Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 41, Issue 3

Volume 41, Issue 3, Summer 2013, Page 1-298


AGRICULTURAL PROBLEMS FACING WATERMELON FARMARS IN AL-HAMDANIA DISTRICT, NINEVAH GOVERNORATE

Tariq M. Saleh . Al Harbawi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80142

The Study aimed at determining the size of the agricultural problems that faced by watermelon Farmers in Al-hamdaniya district / Ninevah Governorate and ranking order of the problems according to the farmer's suffering from. Sample of the study consists of 60 out of 150 respondents representing 40% of the community. A Questionnaire has been prepared to collect data . Many statistical methods used including percentage, Arithmetic mean, Chi-Square, spearman brown correlation coefficient. Results showed that 75% of respondent mentioned that the size of problems they suffered from was a medium tends to high, and that there were no significant relationship between size of problems and (education level / type of tenure / contact with agricultural extension . Also it was found that there were a significant correlation between problems size and (Age , Area of cultivated land , number of years of watermelon cultivation, type of occupation . The researcher recommend the need to provide material and moral support to watermelon farmers.

KNOWLEDGE OF FARMERS IN ALNAMROOD DISTRICT / NINEVEH GOVERNORATE IN THE DANGERS OVERUSE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZERS AND ITS RELATION WITH SOME VARIABLES

Radwan T. AL-Kashab

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80143

The objectives of this research were to determine the farmers knowledge level in Alnamrood District / Nineveh Governorate in the fields of overuse dangers of chemical fertilizers. Then to find out the differences of farmers knowledge according to some variables. The research sample included 84 respondents, data were collected through questionnaire consisted of two parts, the first was to measure the independent variables, the second part consisted of 29 items distributed to three dimensions of overuse dangers of chemical fertilizers. Content validity and comparison of extreme groups were used also, reliability was tested by using Kuder-Richardson estimates which was 0.92, item analysis was used, and data were analyzed by using arithmetic mean, percentage, and Kruskal-Wallis test. The results showed that 55.952% of the respondents had lowest knowledge in overuse dangers of chemical fertilizers, and the lowest knowledge level of respondents were in the field of dangers overuse of chemical fertilizers on human and the highest knowledge level of respondents were in the field of overuse dangers of chemical fertilizes on plant. Also, there were significant differences in the degree of farmers knowledge according to: education level, number of years using chemical fertilizers, cultural openness, degree of dependence on agricultural work, previous training and sources of information. While there were no significant differences according to number of family members working in agriculture.

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND SPRAYING OF GIBBERELLIC ACID & ALGAMIX ON THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY ON SOME ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM OIL OF MENTHA PIPERITA & MENTHA SPICATA

Fanar H. Al-Hashemy; Ayad Ch. Al-Daody; Mohammed D. Al-Sawaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80144

The current study is carried out the effect of Nitrogen fertilization in levels (0, 46, 92, 138) kg/h and spraying of gibberllic acid at concentration (0, 50, 100) ppm and the Algamix at concentration (1,2) ml/L in percentage ratio for concentration of some active constituents for the oil of two species of Mentha (M. piperita and M. spicata). The result was showed, that the samples of oil was contained the following compounds: (Camphor, Menthone, Menthyl acetate, Menthol and Thymol), using the Gas-liquid Chromatography technique (GLC). It's illustrated that the summer harvest was exceeded to gave the highest concentration of menthone compounds about 11.47% without fertilization (N0) with spraying of algamix at concentration 1 ml/L of M. spicata, as well as thymol compound about 16.69% in fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with out spraying of M.spicata too. While, the autumn harvest was exceeded increasing percentage of camphor compound about 0.20% in the fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with spraying of algamix at concentration 1ml/L of M. piperita and Menthol compound which was presented 46.50% in the second level of fertilization 46 kg/h without spraying, and also Menthyl acetate at concentration 50.06% in the same level of fertilization of M. piperita with spraying of Algamix at concentration 1ml/L.

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS, CALCIUM ION AND TWO NATURAL EXTRACTS LIQUORICES, SOLUAMINE AND METHODS OF APPLICATION ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH CHARACTERS OF POTATO CV. LATONA

Zuhair A. Dawood; Fadhil F. R. Rajab

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 37-50
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80145

