Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 47, Issue 2

Volume 47, Issue 2, Spring 2019


IMPACT OF ACID SCARIFICATION AND COLD MIST STRATIFICATION ON ENHANCING SEED GERMINATION AND SEEDLING EARLY GROWTH OF Albizia lebbeck (L.) Benth.

Hivi Shawkat Ibrahim; Othman Kamil Aref Hawramee

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 1-13
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163175

The thick, hard and water-impermeable seed coat cause physical dormancy and low germination rate in Albizia lebbeck (L.), to overcome this physical dormancy, seeds were pretreated with concentrated HCl and cold mist condition. Immersing seeds in concentrated HCl acid 37% for 30 and 45min effectively raised seed germination rate (35.56% and 46.67%) respectively as compared to control treatment (15.56%). Cold mist storage at 5C for 4 and 8 weeks also significantly increased germination percentage (51.11% and 68.89%) respectively. Furthermore, the combination of cold mist stratification for 8 weeks and immersion in HCl for 15min boost the germination rate to 75.56% an increase of 59.90% comparing to control treatment.  For seedling parameters, all treatments have positive effects on the studied characters highest seedling height (37cm) and number of leaves per plant (18 leaves) where found in, 8 weeks cold mist condition, however, the combination of 15min acid scarification and 8 week cold mist stratification resulted in higher leaves area (207.52). Acid scarification and cold mist stratification both increased germinations and improved seedling features, but germination rates were highest and fastest when these treatments were applied together. The results suggest that to enhance seedling qualities, seed germination rate and speed, a combination of scarification and stratification should be used.

EFFECT OF PLANTING METHOD AND SPRAYING WITH THE ORGANIC NUTRITION SOLUTION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO RADISH VARIETIES (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L.)

Abdullah M. S. AL-Dabbagh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 14-27
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163176

This study was conducted in vegetable field of Horticulture Department /college of Agric. and forestry / Mosul University during the winter season of 2017-2018, to study the effect of two methods of planting (plots and furrows), and spraying with different concentration levels: 0, 3, and 6 ml.l-1 of nutritious organic solution, Tecamin Max, on the growth and production of two varieties of radish, red Celesta, and black Rudi.The results have showed a significant of furrows method as compared to the plot method when it comes to the majority of the studied characteristic, including: leaves area, the length and diameter of the root, the dry weight of the roots, the weight of the single plant, and the total yield. As for spraying with the nutritious organic solution, Tecamin Max, with 3ml.l-1 concentration levels, it showed a significant advantage regarding comparison in the length and diameter of root. The black varieties was advantageous when it came to dry root weight, while the red was advantageous in the weight of the single plant, the total yield, and the root length. Dual and triple interaction have also matched single interaction of each factor, with the triple interaction of furrow planting, while spraying with 3ml.l-1 of Tecamin Max for the red varieties providing the highest ratio of the single plant of 171.6g, and the highest total of roots of 22.88 t.ha-1.

 

EFFECT OF AGE AND PRESSURE OF THE REAR TIRE OF TRACTORS PERFORMANCE INDICATORS USING THE DISC PLOW

Arkan Muhammad Amin Seedeq; Farooq Dawas Mahmood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 28-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163178

The research included a standard study of the age of the which tires are (80%) and (50%) of standard condition and the inflation of the rear tire of the boat are (32) psi and (27) psi and the affect in both of the following properties(draft force, loss power to slippage, fuel consumption, effective field capacity, energy utilization efficiency, volume of soil disturbed, soil penetration resistance, dry bulk density) The experiment was carried out in a global experiment by using the Duncan test with experimental design (RCBD) was used to show the significance of the differences between the average transactions. The result showed a significant effect of the age of the tires in all the studied traits except for the description of the apparent density and showed a significant effect of the pressure factor of the tire bulge in all studied traits except of effective field capacity, volume of soil disturbed, dry bulk density. All the studied traits were significantly affected by the dual interference between the age of tires and pressure of bulge except for the dry bulk density which did not affect significantly.

