Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 40, Issue 3

Volume 40, Issue 3, Autumn 2012, Page 1-306


EFFECT OF GLYPHOSATE ON DODDER (Cuscuta sp )WEED GROWING WITH CLOVER (Trifolium alexandrinum L).

Salim Hammadi Antar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 1-6
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54794

The experiment was conducted during the Agricultural season 2008 in the green house of Field crops .Dept , College of Agriculture and forestry. The effect of different dosses of glyphosate (48 , 96 ,144 ,192 ml/ha) with different durations time of herbicide application after (10,20,30days) of plant clover infestation were studied . Dodder can competes strongly with clover , potentially reducing clover growth . Fresh and dry weights of dodder were decreased at the first and second durations of herbicide application . The height of plant & no . of beanches were significantly higher at the first duration whears the dry weight of stems, leaves and roots were significantly decreased as the time of application increased . On the other hand , fresh and dry weights of dodder plants were reduced as the doses of herbicide increased . Clover plant height and no . of branches were increased as the glyphosate doses increased .Dry weights of leaves , stems and roots were inversely related to the dose of glyphosate Fresh and dry weights of dodder were negatively related to the dose of herbicide at all durations of herbicide application . The results of the present study showed that glyphosate caused a cleare damage on dodder plants where as clover plants did not obtain any sign of damage had less effect on it .

NINEVEH PROVINCE BEEKEEPERS PROBLEMS AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO SOME FACTORS

Bassam H. Azeez Al-Naqash

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54779

This study focusing Nineveh province beekeepers problems and its relationship to some factors. The research sample consisted of the 126 responders reoresenting the ratio of the bee 24.230% of the overall research population. The data were collected through questionnaires. Result included that the problems which 95.273% of the educators were forcing problems that they were suffering medium tend to decline, while there is no difference in the problems which forcing beekeepers according to the following factors: Academic achievement , Experts years numbers in beekeeping, exposure level to the sources of information of beekeeping was to the level 0.05. While the study revealed that there were deference between problems beekeepers according to the full-time work in beekeeping in the level 0.01 .

COMPARING THE PERCEIVED AND CALCULATED TRAINING NEED IN THE FIELD OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION METHODS FOR AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION WORKERS IN NINEVAH GOVERNORATE

Amel F. Khalil AL-Abbassi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 9-15
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54797

The objective of this research was to assess the perceived and calculated training need for agricultural extension workers in Ninevah Governorate in the field of agricultural extension methods , to find out the correlation between these needs and some personal & vocational characteristics of the workers. The population of the study consists of 168 workers while the research sample consists of 87 respondents representing 52% of the population. The data were colected through a questionnaire , the first part of it included personal and vocational characteristics , while the second included 16 itmes concerning the training needs . For date analysis means and spearman rank correlation in addition to person’s correlation were used. The results revealed a significant correlation between perceived and calculated training needs, it was also found a significant correlation between perceived training needs with years of employment years of extension experience , the desire for extension work and previous extension training while there was no significant correlation with academic qualification , specialization and place of work. The researchers recommended the need to take into consideration the worker’s point of view in planning their training programs and include all the workers categories in the inservice training .

TEACHING CLARITY AT THE COLLEGE OF AGRICULTURE MOSUL UNIVERSITY

Jamil Mohammed Yousif

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 16-22
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54811

The purpose of this descriptive study was to get some information about teaching clarity at the college of agriculture-Mosul University. 692 students participated in responding to an instrument designed to measure their perceptions of teaching clarity of 76 agri–science teachers, and its reflections on their academic achievement. The study pointed out that a considerable proportion of agri-science teachers have a low teaching clarity resulted from low performance on the instrument items as perceived by their students. The results also showed that, students' achievement of high clarity teachers were better than students' achievement of low clarity teachers. Based on the findings, it is important to develop an agricultural education curriculum, which include a courses relevant to their common career as an agricultural instructors.

ECONOMIC REFORM AND STRUCTURAL IN ARAB AGRICULTURAL

Salim Y. Al-Niaamy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 23-33
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54793

Economic stabilization and structural adjustments are among the important programs adopted by economic policies in the developing and Arabic countries. These programs deal with the structural imbalances in economic sectors. In this study concentration is laid upon dealing with imbalance in agricultural sector in Yemen, Syria and Saudi Arabia. These countries are selected as a sample representing the Arabic countries in their intellectual and source differences. Similar structural variables with some differences in the economic model are also used where due to the priority of dealing with these economic imbalances in agricultural sectors in each of these countries have been differences in the nature of dealing with these imbalances. Analysis had depended on acomparison between pre and post economic reform for the model of using similar variables for the two periods to identify the negative or positive changes in these variables after adopting reform programs. The study has showed that there were positive indicators in some variables after adopting economic reform while some of them remained unchanged, as in Yemen, for example. For Syria this approach has some negative effects especially for type of change in agriculture contribution rate in gross domestic production. In Saudi Arabia where no change has been noticed in type of change in agricultural product value (structural variable) positive aspects of adopting reform programs include the change of index number of food products prices and the index number of agricultural production per capita from non-significant to significant variables