This study was carried out at vegetables field of Horticulture and landscape department. College of Agriculture and Forestry. Mosul University. Iraq.. during spring season of 2011, to investigate the effect of three factors: water stress. calcium ion and two natural extracts Licorice. Soluamine in addition to three methods of application in some yield characters of potato (Solanum tuberosum L . cv .Latona) . The experiment includes 24 treatment ( 2 × 3 × 4 ) conducted in a Factorial Experiment within Split – plot system in a R.C.B.D Design. each treatment was replicated three times. The results could be summarized as follows:
1-Exposuing potato plants to water stress during the period of tubers formation and development caused a significant decrease in all yield characters traits.
2- Application of calcium. Licorice and soluamine extracts. significantly increased all yield characters as compared with control treatment. except the mean of tuber weight.
3- Application of calcium and two natural extracts (Licorice and soluamine) by to the soil caused a significant increase in tubers weight. plant yield and total yield as compared to (foliar application). while the tow others methods of application (adding to soil) and (foliar spray + adding to the soil) resulted in a significant increase in marketable yield as comparing with first method (foliar spray)
4- The interaction treatments among calcium. Licorice. soluamine extracts. and methods of application over drawn on reduction the damage effect of water stress in all study characters of the droughted plants.

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS. CALCIUM ION AND TWO NATURAL EXTRACTS LICORICE. SOLUAMINE AND METHODS OF APPLICATION IN SOME YIELD CHARACTERS OF POTATO CV. LATONA

ZUHAIR A. DAWOOD; FADHIL F. R. RAJAB

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 51-64
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80230

This study was carried out at vegetables field of Horticulture and landscape department. College of Agriculture and Forestry. Mosul University. Iraq.. during spring season of 2011, to investigate the effect of three factors: water stress. calcium ion and two natural extracts Licorice. Soluamine in addition to three methods of application in some yield characters of potato (Solanum tuberosum L . cv .Latona) . The experiment includes 24 treatment ( 2 × 3 × 4 ) conducted in a Factorial Experiment within Split – plot system in a R.C.B.D Design. each treatment was replicated three times. The results could be summarized as follows:
1-Exposuing potato plants to water stress during the period of tubers formation and development caused a significant decrease in all yield characters traits.
2- Application of calcium. Licorice and soluamine extracts. significantly increased all yield characters as compared with control treatment. except the mean of tuber weight.
3- Application of calcium and two natural extracts (Licorice and soluamine) by to the soil caused a significant increase in tubers weight. plant yield and total yield as compared to (foliar application). while the tow others methods of application (adding to soil) and (foliar spray + adding to the soil) resulted in a significant increase in marketable yield as comparing with first method (foliar spray)
4- The interaction treatments among calcium. Licorice. soluamine extracts. and methods of application over drawn on reduction the damage effect of water stress in all study characters of the droughted plants.

EVALUATION OF SOME CUCUMBER FEMALE HYBRID F1 ( CUCUMIS SATIVUS L.) CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER THE CONDITIONS OF UNHEATED PLASTIC HOUSE IN THE MOSUL GOVERNORATE .

Mohammad Talal A. AL-Habar; Hussien J.M. AL-Bayaty; Waleed B. A; Lelah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 65-72
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80231

This study was conducted during Autum and Spring growing season 2010-2011 under conditions of unheated plastic house at the college of Agri. and Forestry, Mosul Univ.,to evalulate the performance of seven hybrid female cultivars : 1- Summit 2- Ameer 276 3- Grass 4- Baraa 5- Karol 6- Shadi 7-Laheeb . The results indicated `the superiety of Grass cv. in vegetative growth and quality traits which are : the length , diameter and mean weight of fruits in comparison with other cultivars . This cultivar was distinguished over the other cultivars in the total and marketable number of fruit / plant , early yield ( 9.977 and 14.123 ton / ha.) giving highest total yield (22.995 and 146.037 ton/ ha.) , and had a highest marketable yield ( 21.639 and 139.530 ton/ ha.) in both seasons respectively. Ameer and Summit cultivars revealed a good productivity( total and marketable yield ) in both seasons but the quality of their fruits did not reach the quality of Grass cultivar .
The Karol cv. showed a good positive response in the total and marketable yield in spring season while its performance was very low in Autum. Shadi and Laheeb cultivars exhibited a decrease in the marketable yield in spring season as a result increasing the non-marketable yield . Baraa cv. resulted in unfavorable results in both seasons .

RESPONSE OF GERMINATION AND SEEDLINGS GROWTH OF "LOTUS PERSIMMON ROOTSTOCK TO KNO3 AND HYPERTONIC TREATMENTS

Nameer N. Fadhil; Ayad H. Alalaf; Ayad T . Shayal Alalam

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 73-81
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80232

The study was performed in Horticulture lath house / college of Agriculture & Forestry, University of Mosul to investigate the effect of seed soaking in three concentration of both KNO3 (0, 1000 , 2000 and 3000 mg.l-1 ) and hypertonic (0, 1 and 2 cm3.l-1 ) for 48 hrs and their interaction treatments on percentage germination seed and seedlings growth of "Lotus" persimmon rootstock. Then the seeds stratified in peat moss and sand in nylon bags at 5°C for 100 days. After the period of stratification, the seeds were planted in black polyethylene bags in the lath house on 20th of March, 2010. Parameters of seeds germination and seedling growth were recoded. The results were as follow: Interaction between 2000 mg.l-1 KNO3 and 2 cm3.l-1 hypertonic gave the highest germination of the seeds (85.71%), and Interaction between 3000 mg.l-1 KNO3 and 1 cm3.l-1 hypertonic resulted in a significant increase in seedlings height and diameter and leaves number per seedling as compared with control treatment, while the interaction treatment between 3000 mg.l-1 KNO3 and 2 cm3.l-1 of hypertonic was superior in leave surface area.