FLAXSEEDS NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND THE EFFECT OF ITS INCORPORATION IN SOME LOAF PROPERTIES WITH AND WITHOUT ADDITION OF TRANSGLUTAMINASE

Nawal. H. Sebo; Brwa. M. Said; Halala. W. Alikhan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 37-50
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163179

The aim of this study was to determine the major nutrients in local flaxseeds, the amino acids content, the fatty acids content of extracted oil, and to investigate the effects of 5%seeds flour replacement and addition of microbial transglutaminase on some properties of dough and loaf bread. Results showed that these seeds contained 4.93, 22.28, 36.03, 31.03, 18.03, 3.63and 1.08% (w\w) of moisture, protein, fat, total carbohydrates, crude fiber, ash and reducing sugars respectively with 1.83mg \100 gm sample of Vitamin C. Results of  amino acids analysis indicated  aspartic acid, glutamic acid , arginine as non –essential and tryptophan and phenylalanine as essential amino acids to be the main components of seeds protein , they  represent  4.522, 3.486, 1.88 and 2.414, 0.695 gm /100gm sample respectively. The analysis of fatty acids content, showed twenty nine fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids spatially α-linolenic and oleic acids, were predominant, they comprise 24.94 and 22.79 g/100g of the total FA respectively, while palmitic acid was the major saturated fatty acid found in seeds and comprised 13.60% of total lipid. The minerals, calcium, manganese, potassium and iron, were present in high concentrations. Results indicated that the replacement of wheat flour by 5% ground flaxseed decreased wet gluten, tolerance index, loaf specific volume and increased dough water absorption, stability and fermentation gassing power. Sensory evaluation showed that the incorporation of these seeds flour had a slightly unfavorable effect on bread sensory properties but ensured satisfactory consumer acceptability. Addition 2 units \ g protein of microbial transglutaminase caused increasing in wet gluten, gassing power of fermented dough, loaf specific volume and all sensory attributes.

FERTILIZER, MAGNETIC WATER AND HUMIC ACID ON THE GROWTH, PHOTOSYNTHESIS PIGMENTS AND OIL YIELD COMPONENTS OF Nigella sativa PLANT

Hadar S. Faizy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 51-72
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163180

Pots experiment was carried out in the greenhouse of Horticulture Department College of Agriculture Engineering Sciences/ University of Duhok to investigate the influence of three levels of P2O5 fertilizer (0, 260 and 520 mg ) per pot , humic acid at (0, 0.6 and 0.8 mg.L-1) and magnetic water with three group, group (1) irrigated with tap water, group (2) irrigated with magnetized water remain in the container for 12 hours and group (3) irrigated with magnetized water remain in the container for 24 hours on the growth and oil yield of Black cumin Nigella sativa L. The experimental treatments consisted of five replications in Random Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results revealed that P2O5 fertilizer at 520 mg.pot-1 significantly increased all the studied characteristics. Humic acid at 0.6 and 0.8 mg.L-1 had no significant effect on most of the studied characteristics except total chlorophyll and volatile oil. The group of plants that irrigated with magnetic water for 24 h caused significant increasing in all studied characteristics. Double and triple interactions among studies factors showed significant influence on all the studied characteristics as compared to untreated plants including (plant height, number of branches per plant, stem diameter, number of capsule/plant, dry weight, total chlorophyll, fixed oil percentage, volatile oil percentage and total carbohydrates percentage).

EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER ON THREE VARIETIES OF BROAD BEAN

Walled B. AL-Deen Al-Leela; Hussein J. M. AL-Bayati; Fadel F. Rejab; Shamil Y. Hasan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 73-82
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163181

The study was carried out in the field of vegetables Department of Horticulture and Land scap Design / Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry / University of Mosul / Iraq during the growth season 2017-2018 to study effect of two factors: the first three varieties of the broad been (Local, Turkish and French), the second three factors of the fertilizer is chemical fertilizer, and organic fertilizer with Atalopolina (400 kg. ha-1) and a mixture of organic and chemical fertilizers (1/2 chemical fertilizer + 200 kg. ha-1 of Atalopolina fertilizer) and control treatment (without fertilization). Implemented in the field using Split Plot Design within RCBD with three replication. The treatment of varieties was laid in the main plots and the fertilizers in the sub plots. The most important results can be summarized as follows: There was a significant difference between varieties, where the local variety significantly increased the plant height, Local and French varieties increased leaf area per plant and total yield of pods, the Turkish variety were significantly increased the seed weight per pod. As well as the chemical and organic fertilizers significantly increased number of branches per plant, biological yield, seeds weight per pod and total yield of pods, but chemical fertilizer significantly increased leaf area per plant, pod length and total yield of pods, chemical and control treatments increased average of pod weight.  The results of interaction between factors showed that the local variety with chemical treatment significantly increased plant height, leaf area per plant, biological yield, yield of green seeds 5.91 t. ha-1 and total yield of pods 10.79 t. ha-1, but interaction between Turkish variety and control treatment significantly increased number of branches per plant and average of pod weight, the French variety with mixed the fertilizers increased dry matter of vegetative growth, and Turkish variety with mixed fertilizers increased number of pods per plant and seeds weight per pod, the French variety with chemical fertilizer increased pod length.