THE FINANCIAL , TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL USEFULNESS STUDY FOR ESTABLISHING EXPERIMENTAL STATION AND DEVELOPING OF HONEYBEES PROJECTS

Kays Nadhim Ghazal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 34-49
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54825

The research aims to study the financial , technical and economical usefulness establishment of experimental station and development of honeybees projects , in Mosul city / Iraq , by using some economical evaluation aspects ; Four productive lines were chosen , they are ; Honey Product , bee clusters , queen Rearing , Bee Cluster production and honey characters credit. In order to prove hypothesis research trading profit aspects , such as Ratio Benefits to cost , which was 1.22 , 2.85 , 7.86 and 1.58 Iraqi Dinar, and Internal incomes mean aspect which was 18.49 % ,17.7%,18.25% and 17.83% to the four lines productive respectively had been used . Result showed an economical usefulness for this project.

EFFECT SPRAY BY HUMIC ACID ON YIELD AND QUALITY OF POTATOES UNDER CONDITIONS OF AUTUMN CULTIVATION.

Juboori; Amer A. H. Al

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 50-57
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54796

The study was conducted at the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry during the season autumn 2010, the experiment included two factors: two cultivars and spraying Humic acid and carried out according to RCBD. The results showed superiority of Santa cultivar on the Ltuna cultivar in most of the characteristics of vegetative growth and yield, while showed treatment of spraying Humic acid exceed the level of spraying 4.5 mil / liter in the characteristics of leaf area , yield per plant, tuber weight , tuber length , tuber diameter and marketable yield , but did not differ with level of spraying 3 mil / liter in the yield per plant and marketable yield , the interaction Santa cultivar under spraying 4.5 mil / liter recorded highest values in leaf area per plant, yield per plant , tuber weight , tuber length , tuber diameter, while superiority of santa cultivars under level of spraying 3 mil / liter on yield per plant and marketable yield, but did not different from Santa cultivar under the level of spraying 4.5mil / liter in that characteristics .

SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS AND ADVENTITIOUS SHOOT REGENERATION FROM LEAF EXPLANTS AND STEM NODES OF

Bashar Z.A.Kassab Bashy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54783

The present study was carried out in Plant Tissue Culture Laboratory Department of Horticulture , College of Agriculture & Forestry , Mosul University to propagate lilium plants Lilium longiflorium cv. Aster lily a white flowers in vitro by using nodes from plants growing in field in 5 May after flowering and cultured in MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of Kinetin or BA and rooting the shoots produced in vitro , as well as to explain the effect of sucrose on bulblet produced on rooted shoots , also medium or basal parts of leaves were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of BA interacted with different concentrations of 2,4-D or on MS medium supplemented with BA and NAA , nodes taken from plants grown in field also cultured in 10 July before plant dormancy on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of 2,4-D . Data refers that highest number of shoots 8.1 shoot/explant obtained from nodes cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA after eight weeks from planting date , 100% rooting and highest number of roots 11.8 root/explant was obtained from cultured shoots produced in vitro on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA , highest weight and volume 0.997gm , 0.43 cm3 for bulblet were obtained from cultured rooted shoots on MS medium supplemented with 120 gm/l sucrose , callus produced from culturing nodes three time on MS medium with 0.2 mg/l 2,4-D produced 50% shoots with average 5 shoot /explant after cultured on MS medium without growth regulators and stages of somatic embryogenesis were observed (globular, heart, torpedo) on callus, shoots initiated directly on basal leaf parts cultured on medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/l 2,4-D , otherwise callus initiated on basal leaf parts cultured on medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA and 0.1mg/l NAA and when recultured these callus somatic embryogenesis were observed on it , all plantlets produced in vitro acclimated in laboratory and transferred to plastic house and then to field with 100% survival.

THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING AND GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS TECHNIQUES TO MONITOR THE DEGRADATION OF SOILS IRRIGATED BY SALINE WATER IN TALLAFAR

Khalid A. Khalid

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 68-77
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54785

The research depended on remote sensing techniques and geographic information system (GIS) to study of running water in Tallafar, which is used to irrigate orchards, and agricultural land south of the city, due to technical importance in the compilation of information and data to monitor land resources and the changes that happened to it, including soil degradation. The samples has been taken from the water stream for three years ( 2009, 2010 and 2011) of same locations, same analysis on soil samples for each year, which had been irrigated by this water were conducted. The results showed an increase in sulfate concentration in all the locations that reached 37.18 meq / L as a highest concentration. The values of electrical conductivity of water samples in the studied area ranged between 2.82 - 4.38 dS/m. Also an increase in calcium ions value at the first location were noted, which was 30 Meq/ L in 2011. Through ERDAS program we found that there is a distribution of gypsum soils in the study area especially that appeared in large areas south of the orchards, also with relatively distribution around the horticulture land. The morphometric analysis for WMS7.1 program showed that all the water in the basin comes from the northern west plunge Zambar anticline and southern east blunge of Sasan anticline, as well as running water inside the city, which is flow in to waterway that is leading to the orchards and agricultural lands.

