Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 39, Issue 1

Volume 39, Issue 1, Winter 2011, Page 4-247


THEATRE AS A COMMUNICATION METHOD WITH THE RURAL COMMUNITY TO SERVE THE SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURAL DEVELOPMENT'S GOALS

A .Saleem; Najim elddin

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 4-10
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28083

The rural theatre is considered a group communication method that can be effective as being based on the psychology of the community . Many countries have adopted it to serve the issues of the rural and agricultural development . It also has contributed in attracting the attention of instructors to many issues of sustainable development , and thus its role emerges in knowledge and concern as two stages of the process of adoption . In order to stabilize the role of the rural play in achieving the goals desired , it should be based on some primary elements . First , the play's text is written in the local dialect accepted by the locals . The text should include the elements of the dramatic structure represented by theme , dialogue , plot , characters and mode .
Also, the rules of balance between the dramatic act and the extensional
educating subject matter should be taken into consideration . Secondly , the rural play must be based on the efforts of the actors who realize its content and have positive trends towards their audience . The play can be performed anywhere in the village which suitable and away from noises . In order to activate the role of theater to achieve its goals , here are some suggestions : the show should be followed by a discussion of the ideas and practices included in the text , conducting evaluating studies of the rural theatre effectiveness , effective cooperation between the extensional system and social foundations present in the country side , well_ planned adoption of extensional communication methods to achieve the agricultural extensional goals to serve the sustainable agricultural development.

AGRICULTURAL SURPLUS PARITICIPATION IN AGRICULTURAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Alaa M. Abdullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 11-19
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28032

This research interest in the subject agricultural surplus as a component of agricultural growth and its mechanisms, especially in developing countries and its contribution to agricultural development, and thus serves as an instrument for overall economic growth in much of the developing world, and the high growth of the agricultural sector is essential to stimulate overall economic growth .The problem with research that rely on agriculture for development in developing countries is still limited, many of these countries is still weak growth rates in agriculture and the shift does not mention the structure of the sector, which generates the problem of exploiting the power of agriculture for development. The research was a study following variables that can affect agricultural surpluses and thus to estimate the effects that can produce this surplus in the agricultural growth rate in three types of developing countries in 2004, sorted according to the share of agriculture to overall growth, and to answer the following question: Are we still in the can agricultural growth to give a strong impetus to overall growth in a globalizing world, and what actions are necessary to accelerate agricultural growth to fulfill its historic role, relying on the premise that positive growth rates in the past

IMPACT OF AGRICULTURAL GROWTH IN POVERTY REDUCTION

Alaa M. Abdullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 20-26
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28033

The importance of research in agricultural growth comes particularly as the cornerstone of poverty reduction and food security in developing countries .The United Nations estimates that among the various countries shows that GDP growth from agriculture effective in reducing poverty at least equivalent to the effectiveness of growth resulting from the non-agricultural sectors .While is determined by the problem in that relationship translated to the eventual impact on poverty levels, the research aims to identify how they will impact of agricultural growth in poverty .It is possible ,that the rates of agricultural growth alone is an effective tool to reduce poverty. Based on the premise that economic variables did not generate these effects in accelerating the growth rate of agricultural output and in a form that generates a positive impact towards easing the rates of agricultural poverty. The study identified a sample of selected developing countries in 2004. The findings of the study shows that there is a negative and significant correlation between the rate of agricultural growth and the Gini coefficient of the sample countries, due to the impact of agricultural growth to alleviate poverty, diminish the presence of increasing disparity in income, and agricultural growth alone in the absence of a number of factors that address the situation of disability suffered by the rural sectors which may leave behind large numbers of poor people for a long time, especially in rural areas, as well as the effect of growth in reducing poverty depends on the nature and growth distribution as it depends on its size and speed.