EFFECT OF CHEMICAL AND ORGANIC FERTILIZER AND AGRICULTURAL DISTANCES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO LETTUCE (LACTUCA SATIVA L.) VARIETIES GROWN UNDER UNHEATED PLASTIC HOUSE

Hussein Jawad Moharrm AL-Bayati; Mohammad Talal Abdulsalam AL-Habar; Shamil Y .H. AL-Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 83-95
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163182

This experiment was conducted in an unheated plastic house in Horticulture and Landscape design Department, college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University during the winter season of the year 2013-2014 to investigate the possibility of lettuce crop production under protected condition during the winter season, which cannot be grown in the field at this time in Mosul City. Two lettuce cultivars were used Binco and Paris Island, the seeds were planted in 5/9 and transplanted inside the unheated plastic house in 5/11 at two agricultural distances: 30 and 40 cm and plants were fertilized with two organic fertilizers: Pow hums and Humistar which were applied to the soil as a solution at a rate of 3 gm.l-1 for the two organic fertilizers, the control treatment was fertilized with a chemical fertilizer at the recommended rates. An RCBD factorial experiment with 12 treatments (2 x 2 x 3) were used. Results showed that there were no significant differences between the two varieties in most vegetative growth and yield traits while there were a significant superiority of the 40 cm distance on the 30 cm distance in head circumference, leaf area, stem weight and mean marketable head weight while there were a significant superiority of the treatment of 30 cm planting distance in terms of marketable and total yield. It is worth to note that there were no significant differences between the organic fertilization treatments with the normal chemical fertilized plants in terms of vegetative and yield in all vegetative traits mentioned traits expect the mean stem weight.                                

EFFECT OF SOWING DATE ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF FOUR RADISH (RAPHANUS SATIVUS L .) VARIETIES

Amur A. H . Al – juboori; Shamil . Y . H . Al-hamdani; Merwa . M . Hamdon

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 96-103
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163183

An experiment was conducted in the Vegetable field of Horticulture and landscape Department College of Agriculture and Forestry University of Mosul, during the growing season of (2018 – 2019) to study the effect of sowing dates (20th Oct; 10th Nov) on growth and yield of four radish varieties Red Local (V1); Black Local (V2); Turkish (V3) and Syrian (V4) of radish All the growth parameters such as, number of leaves, leaf area, root-shoot ratio  plant weight, root weight, root length, root diameter, yield of root(24.703) t h-1 were significantly increased with sowing 20th Oct compared with other sowing dates.
   The effect of varieties Surry superior in Root weight (152.43 g) and root to shoot ratio (2.07) and diameter of root (7.00 cm) and total root yield (25.4 t h-1) compared with other varieties. Interaction between sowing dates and varieties showed that sowing on 20th Oct significant on growth and yield such as Number of leaves per plant, Leaf area and root yield. The fresh weight of leaves was supreme (176.97 g ) in Black Local, and root length (8.63 cm) .

EFFECT OF USE TWO TYPES OF PLOWS ON GROWTH COMPONENTS AND YIELD OF WHEAT IN NINEVEH PROVINCE NORTH OF IRAQ

Abud - Majeed Habeeb AL-Rawi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 104-108
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163184

A field experiment was conducted during the agricultural season 2012 - 2013 in clay soil to study the effect of use two types of plows on  on growth components and yield  of wheat, two varieties ( Begal and sham 6)  and two types of plow (mold board and disc plow ) with three replicate used, The characteristic studded in experimen. , Plant height , length of spike, number of seeds per spike, Number of spikes per unit area , weight of 1000 kernel, yield of wheat RCBD design, SAS program used to analysis  the experiment, begal variety was surpassed on plant height, spike length , and yield. Disc plow was surpass on plant height, spike length, number of spike -1, and yield The interaction shown the variety bigal with disc plow gave the best result in plant height, spike length, harvest index and yield which it gave 1817.8 kg /h.     