EFFECT OF POLLUTED WATER USED IN IRRIGATION ON ACCUMULATION OF ARSENIC AND CADMIUM IN SOIL AND PLANT

Aman A. M. Salih; SalihNazar M. J. Alnuaimi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 82-92
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80296

Samples from disposal water soils and plants were collected from eight locations along Tigris river banks during October (2010) at Mosul-city . These locations included eight small farms irrigated from disposal water. The study was aimed to access the extent of water pollution with some heavy metals (Arsenic and Cadmium), that used for irrigation. Chemical and physical analysis were carried out to water soil and plant samples including Arsenic and Cadmium. Results indicated that the highest Arsenic concentration was found in Albusyif disposal (South-West of Mosul). These results in accumulation of Arsenic in soil and plants which are irrigated from this disposal, while the lowest concentrations of this element was found in Al-Rashydia farm which irrigated from the river. However, for Cadmium it was found that Al-Danadan and Al-Khousar disposals posses the highest concentrations of this metal followed by 17-Tamoze disposal. This causes an increasing accumulation of Cadmium in soils and plants from the farms irrigated by this disposals. The lowest concentrations of Cadmium however was found in Al-Rasheydia farm which irrigated from the river.

THE COMPENSATORY GROWTH RESPONSE OF BROILER CHICKS BY USING EARLY QUALITATIVE FEED RESTRICTION PROGRAM

mi El-Khatib; Faiyz S; Ibrahim Said Kloor

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 93-99
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80297

The feasibility of broiler chicken over the phenomenon of compensatory growth after attesting to make its growth slow by using early qualitative feed restriction program had been studied , and its Impact on the qualities of productivity characteristics . The study included experiment with three levels of early qualitative feed restriction during (8-21 days) as well as on the treatment of control ad libtum then all the birds brought to feed free for the remainder of the study ( at the end of the 7 th week ) each levels included three replicates each of 25 birds for a replicate (75 birds / treatment) . Results of this experiment can be summarized as follows of feed for birds fed treatment 10% sawdust as comparison with control grow, while it showed a significant decrease in body weight of birds fed 30% diluted with soft wood sawdust , a significant decrease in the proportion of total mortality for all levels of restriction . With a decline in the values of the two criteria mentioned for the treatment of 30 % soft sawdust as compared with control at the age of marketing.

PERFORMANCE OF THREE BROILER HYBRIDS FEEDING DITARY WITH ANIMAL OR VEGETABLE PROTEIN RESOURCE: 1.SOME PRODUTION TRAITS

Kassab; Hazim Y. Ahmed AL; Neemy; Majid A. Sabri AL

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 100-110
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80298

This study was conducted to evaluate the productive performance of three commercial broiler hybrids and their response to two kinds of dietary different with protein sources , one contained animal and vegetable protein jointly and the other contained only vegetable protein . The study included raising nine hundred unsexed broiler one day old chicks ( Cobb 500 , Ross 308 and Hubbard Classic), 300 chicks/hybrid birds were distributed to 18 floor pens at rate of 6 pens for each hybrid with 50 chicks per pen and three of them were cottage to each feeding treatment , the experiment lasted for 42 days . Feed and water were available ad libitum.. Findings of the statistical analysis have shown significant superiority (p≤0.05) of the two hybrids (Cobb and Ross) upon Hubbard hybrid in the following traits : live body weight , average weight gain , feed conversion ratio , production coefficient and mortality percentage . There were no significant differences in feed consumption from the three hybrids birds . Average live body weight at 42 days of age were 2265 , 2260 and 1981 gm for the three hybrids, respectively . Ross hybrid birds showed significantly higher relative growth compared with Cobb and Hubbard which were 107.99 , 105.95 and 104.37 % at the age of 42 days, respectively . On the other hand , about protein source effect, the results have shown significant differences (p≤0.05) in average live body weight for birds fed diet with only vegetable protein compared with those fed diet with animal and vegetable protein jointly, 715.3 and 616.6 gm at the age of 21 days, and 2233.3 and 2104.4 gm at the age of 42 days, respectively . No significant differences in feed consumption , feed conversion ratio and production coefficient between the two feeding treatments were found . It was concluded that strain of broiler show a significant effect on the performance , where the two hybrids Cobb and Ross performed better during the breeding period than Hubb hybrid , and the diet contained vegetable protein only was better than the one contained animal and vegetable protein jointly .