THE EFFECT OF SOME PHYSIOCHEMICAL FACTORS ON PEDOGENIC DISTRIBUTION OF MANGANESE IN SOME

Adil Maulood Salih

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 78-87
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54795

Eight soil pedons were chosen. in Nineveh Province to determine the effect of physiochemical factors 0n pedogenic distribution of manganese extracted by DCB method. The results indicated that topography had a significant effect in all studied soils. the highest . manganese values in Al-Hamdania ranged between (40-47) mg.Kg-1. followed by Al-Fadhlia & Kara-Tapa regions ranged between (36-39). (11.6-35) mg.Kg-1 respectively. Soil depth had significant effect in Al-Fadhlia & Al-Hamdania regions with ratio effect of 30% . 50% respectively. CaCO3 had a significant effect in Al-Hamdania region only. Organic matter had a slight effect. Soil fine fraction (silt & clay) had unclear effect in which manganese ranged between 37.2-39.52 mg.Kg-1in Al-Hamdania region. Soil pH had non-significant effect on manganese pedogenic distribution in studied soils. DCB was effective extracting method for Mn-Fe concretions and thin black coatings on red and green mudstone.

STUDY OF SODIUM POTENTIAL BUFFERING CAPACITY FOR SOME SOILS OF NINEVEH PROVINCE

M. A. J. Al-Obaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 88-96
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54808

Sodium quantity/intensity curves were applied for exchangeable isotherm system Na+ - Ca+2 suggested by Beckett by using thermodynamic parameters to evaluate fertility status in some rain-fed soils in Nineveh province / northern of Iraq. Results indicated that all studied soils were of neutral pH with appreciable total and active carbonates content of 182-270 , 63-91 gm.Kg-1 respectively, with dominant of chloritized semictite and illite clay minerals in soils clay fraction. the values ranged widely from 0.25×10-3 - 0.94 ×10-3 mole.L-½, the labile pool of potassium values ranged from 10.91-25.36 c.mole Kg-1 , while sodium potential capacity values from 24.76- 42.18 c.mole.(Kg.mole-1)-½.. On the other hand Gibbs free energy values- ∆G were negatively spontaneous reactions and ranged from -7.91 to - 0.6 cal. mole-1 and Gapon selectivity coefficient values ranged between 1.32 - 2.99 L.mole-1. Lacked in the curvature commonly seen in the quantity/intensity curves for sodium. Result showed lower values and higher energies of replacement of calcium by sodium, also showed a higher affinity for than . They also indicated that Na held in these soils in two characteristics types of exchange sites having different affinities for sodium.

KINETIC RELEASE OF POTASSIUM RESERVE IN SOME CALCAREOUS SOILS IN NORTHERN OF IRAQ

Hazim. M. Ahmed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 97-106
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54784

This study was conducted to reveal the conditions and parameters which control dissolution and release of indogentic potassium in some Hammam Al-Alil soils northern Iraq, representing Aridisols order. Three pedons were selected having different soil series namely (462CCE, 453CCW and 451CCW). The study included using successive extraction with 6.25M HCl, under reflux conditions for 100 mint. to determe the amount and rates of release exchangeable and non-exchangeable potassium in some calcareous soil periphery of semictite and illite minerals according to the amount of release of mica-K. by using a kinetic diffusion parabolic equation. The results showed that amount of released potassium was reduced by increasing extraction time, and the variation in chemical, physical and mineralogical properties of the soil samples have a great effect on each amount, rate, and pathway reaction of potassium release between soil series, also the results showed that the pathway reaction of K-release consist of two segments according to the parabolic diffusion equation. The first segment represented exchangeable phase that was more than the second phase (non-exchangeable) in its amount and rate of release . Fertility evaluation of the results according to amount and rate of K-release from mica-K referred that all soils samples has a moderate reserve with low release rate, therefore the K-reserve of soils could be mapped by soil series using this method of classification such mapping would provide data on the extent availability of reserves in both short term (i.e.) the crop over a growing season and long term.