EFFECT OF GENDER AND AGE AND DATE OF COLLECTION ON SOME SPECIFICATIONS OF GUM EXCRETED FROM PISTACIA VERAL. TREES IN MOSUL

Abdullah, A. S.; Rajab Agha, A. A. H.

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 109-118
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163185

The current study included the effect of gender, age and date of collection on the Pistacia vera gum growing in the Nineveh province. The study included the effect of gender (female, male), three ages (16, 23, 35) and the date of collection included three dates (July, August and September). Gum collected from each trees, the chemical fractionation of the gum was carried out as essential oils and polymer, also acid group types (A, B, C). The results showed the significant effect of the species of the tree, age and date of collection on the amount of gum, where the moral superiority of the gender of the male (23.06 g) on ​​the female gender (19.34 g) and the increase in the quantity with age to28.95 g. At the age of 35 years, August was the best time for collection (25.0 g). Significant effects of age and date of collection were found on the percentage of essential oils, the highest percentage was at 16 years (15.8) and the percentage of essential oils in July and August were (15.2 and 15.1). The results showed the high significant effect of the age and the time of collection on the polymer ratio. The highest ratio 51.99% was at the age of 35 years and 49.71% for September. The proportion of polymer in the gender of the male was (49.47%).

EFFECT OF ADDING ORGANIC ACID TO DIET IN SOME EGG QUALITY AND INTESTINAL ENVIRONMENT FOR QUAIL

Ghadeer Abd Al menam Mohamed Alrahawi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 119-127
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163186

         This study was conducted on quail to investigate the effects of some organic acids on egg qualities characters, enteric ecosystem and reproductive performance. One hundred eightybirds were reared from 1 day to 42 days of age, distributed to 3 treatments, (three replicates, 20 birds / replicate) . 1ST treatment (control) reared on standard ration, 2nd treatment reared on standard ration supplemented with Lactic acid (2.5 mg / kg ration), 3rdtreatment reared on standard ration supplemented with Citric acid (2.5 mg / kg ration). Statistical analysis of data showed that the addition of Organic acid improves significantly (P ≤ 0.05) egg weight, albumen weight, yolk weight, height of albumen, high of yolk, yolk diameter, egg length, shape index, weight of first egg, age oflaying 50% egg laying intensity, weight of male reproductive system and length of oviduct as compared with control treatment . No significantly effects in yolk index, egg width, shell weight, shell thickness and internal shell membranes. Significant decrease in Salmonella and E.Coli. Significant increase in Lactobacillus content and significant increase in Lymphocyte % in male and females quail , in Hetrophils and Esinophils in females treated with Organic acid . Improved H/L ratio in Organic acid treatment as compared with control, andsignificant decreased (P ≤ 0.05) in Coagulation timeand Cholesterol concentration in 2nd and 3rd treatment; In conclusion, organic acids improved the enteric ecosystem , egg quality and reproductive performances . 

ESTIMATION OF SOME PHYTOCHEMICALS IN EXTRACT OF EGGPLANT PEELS AND CABBAGE LEAVES AND USING OF PIGMENT OF THEM IN DRINKS INDUSTRY

Bayan yaseen Al-Abdulla; Saad Dhamin Oleiwi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 128-138
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163187

This study included the using of eggplant and cabbage residues in the extraction of natural pigments and study the determination of some phytochemicals and The alternatives to industrial pigments in the coloring of industrial drink. The pigments were extracted using distilled water and both (ethanol–methanol) acidified by 1% and 2% citric acid, the total phenolic content was estimated in these extracts. The result recorded highest content of phenolics 83.6 mg /100g in methanol acidified extract for eggplant peels, while the highest content of distilled water extract was 147.5 mg/100g for cabbage leaves. The content of anthocyanins, flavonoids, carotenes and tannins for eggplant and cabbage leaves, (51.1,134.0) mg/100g, (0.1,0.2) mg/100g,(15, 25)%,(0.008,0.099) mg/100 g was respectively. The concentration of apignen, kampherol, qurcetein and gallic acid recorded (67.85,221.69),(73.70, 172.00),(68.3,371.50),(62.5,238.10)ppm for eggplant and cabbage leaves respectively. The results of the sensory evaluation confirmed the success of the natural pigments derived from both sources in the production of concentrated industrial drink.