FFECT OF FENUGREEK SEEDS AND OLIVE LEAVES ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL CHARACTERS OF LAYING HEN BREEDERS

Saeb Younis Abdul-Rahman; Ruaa Nathem Shihab Al-Obaidy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 111-121
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80299

This study was conducted on laying hen breeders ( ISA Brown ) to study the effect of Fenugreek seeds and Olive leaves on the physiological performance . 90 hens and 18 cocks (84 weeks age) were divided into 3 groups 16 replicates : 5 hens +1 cock each) , The groups .Were treated daily for 8 weeks as following: 1st group reared on standard ration .2nd reared on standard ration supplemented with crushed Fenugreek seeds (10 gm/kg ration) . 3rd reared on standard ration supplemented with crushed Olive leaves (10 gm/kg ration). Blood samples were collected at the end of 4th week (1st period) and 8thweek (2nd period) .
Results revealed that treatment with Fenugreek seeds and Olive leaves improved the physiological performance of layer hen breeders , and showed a significant increase in RBCs ,Hb , PCV % and blood indicis , also treatments caused an improvement in lymphocyte % , clotting time , thrombocytes count, H/L ratio as compared with control . In regard to the sex , the hematological parameters were better in males as compared with females The best results for the interaction effects were recorded in interaction of Fenugreek seeds and Olive leaves treated group at (P ≤ 0.05) .

EFFECT OF RATIONS CONTENT FROM UNDEGRADABLE PROTEIN AND ENERGY ON MILK PRODUCTION, COMPONENT AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN COWS.

Omar D.M. Al-Mallah; Abdul- monem M. Salih

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 122-128
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80300

This study was conducted in the animal farm at college of agriculture and forestry / Mosul university by using three multiparous cross breed friesian cows in the first month of lactation, average body weight 392.3 kg. The cows was placed in an individual pen and fed on three experimental rations using latin square design ( 3 × 3 ) with three period each was lasted 21 days. First ration ( T1 ) was the control consist mainly of barley, wheat bran, yellow corn and soybean meal, second ration ( T2 ) was similar to the control but contained formaldehyde treated soybean meal, while T3 was similar to T2 , but increased in energy content. Results showed that the treatment had no significant effect in milk production which were 8.67 , 7.91 and 8.81 kg/day for T1 , T2, and T3 respectively, although milk production decreased by 9.6 and 11.37 % in T2 as compared T1 and T3, milk fat , protein , lactose , total solids and energy were not affected significantly by dietary treatments, but it was noted that fat percentage increased by 22.5 and 18 % in T2 and T3 as compared with T1. Also, blood parameters were differed between treatment but not significantly.

EFFECT OF BLACK SEED (Nigella sativa) IN THE DIET ON PRODUCTIVE AND PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS AND IMMUNE RESPONSE AGAINST NEWCASTLE DISEASE AND AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUSES IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS PULLETS

Sardar Y. T. Al-Sardary; Lanja A. Esmail

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 129-140
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80301

This experiment was conducted by using black seed powder (Nigella sativa) at the rate of 0.0, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.30% in the diet of 144 layers/chicks ISA BROWN 2000, and the age from 4 up to 16 weeks, the chicks were allocated on to four feeding treatments to study its effect on some productive and physiological traits and the immune response against Newcastle disease and Avian Influenza (AI) viruses. Result showed that treatments had no significant effect on pullets productive traits studied, but age intervals had significant effect on most productive traits. Treatments had significant effect on pullets immune response, so caused high antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND) virus in blood plasma mainly for the group fed (0.30% black seed powaer).Age intervals had a significant effect on pullets immune response, so their titer against ND and (AI) viruses were improved significantly.

EFFECT USING OF FENUGREEK SEEDS AND OLIVELEAVES ON SOME REPRODUCTIVECHARACTERS IN MALE AND FEMALELAYING HENS

Nabeel .N.Ahmad; Sara.S.Z.Alobaidy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 141-148
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80302

This study was conducted to evaluate the effects using Fenugreek seeds (TrigonellaFoenum- Graecum) and Olive Leaves ( Oleaeuropaea L.) on the semen quality ,relative testes weights , relative male and female reproductive system weight and fertility rate .Ninety females and 18 males of ( ISA Brown Laying hen breeder were used in this study (84 week old) ,birds were divided into 3 groups each group consists of 30 hens and 6cock ,6 replicates (5hens and1cock replicate) , and treated as follows for 16 weeks :
Trt1 : Control diet.
Trt2 : Control diet + (10gm kg) of diet Fenugreek seeds .
Trt3 : Control diet + (10gm kg) of diet Olive leaves .
Result showed significant deference in the semen volume in first period as compared with second period , semen volume decrease with age , a significant increase were also observed in second period for trt (massmotility ,abnormal permsandsperm concentration ml as comparedwith the firstperiod . Results also revealed thatFenugreek seed and Olive leaves treatment causes a significant improvement in all semen characters as compared with control , and enhance thefertility rate in both normal and artificial insemination .Results also revealed olive leavestreatment asignificant in the relative female reproductive system weightas compared Fenugreek seed and control group.