ESTIMATED OF GENETIC AND NON GENETIC PARAMETERS FOR DAILY TEST MILK YIELD AND FAT PERCENTAGE IN HAMDANI EWES

Al-Barzinji Y. M

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 107-115
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54824

This experiment was included 655 test-days for milk yield and fat percentage in Hamdani ewes obtained from 56 ewes raised at Grdarasha station- College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University during period from 2001 t0 2002. The daily milk yield showed to be highest at 6, 8 and 10 weeks after lambing. The mean daily milk yield and fat % were 440.10 gm and 5.94% respectively. The estimated repeatability for milk yield and fat% were 0.40 and 0.19, respectively and BLUP values ranged from -265.11 to 708.46 gm and -1.23 to 1.44 % for milk yield and fat%, respectively. Sex of lamb, age of dam and series of the tests have a significant (p≤0.01) influence on the daily milk yield. Type of birth had no significant effect on milk yield. On the other hand, type of birth and series of the tests have a significant (p≤0.01) influence on fat %. The highest fat % was found to be during 12-15th tests.

EFFECT OF MAGNETICALLY TREATED WATER ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE AND THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT

Dr. Mohammed Fadel Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 116-127
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54809

The study has been carried out during the period from 15/9/2010 to 21/12/2010 in a alshalalat farm 15km from Mosul center. 200 chickens of 1day age have been used in which were divided into two parts. The first one takes the ordinary water while the second takes the magnetized water having the magnetic field of 500 Gauss. The results as follow:- There are highly significant increases P≤0.01 in second treatment that used Magnetized water in live body weight, body weight gain improved the feed conversion efficiency, water intake, blood pH, packed cells value, number of red and white cells, hemoglobin and total serum protein, and highly significant decrease P≤0.01 in cholesterol, glucose and uriacid in blood serum compared with first. There are significant differences between the second treatment in weight of (carcass, breast , thigh, wings and neck) and first treatment, this difference was not significant in weight of back and edible viscera between the two treatment. There is a significant correlation P≤0.01 in the first treatment between the weight of carcass and the components of the carcass except the weight of the carcass and the weight of viscera consumed at a level of P ≤ 0.05 for both treatments but the weight of breast in the second treatment there are no significant differences with the weight of carcass and parts of the carcass. The analysis of the path coefficient for the first treatment that the neck is the limiting factor of direct and indirect link and suites at the second treatment is the key determinant of direct and indirect link between the parts of the carcass.

ESTROGEN LEVEL DETERMINATION DURING ESTRUS CYCLE OF CAPRI . IBEX FEMALES AND ITS EFFECT ON WHITE BLOOD CELL

Fatima J. Azgar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 128-134
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54799

This study was carried on (7) females Caper . ibex, age between 3 – 4 years at Baghdad Zoo /Al – Zawrra park within reproductive season .The body weight between 25 – 30 kg .All the animals were put under environmental conditions .The aim of this study was to measure the blood estrogen level during the estrous cycle (proestrous , estrous and diestrous) and the effect on the differential white blood cell count .
Results of this study showed significant differences during estrous cycle period about serum estrogens concentration in (P<0.05) ,which recorded the highest level at the first day of the estrous period (7.2600 ng/ml) ,while the lowest level (0.5720 ng/ml) was at 19th day of diestrous period . The differential white blood cell count showed no significant differences between the estrous cycle period about neutrophils , but there were significant differences between 3rd day of estrous period (50.500) and 2nd day of proestrous period . while there were no significant differences recorded in esnophils ,basophiles and monocyts during estrous cycle period also between cycles day . lymphocytes showed no significant differences between proestrous period (60.000) and estrous and diestrous period (53.538 and 57.019) also between estrous cycle day .
It may be concluded that , estrogens hormones affected on the neutrophils and lymphocytes ,but there was no effect on esnophils ,basophiles and monocyts .

BIOLOGICAL TECHNIQUE IN REDUCING THE WATER DISSOLVED NUTRIENTS IN THE DAIRY WASTEWATER BY USING DUCKWEED

Nidhal Tahseen Taha AL-Taee

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 135-152
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54822

The experiment was conducted in an ideal field of non-fully control studying the impact of the arbitration included duckweed plant in water to remove the dissolved nutrients (ammonia, nitrite, nitrate and phosphorus) from waste water of dairy products factory adopted in a period of ten days. The results revealed the treatment of duckweed plant with wet weight 5g/L and another treatment (control) without waste water plant in the dairy factory a gradual reduction of plant nutrients was noticed from the first day except ammonia, which did not show a high concentration during the first days until the fifth day of the two transactions, The total removal minerals of the plant and without plants follow: ammonia 72,73, 27,27%, nitrite, 97,87, 74,40%, nitrates, 83,40, 79,40%, on the tenth day respectively, this means that with plant one higher than without plants, The phosphorus values, 43,81, 48,66%, respectively, on the eighth day of the experiment.
Protein and moisture percentages raised to 39,72, 7,66%, respectively, after growing the Duckweed in dairy wastewater if compared with these grown without.
When the duckweed grown in dairy wastewater entered in components in fish fed-stuff containing by 5 and 10 %, it an increase of protein, carbohydrates, and ash, the proportions in the duckweed plant, were noticed where the percentages were 40,02, 22,51, 27,02%, respectively, and duckweed plant reduced the rates of water moisture, fat, fiber, as it reached in the duckweed ratios 6,69, 0,37, 3,39% respectively.