KINITEC DESCRIPTION OF SODIUM BEHAVIOR IN SOME AFFECTED AND NON-AFFECTED SOILS BY SALTS

Hazim M. Ahmed; Einas Y. Yousif

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 139-148
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163188

This study included different soil locations around Mosul city representing non salt affected soils, and around Basrah city representing salt – affected soil. The aim of this study is to show the behavior of sodium due to first order and diffusion equations, using miscible displacement at different times (10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, 360, 480, 600, 720 minute). The results indicate that the solubility and release of sodium decreases with time, but according to kinetic concept the cumulative of sodium solubility increased in the two type of soils study. However, salt affected soils showed more solubility and release of sodium than the non-salt affected soils.  While the diffusion equation gave the best description of sodium solubility depending on the coefficient determination and standard error. Selectivity coefficient of Gapon due to the chemical concept KG, thermodynamic concept KG-  and sposito concept KG= were also examend which showed that the values KG , KG-  decreased with time , while KG= values increased over time.

THE EFFECT OF THERMAL MANIPULATION OF (ROSS 308) BROILER BREEDER EGGS DURING EARLY & LATE EMBRYOGENESIS STAGES ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF HATCHIE CHICKS AT HEAT STRESS CONDITION.

ALI, D. D.; IBRAHIM, I; AL SARDARY, S S

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 149-159
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163189

The study was conducted in Hatchery -private sector- in Qushtapa, Erbil, from 24-5-2016 to 14-6-2016. The hatched chicks were reared from(14/6/2016 to 26/7/2016) in one of the halls of Department of Animal Production in College of Agriculture/ Salahadding University-Erbil within total 63 days.  
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of thermal manipulation (TM) during different embryogenesis stages of broiler breeder eggs as at embryonic days (ED): T2 (1-5), T3 (19-21) and T1 was control (no TM) on hatching results and subsequent chick characteristics and broiler productive performance of thermally conditioned chicks (exposed to 38.0 ± 2 °C for 12 hours/day) at 21st day of age. One thousand eight hundred (1800) Ross-308 eggs from twenty seventh weeks old imported were used. Eggs were randomly divided into three treatments with four replicates per each treatment (600 eggs/ treatment). Two identical incubators were used. In the first incubator all eggs were incubated at 37.7 ºC and 60-65% relative humidity (RH). The eggs thermally treated were transferred into the second incubator and was kept at 38.2 ˚C and 60-65% RH. After four (4) hours (hrs.) of thermal treating, the eggs were returned to the first incubator, immediately. It was found that thermal manipulation did not affect the hatchability percentage of total and fertile set eggs, normal bird’s percentage, and chicks’ quality. Post-hatching, 270 day-old chicks were randomly assigned according to treatment groups within hatching process. Chicks were distributed into three treatments with three replicates-groups-, with thirty chicks per each replicate. All treatment groups were subjected to thermal conditioning of 38 ±2 °C for 12 hrs. /day for a week, from day 21stpost-hatching. After exposure body temperature of birds were measured. Live body weight, bodyweight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and mortality were recorded on weekly basis. Production index, dressing percentage and carcass cuts percentages were measured at 35 and 42 days of age of broiler chicks. The overall data showed the following results:
1-                 T2 showed significantly (p≤0.05) higher relative growth than control group and T3.
2- T3 and control group showed significantly higher feed conversion ratio than T2, so T2 had a better cumulative ratio.
3- T2 and T3 showed significantly (p≤0.05) lower rectal temperature than control group.
4- T2 had the higher production index than T3 and control group at marketing age of 35 days.
5- Control group showed significantly lowest cumulative mortality percentage than T2.
 In the embryogenesisdevelopment, the incubation temperature is increased by 0.5°C for 4 hrs. This thermal treatment of the body temperature leads to decrease of the chicks’ temperature at day 42, as compared with the control group. As a result it confirms the acquisition of thermo tolerance in thermally manipulated groups.

INFLUENCE OF SEED SIZE, PLNTING EPTH AND PHOSPHORUS FERTILILIZATION LEVEL ON AND YIELD COMPONENTS CHARACTERS OF LOCAL BROAD BEAN (VICIA FABA L.).