EFFECT OF TREATMENT WITH SOME ORGANIC ACIDS ON QUALITY CHANGES OF LOCAL VEAL MEAT PATTIES THROUGH FREEZING STORAGE

L. D. Al-Doori

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 149-156
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80303

The aim of this study was to investigate the quality changes of frozen veal meat patties treated with different concentrations of organic acids (ascorbic, acetic and lactic) stored at-18o C for three months. Quality analysis which were mademonthly included pH, peroxide value, free fatty acids, amino nitrogen and myoglobin. Results showed a significant (P<0.01) decrease in pH value for most of the treatments from the second month till the end of storage period, this may due to meat hydrolysis by adding different concentrations of acids and may be by the acids which produced by bacteria. This study also indicates that the peroxide value for the standard treatment increased through the storage period but decreased by using different concentrations of ascorbic acid. Similar effect was shown by lactic and acetic acids. Its result lead to decrease in comparison to the standard treatment except for myoglobin which increased by using the acids

EFFECT OF FORTIFYING BY WHEY PROTEIN AND PROIOTIC BACTERIA ON PROPERTIES OF SOFT CHEESE DURING COLD STORAGE 1- EFFECT OF POWDERED AND CURD WHEY ON COAGULATION TIME AND CURD TENSION

Azhar Ibrahim shaker; Riyadh Mohammed Saleem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 157-161
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80312

Whey protein was used in the manufacture of soft cheese to compensate the fat flavor. The effect of whey powder or its precipitated proteins on coagulation time and curd tension. In first stage, whey powder was added at 1, 2, 3 and 4 % to the milk directly and heated at 90°c for 1 minute to precipitate whey protein. In the second stage, whey proteins were precipitated by acid and heating then added to pasteurized milk at 2, 4 and 6 %. Results showed that heating the milk had increased the coagulation time, while adding whey powder had reduced it according to the added percentages, but no as well as raw milk. Adding whey curd (proteins) resulted in increasing the coagulation time compared with raw and pasteurized milk samples. Nevertheless, the curd tension was reduced with the addition of whey powder and whey proteins with no significant effects were noticed among treatments.

PRODUCTION OF REDUCING SUGARS AND CELLULASE BY LOCAL STRAIN OF Trichoderma viride FROM TOMATO FRUITS WASTES USING SOLID STATE FERMENTATION

Yonis Ali Yonis; Sheet Adnan Sahar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 162-169
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80332

A Local strain of Trichoderma viride was isolated from the soil. The effect of incubation period and cutlure components of reducing sugars and cellulase were studied. Resutls showed that the optimum incubition period for highest production of reducing sugar and cellulase was 6 days. Ammonium phosphate at 0.06% concentration as the nitrogen source gave the maximum reducing sugar (67.88) g/kg and enzyme activit 2.68) and 2.78 unit /g) by using filter papar F.pase and carboxy methyl cellulose(CMC) respectively. The study also showed that addition of 0.08 % KH2PO4 had positive effect on the production of reducing sugar which gave 69.76) g/l) and highest enzyme activity 2.82) and 2.73 unit /g) .Magnesium sulfate at 0.06% concentration the highest enzyme activity by using Fpase and CMC were optioned 2.74 ) and 2.58 unit /g) respectively and 64.46 g/kg reduc

DEMONSTRATION OF SUMAC FRUITS EXTRACTS ACTIVITY AS ANTIOXIDANTS

M.M. Al-Zubaidy; Mowafak M.. Ali; Wissam A. Darey; Saieed. N. Th; Al-Taweel Q. S; A.H.A . Al-Wakaa; A.M. Sultan; Salim .H.Antar; Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Abdul-razzaq Y.Aljubuory; Aead Yousif Haj Ismail; Shaymaa Mohameed Hisham Yousif; Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Salah Al-Deen Abdul Qader Saleh; Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Salah Al-Deen Abdul Qader Salih; Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Mahmood Th. Al-luwayzi; Batool A. Karso; Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Batool A. Karso; Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Amer W. Abdul-Kareem; Khalid Ekhlayef Nazzal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 170-179
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80333

