting date. However the number of bulb produced from doubling plants was un affected significantly by the planting date. Mean while, the plants produced by sets method increased significantly in all (significantly and non significantly) mentioned above yield characters as compared with plants produced by seed planting method. The plants fertilized with the organic fertilizers showed non significant difference among them or with plants fertilized with the inorganic (chemical) fertilizer in the most vegetative growth, yield and their component traits mentioned above. The bulb produced from the second planting date and planted with set method and chemical fertilizer increased significantly in nitrate content. The result indicated that plant planted in the first planting date and planted with the sets method and fertilized with organic fertilizer (pow humus 2 gm/l) gave the highest mean weight of marketable per plant (332.87 gm) and its yield per hectar was (88.764 ton).

RESPONSE OF STORED LOCAL ORANGE FRUITS TO DIPPING IN SODIUM BICARBONATE, SUGAR SOLUTION, FUNGICIDE AND WAXING

Nagham Salah; Nameer N. Fadhil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 137-148
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161273

This research was conducted in the cold storage of Horticulture Dept./College of Agriculture & Forestry/ Mosul University. Orange fruits cv."Local" were brought from a private orchard in "Balad" region (70 km. south of "Tikret"). The fruits were picked carefully in the evening on 24th November 2010, in the morning of the next day, the fruits were transported to the Agriculture College, precooled, and stored in the cool room at 7◦C. for 2 days before performing these treatment: 1- dipping in the solution of Curzate fungicide at the concentrations 0 and 2 gm.l-1 . 2- dipping for 2 minutes in 0 (control), 10 and 20٪ and 1,5 and 3٪ sodium bicarbonate 3-paraffin waxing (waxed and non-waxed), and the interaction between the treatments. The most important results were as follows: Two gm.l-1 fungicide treatment reduced significantly chilling injury disorder incidence. Also waxed orange fruits reduced significantly weight loss and total soluble solids and total acidity, also waxing treatment reduced significantly chilling injury disorder incidence. And among dipping treatments, 1,5 and 3٪ sodium bicarbonate treatments were the most effective, as they reduced significantly of total soluble solids and total acidity, besides, they were very effective in reducing chilling injury disorder incidence. The interaction between fungicide, waxing and dipping treatments was more effective than the single factors, especially in reducing weight loss, also inhibited chilling injury disorder incidence.

EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAYING WITH ZINC, ASCORBIC AND GIBBERELLIC ACIDS ON GROWTH, YIELD OF EGGPLANTS GROWN UNDER UNHEATED PLASTIC HOUSE

Abdul Jabbar Al-Hubaity; Hussien J. M. Al-Bayati; Waleed B. A. Al-Lelah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 149-162
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161274

This study was carried out during winter growing season 2011-2012 to study the effect of foliar spray with three levels of each zinc (0,20,40 mgl-1), ascorbic acid (0,100,200 mgl-1) and GA3 (0,25,50 mgl-1) in order to improve the vegetative growth and yield components of egg plants(Benecia F1cv.). The study was arranged in RCBD with three replication. The plants were sprayed three times separately for each treatment at one month intervals between each spray beginning from first flowering date. Results indicated a significant increase in the number of branches, dry matter(%), while non-significant increase was seen in plant length, chlorophlly (%), leaf area, number of leaves, number of fruits, fruits weight, early yield and total yield per unit area by spraying plant with zinc. Whereas, ascorbic acid treatment caused a non-significant increase in chlorophyll (%), dry matter (%), number of branches and fruits weight. On the other hand, spraying with GA3 resulted in a significant increase in plant length, number of branches plant -1, but revealed non-significant increase in the remnant traits excluding fruit weight which reduced by GA3 treatments as compared with control treatment. Correlation analysis exhibited a positively significant correlation between the total yield per unit area with each of number of fruits plant-1, leaf area plant-1, number of leaves plant-1, plant length at probability0.01,andwithfruitweightatprobability 0.05.

