Volume 47, Issue 1, Spring 2019

Farmers Knowledge Level of Potato Crop Cultivation in Rabia Sub- district / Nineveh Governorate

Asmaa Alhafidh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 1-12
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161240

The research aims to identify level of farmers knowledge in Rabia  Sub-district/Nineveh governorateon potato cultivation , identifiy the differences in Knowledge level according to some variables: Age, Education level,  years' number of experience potato farming, land ownership, number of dependent information sources of potato , monthly income, type farming career and previous training, and identify the problems facing the potato cultivation.The data were collected by a questionnaire, and analyzed by using  Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann_Whitney test. The important results showed that (45.88 %) of the farmers have medium knowledge, the higher knowledge level in crop service field , there are significant differences in knowledge levels according to age, educational level, number of experience years of potato crop, type of farming career and the important problems facing potato farmers is  high price of production cost, also there are some recommendations and suggestions.

Agricultural investment in Iraq ( Reality and determinats ) for the period (1995-2015)

Waleed Albujari

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 13-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161238

This research aims to study the influence of the most important factors that reflect on the agricultural investment in Iraq (1995-2015) and its impact on the agricultural sector in general. For this, the research is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuation and decline in agricultural investment to several economic factors vary in their effect. According to this hypothesis.  The research relied on the method of linking two directions, The descriptive approach, which relied on previous studies on the same subject, quantitive, which based on the methods and styles of the standard economy, where the  ordinaryleastsquareswasusedand explanation of quantitive style results for the evaluation of the technical phase of study. Agricultural investment (fixed capital accumulation) was adopted as an approved variable, and the size of agricultural loans, inflation rate, deficit and surplus from the general budget of the government, the value of support to agricultural sector, the value of investment allocations in the agricultural sector for agricultural reclamation. The research has achieved many conclusions among which is that despite of the investment allocations directed to the agricultural sector and the initiation of the agricultural initiative in 2008 ,however, the volume of agricultural loans showed non- significant importance, no clear strategy for agricultural investment appeared , additionally, these allocations were not strongly nor directly directed to the agricultural investment, based of the above of conclusions achieved by the study on the importance of drawing or imaging a future vision of agricultural investment clear enough to get the agricultural reality really  prospered and emphasizing on the importance of of the continuity in supporting the agricultural sector specially in the increase of the investment allocations and the continuity of  the funding  policy Through. the agricultural initiative, while ensuring the existence of a strong monitoring apparatus that ensures the disbursement of these amounts in the right level in order to access agricultural investment at required level, which in turn works on the development of the agricultural sector, As well as increasing interest in the study of economic indicators and agricultural positive effects and activate the role of low-impact indicators such as support to the agricultural sector poor input support will support the outputs to improve the reality of the agricultural sector.

Effect of Crushed Eruca sativa Seeds Supplementation to Quail Ration on Lipid Profile Before and After Sexual Maturity

Abdullah Fathi Abdul-Majeed; Sarmad Hashem Taha

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 25-35
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161245

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of crushed Rocket salad (Eruca sativa) seeds on serum lipid profile and risk index of males and females quail before and after sexual maturity. A total of two hundred forty unsexed quail (Coturnix coturnix) (7 days aged) were randomly distributed into 4 groups (60 birds/ group,   5 replicates, 12 birds / replicate), the feed and water were allowed ad libitum, and the treatment continued till 77 days age, as follows:-
1st group(control): birds were reared on standard ration (without Eruca sativa seeds)
2nd group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds from the age of 7 days till 42 days age.
3rd group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds from the age of 42 days till 77 days age.
4th group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds for the whole period of experiment (7 - 77 days).
The addition of crushed Eruca sativa seed don't change the level of blood glucose, but it improves serum lipid profile in males and females quail, especially when given in the early stage of growth before sexual  maturity (Eruca sativa from 7days age), and there was a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the level of cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-C compared with control.
Also the addition of Eruca sativa seeds in the ration enhanced and significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) the level of HDL-C in males and females quail before sexual maturity (2nd and 4th groups), and there is no significant changes in the level of LDL-C compared with control, which reflected in improvement of risk index (LDL/HDL) especially when Eruca sativa seeds were added from 7 days age.
On the other hand, the addition of Eruca sativa seeds reduced the stress effects in males and females quail as represented by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in  AST and ALT values as compared with the control group.
In conclusion, the addition of crushed Eruca sativa seeds improve the lipid profile and risk index, also reduce stress condition in males and females quail, especially when given in the growth stage and  before sexual maturity.


Effect of Increasing Degradable Nitrogen from Adding Urea to the Ration of Awassi Ewes in Milk Yield and some Components

Al-Hafz Maher; Mohammed W. M. Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 36-41
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161234

This experiment conducted at 1/12/2017 to 4/3/2018 by using 30 ewes with their lambs. The weights of the ewes between (46-51) Kg and the ages between (3-5) years, to study the effect of increasing degradable Nitrogen from adding urea to the food of Awassi ewes milk yield and components. The experiment done by three levels of Nitrogen degradable (low, 0% urea) (mid, 0.75% urea), (high, 1.5 urea). and by three treatments each of them consists of 10 ewes.
The results indicated a significant increase (p≤0.05) in weekly, monthly and commercial yield for the treatment of high degradable protein.
For the milk components during sucking and after weaning (fat, protein, lactos, S.N.F) the results revealed non significant differences. The adding of urea to the ration of awassi ewes in creased milk production.