AN ECONOMIC STUDY TO SHOW THE EFFFECT OF VARIABLES (EDUCATION, HEALTH AND INDIVIDUAL SHARE OF PER-CAPITA) IN INCREASING AGRICULTURAL CROPS PRODUCTIVITY

Adnan A. Thalaj

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 27-39
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28052

The study depended on a hypothesis which says that variables of human development (Education, Health and Individual share of per-capita) have a great role in increasing agricultural crops productivity in a number of developing countries and in order to prove this hypothesis, A sample has been chosen from these countries by using theoretical style depending on previous studies and the quantitative style in measuring and analyzing the effect of human development variables . Cross section data has been used for the period (2002-2004) with the current prices . Throughout the study, we got the following results .
Spending variable on health (X1) in effecting barley productivity in 2nd group states and its significant effect was in 1st and 3rd groups . This effect did not appear in productivity of barley crop . This effect appeared in values of agricultural product and in the states of 1st and 2nd groups . It disappeared in states of 3rd group . While, the significant effect appeared in spending variable of education (X2) in increasing wheat productivity in states of 1st and 3rd groups and it disappeared in states of 2nd group . The effect appeared in increasing barley productivity in the three groups . It disappeared in values of agricultural product and in the three international groups . The significant effect for the variable of median share of per-capita (X3) in productivity of wheat crop in both 1st and 2nd groups . It also appeared in the increase of agricultural product values and in all three international groups .

COMBINING ABILITY ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMBONENTS IN SUMMER SQUASH (Cucurbita pepo L.)

Shamil Y .H. Al-Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 40-48
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28038

The experiment was carried out in the Horticulture and Landscape Research Field ,College of Agriculture and forestry , Mosul University ,in Spring and Autumn seasons of 2007 , to study the general and specific combining ability using Full-Diallel Crosses of four varieties in summer squash viz, 1-local (malea Ahmed) , 2-Syrian (Al-Mostkabil) , 3-Tala and 4-Bather- Eibethor and their F1 hybrids by Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications. The results indicated that general combining ability was significant for: plant height, number of leaves/ plant, the date male flowering ,fruit length and diameter, number of fruits /plant and total yield , while specific combining ability was significant for: number of leaves/plant, the date male and female flowering ,percentage of flower ,fruit length and diameter , number of fruits /plant and total yield. The reciprocal effect was significant for all studied character except early yield. The results showed that general combining ability was higher than specific combining ability for plant height , it can be predicted for on additive gene action for this character. Syrian(AI-Mostkabil) variety showed high general combining ability for most of the studied characters ,and therefore contains the desired gene. The hybrids varied for their specific combining ability effects and this due to the wide genetic variation between the parents .

A Study of Salinization at Al-Jazeera Northern Irrigation Project/ Ninavah / Iraq 2- Kinetics of Salt Release

Abdul-Kareem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 49-57
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28046

A column study was conducted involving the reclamation of saline soils from Northern irrigation project/Ninavah province, The amount of water moving through the soil was expressed as the pore volume of drainage water (PV), The process was conducted under saturated soil moisture flow and the electrical concluctirity (EC) of the effluent was described by a multiple slop, apparent first order kinetic equation, Pathway reaction was recognized by two stages, a rapid dissolution and transport of accessible salt followed by a slower removal of less accessible salt, The change in slope of the first order equation for salinity reduction occurred at about 0,5PV, which was enough to remove about 90% of the original salt from the columns, The rate coefficients for the first and second stage ranged between (0,337-3,021h-1), and (0,0046-0,13h-1) respectively,

EFFECT OF SALT ACCUMULATION AND LEACHING SUCCESSION ON SOME SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN SOME RABEAA IRRIGATION PROJECT

Salahaldeen A. Mostaffa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 58-68
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28042

Five irrigation units have been chosen at Al-Jazera northern irrigation project in Rabeaa region (N16, N17, C1, F10, G6). Soil samples were collected from (0–20 cm) depth during two periods. The first one was on 1/4/2004 which considered as the end of salt leaching process from the soil. The second period was on 4/8/2004 which presented the accumulation and effecting of the salt on the soil. The following soil physical properties which are soil aggregates stability, bulk density, porosity, diameter of pore size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity, liquid and plastic limits, Casagrande soil classification (1948) and characteristics of soil moisture retention curve were studied. The results of this study showed a decreasing in the following values: mean weight diameter, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, however the salinization process showed an increasing in the following values: bulk density, liquid and plastic limits and volumetric water content of the soil at different water retention. The soil samples were classified as a medium plasticity according to Casagrande classification.