EFFECT OF RATIONS CONTENT OF DEGRADABLE PROTEIN AND BARLEY GRAIN (STARCH) IN MILK PRODUCTION , COMPONENTS AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF AWASSI EWES

Omar ALMallah; Mohamed. N. Abdullah; Waseem. A. Hashem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 163-174
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161276

This study was conducted in Al-Rashidiya animal breeding station, using 32 Awassi ewes (3-5 yrs old) with average body weight of 66.59 kg with their single born lambs. The ewes were divided randomly into 4 groups, the first (T1) and second (T2) groups fed on rations consist of 35% barley and contained two levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP) 10 and 13 g/ MJ metabolizable energy. while barley grain raised to 62% in the ration of third and fourth groups (T3 and T4) to increase the starch ratio with observance of the same level of RDP 10 and 13 g/ MJ respectively , and all the rations were iso calorie. Results indicated that RDP and starch levels had no significant effect on milk yield which were 968 , 1067 , 1127 ,and 867 g/ day, milk composition and yield with exception milk urea concentration were decreased (p<0.05) in T3 11.67 mg/ dl as compared with T2 21.14 mg/ dl, also milk urea concentration was increased significantly with RDP increase from 10 to 13 g/ MJ , but decreased (p<0.05) with increasing starch level. Ammonia concentration in rumen liquor decreased (p<0.05) after 2hrs of feeding in T1 4.57 mmol/ dl as compared with to T2 6.34 , T3 6.53 and T4 6.46 mmol/ dl. It was noted that treatments had no significant effect on body weight change in ewes , average daily gain in lambs and also in blood metabolites with exception the significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentration of triglyceride in T3 14.67 mg/ dl as compared to other treatments were 20.19, 22.91 and 24.35 mg/ dl , also the increase in RDP level led to significant increased (p<0.05) in triglyceride concentration.

EFFECT OF USING DUAL- PURPOSE OVEN ON AFLATOXINS DESTRUCTION AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF YELLOW CORN

Salah Ahmed; Maha A. Al-Jawady

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 175-186
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161286

The aim of this study was to study the effect of destruction treatments of aflatoxins contaminated corn by dual purpose oven (microwave and heating). Aflatoxins B1and G1 destruction on chemical constitutes treatments were as follows: 100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 0:100 for 3, 5 and 10 minutes. The percentage of the two aflatoxins destruction and the effect of aflatoxin destruction treatments on chemical properties of corn were calculated. These were included moisture, protein, fat, ash, and carbohydrates %. Data show that treatment of the corn by dual purpose oven resulted in reduction of aflatoxin B1 and G1 by 25.4 – 100 and 32-100 %, respectively. The reduction percent was increased with increasing the percentage of using microwaves energy and exposure period. There was a significant (p<0.05) change in the chemical components of the corn in oven treatment. Moisture percent decreased and this was resulted in increasing in protein, fat, ash and carbohydrates percent. Changes in the components percent were different according to the percent of the microwaves energy and ordinary used and exposure  period

PRODUCING PROBIOTIC CHEESE FROM SHEEP MILK BY USING PROBIOTIC BACTERIA

Maha Yousif

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 187-196
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161287

This study aimed to produce probiotic (Arabic cheese) by using a mixture of probiotic bacteria namely; Lactobacillus acidophilus andBifidobacteriumlongum. The cheese samples were made from sheep milk.  Control cheese was made with rennet only, while the probiotic cheese was made with a combination of probiotic bacterial strains in addition to the rennet. The produced cheese were analyzed chemically, microbiologically, and organoleptically at intervals (fresh, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days) at 4 c  in refrigerator. The results of the study revealed, a decrease in moisture content, pH, and total protein percentand an increase in fat, acidity, and soluble nitrogen percentages with the increase in storage periods for both kinds of cheese (the control and probioticcheese). The counts of Lb. acidophilus and Bif. Lognum were kept more than 106 during the storage and at the end of the storage. The probiotic cheese and the control had high scores of organoleptic properties. The results indicated that, the produced cheese (Arabic cheese) which contained both strains of probiotic bacteria offers another way in using dairy products as functional food.