A antioxidant activities of red sumac fruits (semi ripe) (Rhus coriaria) extracts were evaluated and compared with Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT) as a positive control compared sample by using reducing power test, B-Carotene bleaching test, Hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity test and FTC (Ferric thiocyanate) assay. Red sumac fruits were extracted with different solvents (methanol, ethanol, aceton, diethyl ether, ethyle acetate and hexan). The properties of extraction solvents significantly affected extraction yield ,total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of red sumac extract, methanol(80%) gave highest extracted yield from red sumac fruits. Also methanolic extract showed highest content of total phenolic compounds compared with other extraction solvents used in study. The methanolic cude extract of red sumac fruits had better antioxidant activity compared with samples treated with extracts by other extraction solvents. The antioxidant activities could be arranged as follow :BHT

Keywords

Antioxidant activity
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Red Sumac
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Extraction solvent
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الفعالية المضادة للاكسدة، السماق الاحمر، مذيبات الاستخلاص

EFFECT OF COW DRY BUTTER OIL FRACTIONATON ON FATTY ACIDS

Mowafak M.. Ali; Wissam A. Darey

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 180-184
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80334

Fractionation of cow butter oil using dry crystallization method at different temperatures 20,25 and30ºC for four different fractions : the solid fraction at 30,25 and 20ºC and liquid fraction at 20ºC. Changes in fatty acids composition using a gas chromatograph were investigated. The results showed a rise in mono and poly unsaturated fatty acids in liquid fraction compared to solid fractions. The highest amount of these acids was observed in liquid fraction at 20ºC
(36.88%), whereas the lowest amount was found in solid fractions at 30C (26.33%), compared to the original butter oil (32.32%).The lowest amount in long chain saturated fatty acid was found in liquid fraction at 20ºC (49.51%) compared to the solid fractions at 30ºC (63.35%) and original butter oil (55.54%).The short chain saturated fatty acids (C4-C10) were increased from 11.94% in the original butter oil to 13.37% in the liquid fraction, while C4-C10 in the solid fractions at 25ºc was decreased to 10.05%.

EFFECT OF SEED SOAKING IN DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF CYTOKININ (BA) AND 2.4-D ON SOME MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF Pinus brutia TEN.

Saieed. N. Th; Al-Taweel Q. S

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 185-198
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80336

This study was conducted at nursery and silviculture laboratory of forestry dept. during the 2nd of April- 2009 until 1st of July- 2010 and the objective was determining the effect of Cytokinine , Benzyladenine (BA), Auxine 2.4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2.4-D) and the interaction between them on several morphological characteristics of Pinus brutia Ten. This was done through seeds soaking for (72h.) in Solution of different concentrations of (BA) and (2.4-D) then treated seeds were sowed in plastic bags Containing sandy loam soil after that the field study was completed by laboratory work. The result showed a wide range of variation between growing transplants which treated by different concentration levels of (BA) and (2.4-D). Treatment of 0.25 mg/l – BA was the best in most studied traits in comparison with other concentrations and control. Also there was a
light significant differences between treatment of (2.4-D) regime for germination percentage and the treatment of 0.1 mg/l -2.4-D was the best in comparison with other treatment and control in most studied characteristics, but treatment y 0.2 mg/l 2.4-D revealed significancy in secondary root numbers trait only . In the situation of (BA) and (2.4-D) interaction effect , The interaction of (0.25 mg/l –BAZero 2.4-D ) was the best in most of the traits, when minimumt effect was reveald in interaction of (0.50 mg/l- BA x 0.6 mg/l- 2.4-d.

EFFECT OF TIME OF CLIPPING AND FREQUENCY OF CONTROL Eichhornia crassipes (MART)SOLMS

A.H.A . Al-Wakaa; A.M. Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 198-205
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80337

The experiment was conducted at the field station of college of Agriculture Forestry / Mosul University (Iraq) during the growing season 2011 on water hyacinth .The purpose of the research is to study the effect of frequency of clipping at different duration to control this weed .It was used Orthogonal contrast analysis between mean treatments in order to determine the best time for mechanical clipping of water hyacinth .Results showed that the clipping treatments of July (Q3) had to significantly decreased in plant high, leaf area ,root length and dry weight comparing with treatments had done on May or June (Q1,Q2).On other hand Q3 had superiority in number of inflorescences /m² and number of daughter plant/m² .In general ,the percentage of killing for Q3 was superior than Q1 or Q2 which had reach up to 16% and 12.76% respectively. In general, the Orthogonal contrast had give the beast treatment for clipping at the end of July which caused the higher of killing reached up to 40% .Although the water hyacinth plant had tendency to produce a high number of seed and also the vegetative reproduction was highly increased .As a result at this study ,it is not useful to consider the mechanical method as a reasonable way in controlling water hyacinth .