EFFECT OF SALT ACCUMULATION AND LEACHING SUCCESSION ON SOME SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES IN SOME RABEAA IRRIGATION PROJECT

Salahaldeen A. Mostaffa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 58-68
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28044

Five irrigation units have been chosen at Al-Jazera northern irrigation project in Rabeaa region (N16, N17, C1, F10, G6). Soil samples were collected from (0–20 cm) depth during two periods. The first one was on 1/4/2004 which considered as the end of salt leaching process from the soil. The second period was on 4/8/2004 which presented the accumulation and effecting of the salt on the soil. The following soil physical properties which are soil aggregates stability, bulk density, porosity, diameter of pore size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity, liquid and plastic limits, Casagrande soil classification (1948) and characteristics of soil moisture retention curve were studied. The results of this study showed a decreasing in the following values: mean weight diameter, porosity and saturated hydraulic conductivity, however the salinization process showed an increasing in the following values: bulk density, liquid and plastic limits and volumetric water content of the soil at different water retention. The soil samples were classified as a medium plasticity according to Casagrande classification.

EFFECT OF ADDED METHIONINE TO SOYBEAN MEAL AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR PROTEIN CONCENTRATE IN BROILER STARTER DIET ON SOME PRODUCTIVE TRAITS

RAFH MOHAMMED TAHER

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 69-75
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28037

This Experiment was conducted on 120 day old unsexed Ross broiler chicks to study the effect of added methionine to soybean meal as substitute for protein concentrate in the starter ration on some productive traits . The chicks were raised on floor were distributed to three treatments with four replicates each ( 10 birds) . The three experimental starter rations (1-28) day contained 2800 kcal/kg ME and 22% cp . The first supplemented with 5% protein concentrate , while the second and third were with out protein concentrate but supplemented with 0.1 and 0.2% methionine respectively . The Finisher ration (29-49) day contained 3047 kcal/kg ME and 19.19% cp. At 49 day of age 2 birds from each replicate were slaughtered for carcass traits . Statistic analysis of data showed a significant increase (P ≤ 0.05) in body weight , weight gain , feed and protein efficiency ratio for third treatment during (1-28) day , No significant difference in all studied traits during (29-49)day, and the third treatment showed best economic efficiency .

EFFECT OF SUPPLEMENTATION OF DIFFREINT LEVELS OF VITAMIN E WITH DRINKING WATER ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER

Esraa Mobasher Tawfeek

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 76-82
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28031

This experiment was conducted at Animal Production Department Farm /College of Agriculture. University of Mosul.. to study the effect of adding different levels of vitamin E (0 . 75 . 150 and 350 )mg / liter to drinking water on productive performance of broiler. The data showed that the addition of vit. E resulted in significant increase (P< 0.05) in body weight. weight gain. feed conversion ratio in the 7 week . weight of liver and dressing percentage . weight of thigh. breast. The result revealed that supplementation of vitamin E significantly (P< 0.05) decreased feed intake and mortality in comparison with control group. It was concluded that vitamin E at the rate of 150 to 350 mg /liter of drinking water surpassed other levels with regards to the characteristics measured surpassed on productive performance and immune resporse of broiler.

EFFECT OF SEASONALLY–INDUCED THYROID GLAND DISORDERS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL CHARACTERS OF BLOOD AND SEMEN OF AWASSI RAMS

Nabeel Najeeb Ahmed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 83-94
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28082