Mohammad Ibrahim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 42-48
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161235

     This study aimed to know the effect of three rations contains same crude protein and metabolizable energy but differs in Fenugreek seeds percentage( 0 , 5 and 10 %), Fifteen Awassi rams (2-3 years old), were randomly divided into three equal groups (5 rams/group) weighting 50-55 Kg during winter season from (15/11/2011 - 15/2/2012). Results showed that feeding of Fenugreek seeds had a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05)  on semen ejaculation volume, semen consistency ,mass and individual motility of spermatozoa, percentages of live and dead spermatozoa , sperm abnormality .However there were  no significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) on total sperm  concentration / ml   compared with the control group rams.

Effect of garlimmune addition in drinking water and the laying time on egg external, internal traits and hatchability of broiler breeder

Nidhal Mustafa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161236

The adding garlimmune in broiler breeder drinking water were tested experimentally for evaluation of its effect on egg production, external and internal traits of egg and hatchability at the different time of laying(T1: 8:30 AM, T2: 10:30 AM, T3: 1:30 PM and T4: 8:30 AM- 1:30 PM). The results indicated that the use of garlimmune had a good effect on egg production (HD %), egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), eggshell thickness (mm), eggshell weight (g) and eggshell strength (kg/cm2), total protein, PUFA, HDL in egg, hatchability and set eggs (%), hatched chicks weight (g) and post hatch antibody titer against ND, IBD and IB by ELISA. However, MUFA, LDL, atherogenic index, hatch window (h), embryonic mortality (1-21day) and culled chicks were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in garlimmune treatment compared with the control at different laying time, but there is on-significant difference in total lipid among the treatments. Noticed the time laying 10:30 AM in the both groups was more effectiveness in all parameters of the study.

Evaluation of heavy chisel plow performance in different speeds in terms of some mechanical performance indicators

Arkan Siddiq; Yahya Younis Mohsin AL-Obaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 59-69
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161237

This study was conducted  to evaluate the performance of heavy chisel plow at the end of January  during agricultural season ( 2018) In the area of Baweizah of the district of  Talkif / Ninavah province which is located north east of the city of Mosul Which is far (13) Km about the city center.Soil texture was silty clay by using two levels of  factory of  level  plowing, the first level was add the tubular rolleron the chisel plow and the second level was without the tubular rollerfrom the chisel plow . also two levels of depth plow .the first was (8-10 cm) and the second was (12-14 cm) and three levels of speed included ( 2.4, 4.3 and 7.1) km/h. to study their effect in some mechanical properties , the experience was factorial with three replication . The differences have been tested by Duncan.the important results are in the following: excelled (add the tubular roller) in the following properties (,Volume of soil disturbed,depth achieved,the appearance tillage), while the level  (withput roller reducer) excelled in properties (Draft force ,specific resistance), while does not appear any moral differences in the following properties  (Fuel consumption).At same time  excelled the speed (2.4)km/h in the following properties (Draft force, specific resistance, Depth actual of plowing), While the speed (7.1)km/h excelled in the following properties (Fuel consumption ,volume of soil disturbed, the appearance tillage). RegisterThe interaction between the first level  tillage (add the  roller reducer)  and the first forward speed (2.4) km/h  record moral superiority in the following properties (Depth actual of plowing)  while  the interaction between the first level  tillage and the Third forward speed (7.1) km/h record moral excelled in the properties (Volume of soil disturbed ,The appearance tillage), while the interaction between the Second level  tillage (without the tubular  roller)  and the first forward speed (2.4)km/h  moral  excelled in the following properties (Draft force, specific resistance), while the interaction between the second level  tillage (without the tubular roller) and the third forward speed (7.1) km/h moral excelled in the properties(Fuel consumption) 


Nahla Salim Hammok

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 70-79
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161239

The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of two types of form Faba bean Vicia faba L.(local and Italian), at flowering stage, to different concentration of insecticide alpha cypermethrin. Also, to study these effects on chlorophyll quantity and production of the plant. the experiment was designed according to the International Experimentation System (2x4) according to the Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) with six replicates .The study involved two factors ; First one included two types of Faba bean (locally and Italian) , the second included different concentrations of the pesticide (distilled water, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, mg/ml). The alpha cypermethrin pesticide lead to significant decreasing (P-value <0.05) in characteristic of chlorophyll A quantityand in crop yieldingplant height,pod number/plant, seeds number/pod, pod weight (g), pod length and the total weight for each 1000 grain. Which was with direct increase of the concentration. The Italian typerecorded a significant decrease in the chlorophyll A, plant height and pod weight comparing with the local type. it was obvious that the Italian type was more sensitive than the local type toward the pesticide and its negative effect is increasing with the increase of the concentration. 


Aswan Abdul Qader Zaidan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 80-90
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2000.163281

Technological  progress  is  one  of  the  main  and  important  factors  in accelerating the economic, social and cultural growth of different countries. It is the most common denominator of various economic development processes, foremost of which is agricultural development and increasing productivity then productivity in the agricultural sector. In terms of measuring the technological gap in developing and advanced countries in Iraq, Syria, Italy, and Japan, the results of   technology gap  analysis  indicated  an  average  of  49,  38,  29,  22%  (for  Iraq,  Syria,  Italy  and Japan) Mine.The study concluded with a number of conclusions, including the low competitiveness of most developing countries, low production and low quality due to the high costs resulting from the high prices of production inputs, as well as the apparent low rates of use of agricultural technology both for the use of tractors and machinery  or  the  use  of  chemical  fertilizers,  Irrigation  and  the  use  of  improved varieties in agriculture, Therefore, the study recommends that developing countries should  pay  attention  to  the  scientific  and  technological  aspects  that  support  the development  of  agricultural  production  and  intensify  the  effort  to  formulate economic development policies that are in line with their reality and their potential.