EFFECT OF EUCALYPT WOOD LIGNOSULFONATES ON CONCRETE PROPERTIES

Esam Hamid; Esam Majeed Solyman; Janan Yousif David

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 197-208
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161277

The study was performed to investigate the effect of Eucalyptus camldulenses wood lignosulfonate on concrete properties. several concrete mixtures were used with the variables (cement: 500, 600, and 700 gm.), (water: 35, 40, 45, and 50%). (Lignosulfonate: zero. 3, and 5%). A compression test on all samples was used to evaluate the effect of the Eucalypt wood lignosulfonates on concrete properties. There were a highly significant effects of the studied main variables on compression test, specially cement, water percentage, lignin derivative (lignosulfonate) and the interactions between cement with water percentage, cement with lignin derivatives, water with lignin and cement with water and lignin derivatives. The interaction between cement and lignin derivative didn’t show any significant effect on compression test. After Duncan's test on all the study factors showed that cement amount of 600gm had a highest average of compression test with 130.28 kg/ cm2. water percent (35, 40, 45, and 50%) gave the highest values (112.34, 115.73, and 117.2 kg) respectively.Consequently lignin derivative percentages had a significant effect on the compression test specially at (3, 5%) percent (114, 118, 8 kg / cm2) respectively. Averages of 600gm of cement samples and 45% water interactions had a highest average (147, 81 kg/cm2) values, 40% percent of water & 3% lignin (Lignosulfonates) had compression values of (142, 84 kg / cm2).All samples of 600 gm. Cement, 45% water percentage and 3% lignin derivative had best compressed value 182.44 kg/ cm2.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF POPLAR SPECIES LEAVES GROWN IN NINEVAH GOVERNORATE.

Y.M. Al-alousy; M.Y. Mohamed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 209-216
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161278

Leaves forage of three Poplar species grown at Ninevah forest(Populus nigra , P. euphratica , P. deltoids) were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of Crude protein , Ash, Organic matter, Dry matter, Eather extraction, Crude fiber, Soluble carbohydrates , Phosphorus, and Potassium which determined according to Anonymous. (2002), in order to determine the best date for collecting the forage of these species to be used at food shortage time for livestock and wild ungulates. Samples were collected in fivedates (20th\ April , 20th June, 20th Augest,20th October,20th November). The study showed that Populus nigra leaves were significantly different with other species and contained higher percentage of Ash, Crude protein and phosphorus and suitable percent of crude fibers , whereas Populus deltoids leaves contained the higher percent of dry matter, soluble carbohydrates, Eather extraction and Potassium and the lower percent of crude fibers , contained the lower percent of crude protein and higher percent of crude fibers. The study recommended using the forage of Populus nigra and P. deltoids leaves in livestock and wild Ungulates Nutrition because of there higher contain of crude protein over all growth season and the fibers percent did not increased too much by the progressive of growing season in adition to the good content of other nutrition compounds.

EFFECT OF TILLAGE SYSTEM AND SEED RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF DURUM WHEAT (Triticum durum) AND GROWTH OF ASSOCIATED WEEDS IN DRYLAND FARMING

Ahmad Sultan; Salim. H. Antar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 217-228
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161280

A field experiment was conducted during the growing season 2010-2011 at Namrood under supplementary irrigation and Al-koosh location under rainfall condition in Naniva province to evaluate tillage system (No till. Conventional till) under different seeding rates (100, 120, 140 kg / ha) to eliminate weed growth and to increase durm wheat var (Omm Rabie) yield Triticum durum L. However, the location was the third factor. The results showed that there was reduction in the number or dry weight of narrow 49.1 %.34.4 % respectively and broad leave weeds (57.9, 56.1 % respectively) in no till system when compared with conventional tillage but there was no difference between the two tillage system in wheat yield. In Al- Koosh location, there were reduction in the number and dry weight of grass weeds and dry weight of broad leave weeds when compared with Namrood location.Wheat yield was higher at Namrood as comparing with Al-Koosh (56.2 %) with difference between the two system up to 1952.8 kg / ha. On other hand, as seed rates had increased up to 140 kg/ha, the weed growth was low and the yield increased even if at 100 kg/ha seed rate. In general, the best result of crop yield at Namrood was with 100 kg/ ha seed rate under conventional tillage while at Al-Koosh location, Low yield had given in the con. Till differences between the two treatments reached up to 59.9 %.

USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERSTICS OF GRAINS FOR IDENTIFICATION AND TAXONOMY OF SOME OAT CULTIVARS (Avena sativa L.)