EFFECT OF MONTHS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND

Nabeel Najeeb Ahmed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 153-165
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54820

This study was conducted in the field of animal resources department-university of mosul on 24 Awassi males (8-10 month aged) The results revealed a highly significant effect (P ≤ 0.01) of the month (December ,January , February , March , April , June , July , and August) on body weight , serum glucose , total protein , globulin , cholesterol , AST , ALT , Thyroxine(T4) , and Testosterone concentration as well as PCV , ESR , semen volume consistency ,mass and individual movement , sperm concentration , and the live sperm % , abnormal sperm %, ph of semen . as well as cholesterol , ALT , in seminal plasma , and asignificant effect (P ≤ 0.05) on albumin, globulin and AST on seminal plasma

EFFECT OF ADDING SODIU BICARBONAT IN AWASSI EWES RATIONS ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY . SOME RUMEN PARAMETERS AND BLOOD

Muthanna A. M. Tayeb

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 166-174
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54807

Nine Awassi ewes with an average body weight of (59.41 ± 5.29 kg) (4-5) year old were divided into 3 groups each of 3 ewes and fed for 15 days on one of 3 rations to study effect of using different levels of sodium bicarbonate on nutrients digestibility and some rumen parameters in Awassi ewes . All groups were fed rations consisted mainly of barley. wheat bran and soybean meal. The first group (control) was fed without sodium bicarbonate . while the other( 2 and 3) groups were fed on different levels of sodium bicarbonate (1.5 and 3%) respectively. All rations were iso calory and iso nitrogen. During the last three days after the pre period which lasted 15 days feces was collected and samples of rumen liquor and blood were taken. The results indicated that the different levels of sodium bicarbonate had a significant improvements(P < 0.05) on crude protein(69.56.73.42.76.64%) and crude fiber digestibility(52.63.58.41.62.35%) as the levels of sodium bicarbonate increased respectively. The results indicated that the levels of sodium bicarbonate had no significant effect on dry matter.organic matter and ether extract digestibility. Moreover. the results showed that the levels(1.5 . 3 % ) of sodium bicarbonate had a significant effect(P < 0.05)on pH rumen liquor( 5.17 . 5.83 . 6.32 )and bacteria concentration logarithm (11.34.11.47.11.78)/ml of rumen liquor respectively. Blood samples analysis showed that treatments had no significant effects on concentration of total protein. AST. ALT. urea. glucose. triglyceride. But the results showed that levels of sodium bicarbonate had a significant effect(P < 0.05)on blood cholesterol( 117.03. 126.33. 126.67 mg/100ml) respectively.

CHANGE OF FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF WHEY PROTEIN

Mowafak M Ali Al-Obaydi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 175-181
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54815

Sweet and sour (salted or unsalted) whey protein concentrates were used after acetylation with acetic anhydride or succinylation with succinic anhydride at 0.5 %.to improvement of rheolgical properties of wheat flour products. Acetylated and succinylated gaved the best result their for used in dough treatments. Using farinograph appeared that acetylation of whey protein concentrates at 0.5% and addition them to the dough at 15% caused an increase in water absorption and dough stabilitiy. however.adding them at 40% showed the least values. Addition of these concentrates at 40% showed an increase in dough appearing time when compared to adding the concentrates at 15 and 30%.
Results from extensograph indicate that using acetylated sour unsalted whey concentrates at 30% gave the highest values in elasticity properties. while adding them at 40% led to lowest resistant property and sometimes led to zero BU.Also addition of the concentrates at 40%gave the lowest resistant/elasticity ratio in all treatments while adding them at 30% gave the highest ratios. Addition the acetylated sour salted whey protein concentrates at 15% resulted in the highest energy compared to other treatments. Maxmum resistance was obtained when the concentrates added at 15% in all treatments and the incubation period of 90 min.

CHANGE OF FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES OF WHEY PROTEIN

Mowafak M Ali Al-Obydi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 182-189
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54814

Sweet and sour (salted or unsalted) whey protein concentrates were used after acetylation with acetic anhydride or succinylation with succinic anhydride at 0.5 % to improve the functional properties of dough. The addition of sweet salted whey protein concentrates and acetylated at 0.5% and added at 15% to the dough resulted in highest values of loaf volume and spongyness while when used at 40% it gave an unacceptable results. This indicates that addition of these concentrates was best at 15% of the dough followed by 30% then by 40% for all the treatments.
Sensory evaluation indicates that the loaf made from doughs with the addition of ace-
tylated and succinylated at 0.5% and added at 15% to the dough gave the best res ults for all the studied properties followed by 30% addition while at 40% addition was the lowest and the loaf was unacceptable.