EFFECT OF TILLAGE SYSTEMS AND SEED RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF WHEAT ( Triticum aestivum .L) And Growth Of Associated Weeds In Dryland Farming.

Salim .H.Antar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 206-218
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80339

A Field experiment was conducted during the growing season 2010-2011 at Talkief , Hamdania , Mahllbia , Shiekan and Namrood locations in Naniva provancy to evaluate effect of tillage systems ( no tillage , conventional tillage ) under different seed rates ( 80 , 100 , 120 kg/ ha) at that locations on yield & of wheat ant associated weeds . However , where are the other factors . The results showed that 37.71 of number and dry weight of grass weeds was reduction in no till if it compared with Cno-till . Also no. and Dwt . of broodleaves weed had been reduced up to 59.47 , 54.71 . respectively in no till comparing with Con . till too , While Wheat yield had increased in con.till up to 3.1 % compering with no till . On the other hand , as seed rates increased , dry weight or number of weed plants will be reduced and subsequently the yield will be increased . However , There was differences in number of Dry weight of narrow or broad leaves weeds as well as Yield according to soil moisture or the avarege of rainfall , which the moisture to be considered the first factor for the productive of crop in different rainfall area so that there was no benefit of increasing seed rates in high rainfall region or the crop sown under the supplementary irrigation for increasing crop yield Therefore yield was differences depending on density and growth of weeds at those locations.

SIMPLIFIED METHOD FOR CALCULATING THE PERCENTAGE OF ACTIVATION , SYNERGISM AND POTENTIATION OF ADDED MATERIALS TO THE PESTICIDES

Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Abdul-razzaq Y.Aljubuory

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 219-227
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80347

The results of applying new method in calculating the percent of activation , potentiation and Synergism added on mortality percentage of the mixture Deltamethrin 2.5% Ec + Ground nut oil) and the mixture components separately in controlling the 3th instar of larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hubn.) , show that the Mean total mortality reached 58.2% which represents the mean mortality percentage of Deltamethring 18.95% and oil mortality percentage 12.19% (Potentiation and Synergism percentage of oil which reached 27.05 % . The results indicated that the ground nut oil exhibited a potentiation and synergism effect when mixed with Deltamethrin . While the results of mixing deltamethrin with Piperonyl butoxide revealed that the Mean of total Mortality percentage reached 40.86 % which represents the total of Deltamethrin mortality percentage 27.% and Piperonyl butoxide mortality percentage zero % ( No Potentiation ) and Synergism effect of Piperonyl butoxide which reached 13.86%.

USE OF MICROWAVE RADIATION TO CONTROL SOME STORAGE INSECTS IN RICE

Aead Yousif Haj Ismail; Shaymaa Mohameed Hisham Yousif

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 228-235
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80348

The microwave radiation had a considerable effect on the mortality percentage for the three species. The highest percentage of mortality was (14.61%) for Oryzaephilus surinamensis. (11.82%) for Tribolium castaneum and (8.57%) for Trogoderma granarium.Concerning the effect of microwave radiation on the phases. the pupae phase was the most sensitive to the microwave radiation with a mortality percentage of (13.29%). followed by the adult phase (10.96%) and the larvae phase (10.75%). Moreover. the effect of the microwave radiation on the rice species used in the experiment. No differences amongst the species had been seen. The mortality percentages were 12.18. 12.75. 13.12. 10.52. 10.85 and 10.59% for the Indian. Turkish. Italian. Amber. Aqrawi and Bazyani respectively. Concerning the effect of radiation level's the highest mortality percentage was (33.59%) at the level (900 watt). followed by (12.61%) at level of (600 watt). (0.36%) at level (300 watt) and (0.10) at level (100 watt).Also. the exposure periods on the mortality percentage had a clear affect where the highest percentage of mortality was (40.86%) for exposure period of 120 seconds. Followed by (0.09%) for 90 seconds. (0.28%) for the period of 60 seconds. (4.35%) for the period of 30 seconds and (24.24%) for the exposure period of 10 seconds.

EFFECT OF HOST KIND ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SOME INSECTICIDES ON COLORADO POTATO BEETLE

Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Salah Al-Deen Abdul Qader Saleh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 236-247
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80349

The results of studying effect of host kind (Potato and Eggplant) on the efficiency of Methoxyfenozide 240 SC, Deltamethrin 2.5%EC, Indoxacarb 150 SC and B.thuringensis var. Alesti on larvae and adults of Colorado potato beetle, showed that all the tested insecticides produce a superior effect on larvae and adults reared on potato in comparison with those reared on eggplant. The Deltamethein LC50 reached 0.005% on larvae and adults reared on potato followed by Indoxacarb while the LC50 of Deltamethrin and Indoxacarb reached 0.007 and 0.008% respectively on the larvae and the adults reared on eggplant.

BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF LEAF EXTRACTS OF PIPER AND TOMATO PLANT ON LARVAE AND ADULTS OF COLORADO POTATO BEETLE (Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say)

Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Salah Al-Deen Abdul Qader Salih

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 248-261
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80350

The results of studying the biological effect of water and coholic leaf extracts of piper and tomato plant on larvae and adults of Colorado potato beetle showed a superior and significant effect of water leaf extract of piper on mean percentage of larvae mortality which reached 73.33% at 8% concentration, while water leaf extract of tomato revealed a significant effect on mean mortality percentage on adult of CPB which reached 46.66% at 8% conc. The alcoholic leaf extract of piper exhibited a good repellency effect on larva and adults of the insect in comparison with leaf water extract. While the water leaf extract of tomato produced a highest repellency percentage on larva and adult reached 36.67 and 56.67% respectively .

THE EFFECT OF HOST KIND AND EXPOSURE TIME ON TOXICITY OF SOME INSECT GROWTH INHIBITORS ON LARVAE OF P. interpunctella(Hub.)

Nazar M.Al-Mallah; Mahmood Th. Al-luwayzi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 262-273
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80351

The results of studying The effect of host kind ( pistachio, Nuts, Walnut and Kazo) and exposure time to sub-lethal concentration of ( Buprofezin, Cyromazin and Lufenuron) or Toxicity to the larvae of P. interpunctella showed the high mean mortality reached 100% in larvae reared on Cyromazin treated pistachio under continuous exposure . while the sub-lethal concentration of Lufenuron and Cyromazin forbid the larvae reared on pistachio to transfer to pupa under continuous exposure condition , also the sub-lethal concentration of Lufenuron inhibit the eclosion of anults from the pupa on all hosts. The results revealed the superior effect of Lufenuron in controlling the larvae of P. interpunctella in comparison with the rest of insect growth regulators.

THE EFFECTED OF MIXTING RATIOS SOME VEGETABLE OILS IN ; SYNERGISM AND POTAION THE ALPHA-CYPERMATHRIN INSECTICIDE IN GRAIN BEETLES (Trogoderma granarium E. ) LARVAE

Batool A. Karso; Nazar M.Al-Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 274-285
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80352

Study results showed the effect of some vegetable oils and host food in the proportion of activation, synergy and potentiation of pesticide Alpha-Cypermtherin grain beetle larvae , Atfouk mixture peanut oil by mixing 3 Oil: 1 pesticide toxicity to the revitalization of the pesticide in the grain beetle larvae of the third instar of poetry at a rate of 1.62, which was the rate of activation synergistically 1.57 , The sesame oil gave a mixture with the insecticide Alpha-Cypermtherin by mixing oil 2: 1 ratio less insecticide antagonism reached 0.15 .

The EFFECT OF THE REARING ON OILS SOURCE IN ACTIVATION OF OILS FOR CONTROLLING THE GRAIN BEETLE Trogoderma granarium (E.)

Batool A. Karso; Nazar M.Al-Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 286-293
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80353

The results of studying the effect of the type of host food by which the larvae were reared on , and the type of oil used for some vegetable oils ( sunflower ,Sesame ,Peanut , Soybean and Almond ) on the 3rd instar of grain beetle , showed a different mortality percentage and the Peanut oil exhibit a superior , killing percentage reached 72.5 . and toxicity index 100 on insect larvae reared on Peanut in comparisor with 49.3 % and 41.3 for toxicity index . The lowest killing percentage 43.7 % was obtains from treating larvae reared on Sunflower with Sunflower oil in comparison with 66.6% on larvae reared on wheat .

PHYTOREMEDIATION OF SALT- AFFECTED SOILS AT AL- JAZEERA NORTHERN IRRIGRATION PROJECT/ NINAVAH/ IRAQ

Amer W. Abdul-Kareem; Khalid Ekhlayef Nazzal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 294-298
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80354

Soil salinity is one of the most serious limiting factors that affect plant growth and productivity of various crops in arid regions. Methods commonly used to combat salinity are either classical or new using halophytes.This study was conducted at plastichouse in order to evaluate the efficiency of Atriplexhalimus in salt removal from saline, saline-sodic soils of Al-jazeera project in Ninavah province. Plantation with A.halimus decreased electrical conductivity for saline- sodic soil from 39.2 to 26.5dS.m-1 and from 6.2 to 4.9 dS.m-1 for saline soil. Sodium adsorption ratio declined to half and 28.6% for saline- sodic and saline soils respectively. The current study revealed an increased efficiency of Atriplexhalimus with increasing salinity which suggest it a good candidate for soil desalination in arid and semiarid regions.