A. Jabar; A. A. Yahya

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 229-242
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161281

This study was conducted in the laboratories of the Department of Biology, College of Education, Mosul University, to study the morphological and chemical characters of Oat Grains (Avena sativa). The cultivars studied were (Possum 6, Kangaroo 4, tall Oat, Mittika 5, short Oat). The data collected were statistically analyzed by using the Complete Randomized Design (C.R.D) with four replications for each experiment. Cultivars differences were verified statistically significant at the 5% level using Duncan multiple range test for each character used the morphological characters of Oat Grains: The results showed the presence of differences between cultivars in the following characters: Grain length, width and thickness, Rachilla length and density of brush hair, distance between cheeks, Grooves depth and shape, embryo shape, length of lodicules, The chemical characters of Oat grain: Cultivars differed for the percentage of oil content in the grain. Cultivars differed for the protein contents in the grains. All Grains cultivars were subjected to treatment by 1% phenol solution. Cultivars were stained to different degrees according to the intensity of staining. All Grains cultivars were also subjected to treatment by solution of (Phenol + Ferrous sulfate). Some Cultivars were stained to different degree of green color. There were differences in the degree of collapse of amylase (a starchy substance) of the grains after treatment with the solution of potassium hydroxide (2%), as there were broken and dissolution of the amylase of the grain of the cultivars, semi-broken amylase, or there was nearly no broken grains of the cultivar at tall.

EFFECT OF WHEAT AND BARLEY SEED PRIMING TREATMENTS ON BEHAVIOR OF GROWTH AND YIELD OF PLANT

Mohammed Al-Nori

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 243-256
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161282

The experiment was conducted in growth season 2011-2012 in the green house of Agriculture and Forestry College - Mosul University; to study the effects of four priming solutions i.e.(tap water, magnetized water, wheat enzyme, and barley enzyme) in addition to check treatment (without priming) on two wheat varieties (Cham-6 and Dour29) and two barley varieties (Local white and Fourat-4). The results illustrated that the priming solutions affect yield traits in wheat, and germination speed and growth characters in barley. Wheat varieties differ in emergence% and yield characters, while barley varieties differ in growth and yield characters. The second order interaction affect most studied characters. General results revealed that seed priming with water has a good effect on most growth and yield parameter.

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L

Mowafaq Al-Layla

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 257-272
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161283

Six sun flower Genotypes (1-American, 2-Argenteny, 3-Govan, 4-Azor,
5-Mungreen, 6-Louse. were planted. half diallel was conducted out to get F1, In the next season the F1 seeds were planted to get F2.In the third season the six parents and all their F2 were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications.to study general and specific combining abilities for parents and crosses respectively, phenotypic variance components and some genetic parameters for parents and crosses were determined for plant height, leaf area, no. of seeds\head, diameter of head, 1000 weights seed, seed yield, biological yield, dry weight. Results indicated that the analysis of variance for genotypes, general and specific combining ability were significant for leaf area and No. of seed head and biological yield. While specific combining ability were specified for 1000 seed weight, seed yield and diameter head. The values of broad sense heritability was ranged from 67% for plant height character and 99% for leaf area and biological yield characters. Narrow sense heritability ranged from 1% for plant height and 40% for Biological yield. It was shown that selection for Biological yield gave higher percent of response to selection (27.12%) from original mean of yield, followed by no. of seed /head which gave percent of response to selection (15.62%)from original mean of yield.

EFFECT OF THE DISTANCES BETWEEN SUBSOILER PLOW TINES BILATERAL AND PENETRATION ANGLES ON SOME PERFORMANCE INDICATORS FIELD

Adel Abdullah; Yousif Y. Hilal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 273-286
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161284

The research was implemented in a field of agriculture college- Mosul Univ., which its soil texture is clay. The study included the use of three penetration angles of subsoiler plow tines bilateral 30 and 40 and 50 degree and three distances between subsoiler plow tines bilateral 1.1 and 1.5 and 1.75 meters and Forward Speed of the tractor 2.37 and 3.50 km / h and its impact on Draw-bar Power, Slippage , Specific resistance , tillage width at the surface and stability Ratio of the depth. The experiment was conducted by using Randomized Complete Block Design RCBD. Three factors was used with its interactions. The use of Duncan multiple range test to indicate significant differences between the averages of the transactions, The results showed that all the traits affected by moral penetration angles and distances between subsoiler plow tines and Forward Speed of the tractor in terms of increased Draw-bar Power, Slippage , Specific resistance at increase penetration angles and Forward Speed of the tractor and lower tillage width at the surface and stability Ratio of the depth. The distance between the tines was 1.5 meters ranked first in the devaluation of the Draw-bar Power, Slippage , Specific resistance and increased tillage width at the surface and stability Ratio of the depth. Give an interactions distance of 1.5 meters and the angle of penetration of 30 degrees and Forward Speed of the tractor 2.37 km/h. The best results in reducing the Draw-bar Power, Slippage , Specific resistance and the values ​​are respectively 8.06 Kw and 5.07% and 39.89 Kn / m 2 and gave the highest tillage width at the surface and stability Ratio of the depth values which ​​were 156.67 cm and 93.34% respectively.