PRODUCTION OF FLAVORED LOW FAT PROCESS CHEESE

A. K. Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 190-200
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54798

Whole sheep milk cheese was used to produce processed flavored cheese with 30 % +-1 fat level after mixing with low fat filing materials such as crud. labanah and skim milk powder. as well as cheese emulsifiers of 1:1 sodium phosphate and citrate. Wild garlic. cumin. nigella and cordomon of 1% were used as flavoring materials. Processed cheese samples were subjected to chemical. bacteriological analysis and sensory evaluation. After storage for two months at room and refrigerator temperature. The results showed that fat. moisture and lactose were decrease while total and soluble nitrogen were increased during storage period. Storage at room temperature had a significant effect on the values compared to refrigerant temperature. Results also shoed that flavoring materials had no effect on chemical composition while wild garlic have the effect in preventing the growth of microorganism .cordomon had the lower effect on microorganism . Results also showed that wild garlic was preferable for sensory evaluation. The effect of filling naturals on bacteriological content reverted that labanah had the lightest bacterial content while skim milk powder had the lowest count. On the other hand. using curd in the processed cheese gave the highest scoring evaluation.

INDUCTION OF CHROMOSOMAL POLYPLOIDY AND EARLY EVALUATION OF Robinia pseudoacacial. TRANSPLANTS

N. Th. Saieed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 201-217
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54816

A study was conducted at the nursery and silviclture laboratory in forestry Department for the period from the 1st of February until the end of November 2007 . This study aimed to achieve chromosomal polyploidy in Robinia pseudoacacia L. by soacking their seeds in different Colchicine solution concentrations and different periods.The treated seeds were sown in plastic bag polly ethelen containing sandy loam soil bag were placed in shaded woody shelter .other seed lots treated with colchicine were placed in incubator after sowing them in petri – dishes to count seed germination percentages followed by chromosome counts in root apicses as following :
Colchicine concentration effect : The experiment shows chromosomal tetraploidy 48 chromosome = 4n when seeds soacked in colchicine solution with concentration 1000 mlg / l . the value recorded was 34.68 % at a same time that the mean of this ratio when soacking seed in solution colchicine 500 mlg / l was 5.55 % . also soacking seeds in a solution of 2000 mlg / l induced a triploid plants 36 chromosome = 3n with ratio of 32.79 % . But other remaining treatments chromosome number had their original diploid number 24 chromosome = 2n . In characteristics studied concentration of colchicine 2000 mlg / l caused a reduction in seeds germination percentage 28.20 % in comparison with control 0.00 mlg / l . also 1000 mlg / l solution of colchicine reduced the mean value for traits : leaf shape factor and stomata number / mm2 as follows 18.81 . 55.31 % respectively . while this concentration 1000 mlg / l resulted in increasing the mean values of shoot length 30.43 % .shoot diameter 38.26 % . stomata length 49.63 % and stomata width 56.30 % when compared with values of control treatment 0.00 mlg / l colchicine .
Soacking periods effects :Period of 24 hr. soacking in solution gave significant effect in most traits studied while a reduction of means was recorded for germination ratio .
leaflet shape ratio and stomata number .
Interaction effect of colchicine concentration & soacking Periods :
Soacking seeds in colchicine solution 2000 mlg / l for period of 24 hr. resulted in a reduction of the means of seeds germination ratio 31.23 % . when soacking those seeds in 1000 mlg / l colchicine for 24 hr. increcases the values of shoot length . shoot diameter . stomata length and stomata width traits. this significant increases was 31.31 . 35.17 . 43.57 and 54.90 % respectively also this interactions causes reduction in values of leaf let factor ratio 31.25 % . and stomata numbers / mm2 53.84 % in comparison with control treatment 0.00 mlg / l colchicine .

COMPARING THE PERFORMANCE OF DIFFERENT WEED CONTROL METHODS UNDER DRY LAND FARMINIG SYSTEMS IN NORTH IRAQ

K.E. allaaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 218-242
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54788

Weed contol study on fallow field was condected during growing season 2009/2010 at field of agriculture college,Mosul university to determine the efficiency of different weed control methods (plowing by disk plow,sprayind paraquat herbicide,plowing and spraying), the frequency of controlling (once,twice) and the duration time of weed samples taken from the field (13 April,27April,11May) on narraw and broadleaf weed control in dry land farming,The results showed that a significant effect for treatment(disk plow+paraquat herbicide)and plowing by disk plow. They achieving highest weed control percentage for broadleaf and narrow weed were up to 99.12% ,98.93 % respectively, where it was noted a clear reduction for broadleaf weed density and dry weight up to zero plant/m2 and zero g/m2 ,Weed control by (disk plow + paraquat herbicide) gave lowest dry weight up to 0.22 g/m2 and density 1.83 plant/m2 for narrow weed.Plowing once by disk plow has surpassed significantly by achieving highest field efficiency for equipment 1.81 D/hr.The results also showed that controlling for twice time gave a significant decrease in weed density and dry weight and increasing weed control percentage with a significant decreas in actual productivity of the equipment while weed sampling in 13/April recorded highest weed dry weight and density but its̓ surpassed significantly by achieving highest weed controlling percentage up to 67.62%.