Mothanah A. Basit Ali AL-Ameri

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 160-177
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163191

A field experiment was carried out at two sites (Erbil and Mosul) in winter season 2017-2018, to study the effect of three different seed size (small, medium and large) of local broad bean planted in three sowing depths (5, 10 and 15 cm) using three levels of phosphate fertilizer (zero, 75 and 150 kg P2O5. ha-1) in yield and yield components. The experiment executed according to the (R.C.B.D) design and Duncan Multiple range used to compare between treatment means. The results showed that there was no significant effect of seed sizes in most studied traits; The pod length, 100 seeds weight and seeds yield were surpassed at depth (15 cm) at both sites. The number of pods / plant, 100 seeds weight, seeds yield, and biological yield increased significantly at the second and third fertilization levels at both sites. Pod length, number of seeds / pod and harvest index have exceeded significantly in the second level of fertilization at both sites. The second order interactions showed significant differences between most studied characters.

       A field experiment was carried out at two sites (Erbil and Mosul) in winter season 2017-2018, to study the effect of three different seed size (small, medium and large) of local broad bean planted in three sowing depths (5, 10 and 15 cm) using three levels of phosphate fertilizer (zero, 75 and 150 kg P2O5. ha-1) in yield and yield components. The experiment executed according to the (R.C.B.D) design and Duncan Multiple range used to compare between treatment means. The results showed that there was no significant effect of seed sizes in most studied traits; The pod length, 100 seeds weight and seeds yield were surpassed at depth (15 cm) at both sites. The number of pods / plant, 100 seeds weight, seeds yield, and biological yield increased significantly at the second and third fertilization levels at both sites. Pod length, number of seeds / pod and harvest index have exceeded significantly in the second level of fertilization at both sites. The second order interactions showed significant differences between most studied characters.
Key words: broad bean, yield, sowing depth, phosphorus fertilization.

 

STATUS AND DISTRIBUTION OF DIFFERENT POTASSIUM FORMS IN CALCAREOUS SOILS IN NORTHERN IRAQ

Waheeda. A-Badrani; Radhwan. R ALI

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 178-191
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163282

1n the last few years, the demand increased especially in the developing countries for food production. One of the parameters to increase the production quantitatively and qualitatively is the use of fertilizers by following the modern techniques in fertilization which needs a detail soil studies. This study highlighted on behavior of different forms of potassium, their distributions through soil profile, and the relationships between them and with soil other properties.
To represent a detailed study of the potassium behavior, twenty two surface (0-15cm) and subsurface (15-30cm) soil samples were selected from Nineveh province. The soil chemical and physical properties of each location are different.
Distribution of different forms of K in these soils, i.e., available, water soluble (H2O-K), exchangeable (NH4OAc-K), non-exchangeable (HNO3-K), mineral and Total forms were ranged from (0.708 to 1.167),( 0.006 to 0.146), (0.691 to 1.124), (1.150 to 3.261), (35.48 to 52.81) and (38.78 to 58.65) respectively, for surface soil and (0.559 –0.997),( 0.003-0.105), (0.554 to 0.914), (0.997 to 2.801), (30.04 to 56.77) and (32.55 to 60.88) respectively, for sub-surface soil. Correlation study showed that the various forms of K were positively and significantly correlated amongst themselves and with CaCO3 content of the soils negatively.The water soluble, exchangeable; available; nonexchangeable and mineral potassium constituted only 0.075; 1.65 ;.1.73;  3.95 and 92.03  percent of the total-K respectively.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOAKED-WATER BARLEY AND FABA BEAN (MINOR) AS A PARTIAL SUBSTITUTE FOR MAIZE AND SOYBEANS IN GROWTH AND PRODUCTION OF QUAIL'S DIETS

Samir Hameed Majeed; Firas Khalil Ibrahim; Malik Mohamad Shukri; Salim thanon younis

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 2, Pages 192-205
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.163344

The study was carried out in the Poultry farms/ Nineveh Research Department, by using 756 unsexing quail birds two weeks aged, distributed into nine experimental treatments with 3 replicates per treatment, each contained 28 birds, primary live weight 63.8 g, birds was fed on growth and production diets depending on growth stage. Results showed a significant improvement (P< 0.05) for soaked-water barley (SWB) treatments 10% and 20% on weight gain g/ bird (WG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), FCR g food/g egg, egg production% for first four weeks of production, hatching% from total eggs for the first four, second and third weeks of production. Mathematic difference showed for the rest of the traits. The levels of Faba Bean (FB)  FB minor   10% and 20% had a negative and significant effect (P <0,05) on the WG and FCR at 3-5 weeks age, FCR for the first four weeks of production and eggs production %, a positive improvement (P < 0.05) for FCR and egg production% for third four weeks of production.