INFLUENCE OF VARYING LEVELS OF RUMEN DEGRADABLE TO UNDEGRADABLE PROTEIN ON MILK YIELD, COMPOSITION AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF KARADI EWES

Jalal Eliya Alkass; Kamal Noman Dosky; Emad Tayar Sadeeq Buti Buti

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 287-298
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161251

Twenty-four lactating Karadi ewes, 3-5 years old and 54±0.69 kg in body weight were used to study the effect of rumen degradable protein (RDP) to rumen undegradable protein (RUP) ratio on milk yield, composition and some blood metabolites. Ewes with their lambs were placed in individual pens and fed ad libitum on three rations containing different levels of RDP:RUP namely 68:32 (T1), 56:44 (T2) and 50:50 (T3). Milk yield was recorded in two successive days at biweekly intervals commencing at 2nd week post lambing by using hand milking and lamb suckling technique. Also, blood samples were withdrawn at start, mid and at the end of the experimental period (84 days).
Daily milk yield and total milk yield averaged 1.16±0.038 and 98.31±4.44 kg, respectively. Feeding ewes protected soybean meal (SBM) resulted in a non-significant increase in milk yield in T3 (15.22%), and 12.06% in fat corrected milk (FCM) in T2 as compared to control. A significant (P<0.05) effect of treatment on both percentage and yield of fat and protein was observed. However, the highest fat percent and yield was recorded in T2, whereas, the highest percent and yield of protein was noticed in T2 and T3, respectively. Cholesterol and urea levels was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T1 as compared to other groups.
 

EFFECT OF ZINC AND BORON FOLIAR APPLICATION ON GROWTH, YIELD AND QUALITY OF SOME SUNFLOWER GENOTYPES ( Helianthus annuus L.)

Saad A. M Al-Doori

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 299-318
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161252

A field experiment was conducted during spring and autumn growing seasons of 2009 to study the effect of foliar application of zinc and boron on growth characters, yield componentsand quality of some sunflower genotypes (Helianthus annuus L.). The experiment was carried out according to the factorial experiment in a randomized completely block design, consisting of three zinc application (0,  6, 12 mg.L-1) and three boron application (0, 4 and 8 mg.L-1) with three sunflower genotypes (Myogen, Isaanka and Ginmus). The main findings could be summarized as follows:- Foliar application of zinc to the leaves with concentration 12 mg.L-1 showed a significant increase in plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, head diameter, number of seeds head-1, 1000 seed weight and seed yield.ha-1, oil percentage, oil, protein yield (ton.
ha-1), However, protein percent was decreased. Addition of boron sprayed on the plant leaves with concentration 4 mg.L-1 lead to a significant increase in plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, head diameter, number of seeds head-1, 1000 seed weight and seed yield.ha-1, oil percentage, oil, protein yield (ton.ha-1), while increasing concentration of boron to 8 mg.L-1 caused a significant increase in protein percentage in the two seasons'.
Results showed that the Isaanka genotype gave a high values for characters stem diameter, leaf area, head diameter, number of seeds. head-1, 1000 seed weight and seed yield.ha-1, oil percentage, oil, protein yield (ton.ha-1) in both seasons. The triple interaction among Isaanka genotype × foliar application of 12 mg Zn.L-1 × concentration of 4 mg B.L-1 sprayed on the plant leaves, achieved the highest mean for the characteristics of: plant height, stem diameter, number of seeds head-1, seed yield.ha-1 and oil, protein yield (ton.ha-1) for both seasons. In general, it could be concluded that for maximizing total seed and oil yields per unit area may be achieved by planting Isaanka genotype with adding zinc and boron to the leaves plant with concentration 12 Zn and 4 B mg.L-1 under the environmental conditions of this study