Influence of Row Spacing and Planting Dates on some characters (field and quality) of Sunflower cultivars (Helianthus annuus L.).

Mohammed Yosif H. Al-Fahaadi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 243-254
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54810

Field experiment was conducted at the collage farm of Agriculture and forestry – Mosul Univ. during 2004 season to study the effect of four Planting dates (20 and 30 May , 9 and 19 June) and two row spacing between lines (50 and 75 cm) on growth , yield and quality of three sunflower genotypes (cultivar Flammi , hybrid Euroflor and Local cultivar). The Planting dates showed significant effects on the studied traits, Delaying of sowing date (19 / 6) Showed delaying in flowering and maturity but first sowing date was superiority in oil percentage and oil yield. The fourth sowing date showed highest rate in protein percentage. Row spacing ( 50 cm ) had gave a high value of protein percentage. Genotypes showed significant differences among them in terms of quality traits where the local cultivar in the oil yield. The results showed delaying in flowering and maturity for the local cultivar but surpassed in oil yield. The impact of planting dates and genotypes was significantly in the studied traits, where the local cultivar was late in flowering and maturity at the time of the fourth planting date. The hybrid Euroflor gave the highest value of oil yield in the first and second planting dates. The cultivar Flammi was superior when planted in the fourth date in the percentage of protein. The highest percentage of protein was in plants that planted at a distance of 50 cm at the time the fourth date. The highest percentage of oil was in Euroflor when planted at a distance of 75 cm. Flammi cultivar gave the highest percentage of protein when grown in the last date at a distance of 50 cm.

EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE , REPEATED CUTTINGS AND HERBICIDE ON CONTROLLING OF WEEDS IN ALFALFA FIELD Medicago sativa .L .

Salim .Hommadi.Anter

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 255-275
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54792

The experiment was carried out at Al-Rashidya research station by using the Randomized Complete Block Design . The experiment included three factors seeding rate , herbicides and mowing . Seeding rates were ( 24 and 36 kg seeds / ha) , the application of herbicides was (Trifluralen 1152 g . a . i/ha) , ( 2,4-DB 520 g a.i / ha ) , (Fuzilade 250 g a.i/ ha) and (Halloxyphop 81 g a.i /ha) besides hand weeding and check treatment . The samples were collected six times in Autumn and six in Spring . The number of branches / plant increased with the decrease of seeding rate and there was a significant increase in the forage dry weight at 36 kg/ha seeding rate . The Trifluralen caused decrease in the dodder and weeds dry weight especially in the first and second mowing , whereas 2,4-DB had clearly affected the broad leaf weeds . Fuzilade and Halloxyphop herbicides significantly affected the grasses by 100 % control of weeds in the first mowing . The weeds significantly with continuing mowing .

EFFECT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF HERBICIDE TRIBENURON-METHYL (GRANSTAR) ON SOME TRAITS OF GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVTY OF WHEAT(Triticum eastivum L.).

Nahla Salim Hammok

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 267-276
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54823

The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of time of application of herbicide tribenuron-methyl (granstar) in high concentrations on the growth and productivity of wheat seed Triticum aestivum L .varity (IPa-95). The experiment contain tow factors. The first factor, concerns with the time of application (early and late) and the other ones is different concentrations of herbicide (0.0% (distal water),0.5%,0.8%,1%)(g/ml).The results showed that a significant decreasing at 0.05 level of significance in growth and yield components except for number of stomata (no./mm2) when herbicide was used in a high concentrations. On other hand , early application of herbicide led to a significantly decrease for the height of plant (cm) , spike length (cm) and chlorophyll a (mg/gm tissue) compared with late herbicide application . However , there is no significant effect to the herbicide concentrations on all traits when its application (early and late). Moreover , the interaction between the two factors (concentrations x applications) were significantly high on all parameters including chlorophyll a and b at only in early application . .At the last applied that the inhibition effect from herbicide concentrations in the early application was more obvious on plant height , spike length and chlorophyll a than at late application of herbicide .