NONENZYMATIC BROWNING KINETIC REACTION AND ASCORBIC ACID DEGREDATION OF HEAT-TREATED ORANGE JUICE DURING STORAGE

Thamer A. Khalil Khalil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 319-328
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161257

The kinetics of ascorbic acid (AA) degradation and nonenzymatic browning (NEB) of heat-treated single strength orange juice (OJ) over a temperature between 70-95 oC for 2-10 min. and stored under opaque condition at 4 and 20 oC for 2 months have been studied. Analysis of kinetic data by measuring absorbance at 420 nm (A420) suggested a zero-order reaction for NEB, while AA degradation followed a first-order reaction. The temperature dependence of NEB and AA degradation were adequately modeled by the Arrhenius equation. Activation energy of NEB and AA degradation as affected by heat-treatment and storage condition followed the same trend. The obtained results indicate that AA degradation can be evaluated by the intensity of brown colour development of OJ.

APPLICATION OF ENZYMATICALLY HYDROLYZED-LACTOSE MILK AND WHEY IN SOME DAIRY PRODUCTS

Waleed Mahmood; Karzan T. Mahmood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 329-340
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.161258

Kluyveromyces lactis β-Galactosidase was used to hydrolyze lactose in milk (28 and 56% hydrolysis) and in whey (26.25 and 52.5% hydrolysis). Hydrolyzed-lactose milk was used for the production of ice cream and stirred flavored yogurt while the hydrolyzed-lactose whey was used for the production of a soft drink (whey beverage). The added sucrose to these products was decreased to compensate the sweetness that gained as a result of lactose hydrolysis. The percentages of saved sucrose in ice cream were 6.53 and 13.06% for 28 and 56% hydrolyzed-lactose samples, respectively. Sensory evaluation of ice cream sweetness showed non-significant difference (p≤0.05) between the hydrolyzed-lactose samples (28 and 56% hydrolysis) and the untreated sample except for texture where a significant difference was observed between the 56% hydrolyzed-lactose ice cream and the control sample.
The percentages of sucrose saving in stirred flavored yogurt were equal to 7.42 and 14.84% for 25.83 and 51.66% lactose hydrolysis, respectively, whereas in whey beverage they were equal to 3.25 and 6.5% for 26.25 and 52.5% lactose hydrolysis, respectively. Sweetness sensory evaluation of the stirred flavored yogurt and whey beverage showed non-significant differences among hydrolyzed-lactose samples and the untreated samples.

SIZE AND DENSITY OF NON-ERODIBLE AGGREGATES IN SEDIMENTS OF SELECTED GULLIES AT NORTHERN IRAQ

Khalid Hassan; Yousif H. Al-Nasser; Omer N. Abid-Alkader

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 341-348
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161259

The objective of this study was to determine the morphometric characteristics and sediment size distribution as affected by position witin the gullies at northern region of Iraq.  The plan area, maximum depression depth, maximum length L and severity index for each gully unit were measured. The size distribution of each gully unit was analyzed mechanically for major grain size fractions and were characterized statistically using various type of statistical measures (median size, sorting, and skewness). The results showed that the addition of finer/coarse materials in 1st and 2nd catchments was deposited under the prevailing low and high energy conditions respectively.  Moreover the ability of the surface soil to accept the accelerated erosion, in these catchments was related to the stability of aggregates to the shearing force of running water. On the basis of this assumption, we can be expected that, the soil loss in the 1st gully catchment was greater than compared to 2nd, and it seems  that the morphometric characteristics and sediment-grain size distribution alone would be insufficient for  predicting  soil loss from gullies. 

EFFECT OF TYPE OF ORGANIC MANURE AND CONCENTRATION ON THE ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES OFSOME CALCAREOUS SOILS FROM NORTHERN IRAQ

Rand Ghazal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 349-366
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161260

The effect of four sources of organic manures (alfalfa residue, cow, chicken and sheep) and their concentrations (0, 1 and 2%) on the enzymatic activity of three calcareous soils from Northern Iraq have been studied in a 45-day incubation experiment at 28C and 90% of the field capacity. During this period, the activity of urease, asparginase and glutaminase have been measured at a 2-week intervals. Results indicated that the more the concentration of the added manure, the more the activity of the enzymes. Addition of alfalfa residue resulted in more activity, followed by chicken manure, then sheep. The least effect was obtained in soils treated with cow manure.