EFFECT OF SEEDING RATE AND REPEATED CUTTING ON THE GROWTH OF ALFALFA Medicago sativa AND CONTROLLING OF PARASITIC & NON PARASITIC WEEDS

Salim H. Anter

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 276-285
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54790

The experiment was carried out in autumn agricultural season (2008) and spring (2009) in Hawi Al-Kanesa , Mosul city . Two factors were used in this experiment , seeding rate (24,36 kg/h) and repeated of cutting (1,2,34,5,6) . The experiment was laid out as a Randomize Complete Block design with three replicates .No sifnificant effects were obtaind between seeding rates on dry weight of dodder , number of narrow weed and on its dry weights, hight of plant and number of branches in autumn season , where the weight of narrow and broad leaf weeds in the second rate seeding were surpass in the fist rate. The dry weight of Alfalfa surpass in second rate in comparison with the first in two seasons about 0.57 and 0.77g . At the 2nd seeding rate the dry weight of forage yield were significantly higher at the two seasons .The seeding rates did not show any significant differences in all parameters studied . The dry weight decreased at increasing cutting in autumn , the number of narrow and board leaf , dry weight were decreasing when increasing cuttings , the branch of plant was increased with increasing the cuttings in the two seasons . Dry yield increased at secont cutting in autumn season but in spring season the increase was found at the its cutting .

SOME ECONOMIC STUDIES IN INTEGRATED CONTROL OF SPINYBOLLWORM

Nabil M; All-mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 277-258
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54826

The results of the statistical analysis indicated the existence of significant difference in the mean of the percentage of loss in cotton product according to the variety of cotton used in study, The mean of this rate for the varieties Cooker and Montana significantly Exceeded the means of the other types expect the variety sp as the difference between them was not significant, while the correlation was positive and insignificant (+0,53) between the percentage of loss in cotton product and the quantity of loss in other varieties of cotton, The date of planting did not have a responsible effect on the general mean of the quantity of loss in cotton product, The mean of the percentage o loss for the correlation of fertilizing with other minor elements was significantly more than all the mean of the other treatments expect fertilizing treatment with minor elements and spraying with leaf fertilizer. The value of economic threshold reached 2,51 – 2,85 larva/plant on purchasing insecticides for commercial prices, while it ranged between 2,05 - -2,15 larva/plant on purchasing insecticides for official prices. Concerning the effect of field treatment with insecticides (Confidor, Medamec, Endosulfan) on the quantity of cotton Al-zahr yield, the study indicated that the product of one-dounm of the cotton in the piece of land treated with insecticides reached 1290,84Kg/donum, while this production reached 818,92kg/donum in the piece of land not treated with insecticides. The production mean of one plant of Al-zahr cotton in the first harvesting in Al-Rasheediyyah reached 77,22 gram, 71,76, 71,66, 116,11, 115,92, 85,51gram/plant for the variety Cooker, Lashata, Montana and Dunn 1047, strain B, sp successively,The study also indicated that treating cotton seeds of Lashata variety with Cruiser insecticide led to an increase in the yield of Al-zahr cotton (138,88 gram/plant).

EEFECT OF INFESTATION BY SAW TOOTHED GRAIN BEETL ON THE PYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND CHEMICAL COMPONENTS OF SOME OF RICE GRAIN VARIETIES

M .A .Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 287-295
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54813

The present study indicated that the effect of infestation and population density of saw toothed grain beetle on the physical characteristics and chemical components of some local rice variety Anbar , Aqrawi , Bazaini and imported American , Viatnami , Thailandi under the effect storage period 2and 4 months and level infestation 10 ,20 , 30 insect . Generally , the results appeared that the value of seed hardness , weight of 1000 seed and volume of 100 seed were decreased at the storage period 4 months than 2 months , also at level infestation 30 insects than 10 insects , According to chemical component , it was noticed that the percentage of carbohydrate was increased at increasing level infestation from 10 – 30 insect and storage period from 2 – 4 months , the value of another components like protein , oils and ash were fluctuated increasing or decreasing under the effect of the pervious factors .

EFFECT OF CONCENTRATIONS AND DOSE ON ATTRACTION AND REPELLENT PERCENTAGE OF WATER EXTRACTS OF SOME PLANTS IN LARVAE OF Plodia interpunctella (Hubn.)

Nazar M. Al- Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 3, Pages 296-306
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2012.54821

The results of studying the effect of 1. 4. 7 and 9 % concentrations and 0.1 . 0.3 mL dose of water extracts of Myrtus communis L. Ruta graveolens and Mentha piperita L. on mortality. attraction and repellent to larvae of Plodia interpunctella (Hubn.). showed a different variation in mortality. attraction and repellent percentage to the larvae according to the kind of extracts. concentrations and doses. The concentration 9 % of R. graveolens showed a highest mean mortality reached 74 %. and the relative toxicity reached 0.63 . 0.71 and 1.0 for M. communis . R. graveolens and M. piperita respectively and the relative efficieny values reched 157.44% for R. graveolens. 100% for M. communis and 132.14% for M. piperita. The results also revealed that the highest mean of attraction reached 46.67 by M. piperita at 1% concentration and 0.1 ml dose one hour after treatment followed by M. communis extracts which reached 46.67% at 9% concentration and 0.1 ml one hour after treatment. the M. piperita extracts produce a supreme repllent effect reached 36.67% at 9% concentration and 0.1 ml Dose one hour after treatment statistical analysis results showed a significant variation in balance values according to the extract concentrations. doses and time from treatment.