This study was conducted at the animal farms of Animal Resource Department – college of Agri & Forestry Uni. of Mosul during the period from the 1st of December 2007 to the 1st of September 2008. Twenty four Awassi males (8-10 mounts aged) were used in the study. Divided in to four groups (6 animals each group) and treated as follows:
1st group represent the control. 2nd group the animals drenched with carbimazole (50mg/animal/day). 3rd group the animals drenched with carbimazole (50mg/animal/ day) and iodide salt in the feed (150 ppm). 4th group the animals drenched with thyroxine (750µg/animal/day).
Semen sample were collected by electrical ejaculator twice monthly along the Period of the study. Treatment effects were followed for three seasons: Winter (December, January and February), Spring (March, April, and May), Summer (June, July and August) Effects of treatment and seasons on body weight and semen characters including : Volume , colour, mass and individual motility , Sperm concentration, live & dead sperm %, abnormal sperm% and pH semen, as
well as, Seminal plasma characters as total protein, albumin, globulin. Cholesterol, and enzyme (ALT, AST) and some as hormonal concentrations as (T4,T3,TSH and testosterone) The results revealet the following :
A-Effect of treatment :
1-Treatment causes of high significant effects (P ≤ 0.01) on T4, T3,TSH, testosterone hormone concentration and on sperm mass motility and abnormal sperm %.
2- Treatment causes significant effects (P ≤ 0.05) on semen colour and on sperm individual motility and albumin,globulin and protein concentrations in seminal plasma .
B- Effect of seasons:
1-Season causes of high significant effects (P ≤ 0.01) and (T4) hormone concentration and seminal plasma cholesterol and on body weight, testosterone hormone concentration , semen volume , colour, mass and individual motility, sperm concentration, and live sperm % and on dead sperm % and semen (pH) .
2- Season causes significant effects (P ≤ 0.05) on seminal plasma globulin and total protein and on abnormal sperm % .

STUDY THE EFFECT OF DOCKING IN IRAQI SHEEP:A-LAMB MEAT PRODUCTION

Imad Al-Deen M. Dahal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 95-103
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28072

Fourty six (20 Awassi and 26 Hamdani) male lambs (4.93 kg birth wt.) were used in this experiment to study the effect of docking on growth and carcase characteristics. Fifty percent of three days old lambs were docked. The docked lambs gave 230 g , slightly higher daily body gain comparing with 220 g for the control lambs. Hamdani lambs gained significantly (p <0.05) higher daily body gain 260g when compared with the Awassi lambs 190g during the first 90 days when they reared with their dams. So they found to have the same ranking order in weaning body wt. (27.81 kg) (22.60 kg) or docked (25.69 kg) and control (24.73kg) lambs. All the lambs were fed after weaning for 90 days on a same concentrate ration. The best feed conversion rate was found for the docked lambs (4.94) comparing with the control lambs (5.52) and Awassi lambs (4.51) against the Hamdani lambs (6.22), leading to a nonsignificant final body wt (45.00 kg) for the docked lambs as compared with the control lambs (43.44 kg). While the Awassi lambs finished significantly (p<0.05) heavier 44.75kg than 43.69 kg of the Hamdani Lambs. No significant differences in carcase weight and killing out percentage between lambs from all groups were detected . Docking minimized significantly (p<0.05) the fat tail weight in Awassi (78%) and Hamdani (62%) lamb carcases. Kidney fat deposition, fat thickness on leg and 12th rib in docked lamb carcases increased significantly (p<0.05) comparing with the control lamb carcases. Hamdani lamb carcaes graded significantly (p<0.05) less than the Awassi. Control Awassi lamb carcases gave (27.02 %) significantly (p<0.05) higher fat tissue than the docked group lambs. Detecting the consumed ration cost from the total income of selling the gained live weight per lamb, docked lambs gave 16.92% net profit better than the Control lambs, and the Awassi lambs gained twice as the Hamdani lambs done.

EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF FORMALDEHYDE TREATED BARLEY AND WHEAT BRAN AND PROTEIN LEVEL 0N NUTRIENTS DIGESTIBILITY, SOME RUMEN PARAMETERS AND PERFORMANCE OF AWASSI LAMBS.

Sabah A. Shamoon

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 104-112
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28041

This study included tow experiments, The first was digestion trail conducted by using nine Awassi lambs with average body weight 50.92 kg and 10-12 months of age were distributed randomly according to there body weight into three groups .Lambs in each group fed individually and ad lib. on ration consisted mainly of barley, wheat bran, and soybean meal contained 14.5% crud protein ( control T1) . While the second and third rations ( T2 and T3 ) contained 14.5 and 16% protein respectively after been treated 75% of barley and wheat bran with formaldehyde. The second experiment was conducted by using 15 Awassi lambs with average body weight 26.55 kg , 5-6 months of age . The lambs were divided into three groups each of (5) and fed individually on the three rations under investigation for 70 days. Results of Expt 1. showed that there were no significant differences between treatments in nutrient coefficient digestibility, with exception ADF digestibility was significantly ( P < 0.05 ) increased in T3 50.96% as compared with T1 36.44% . Also it was noted that there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase ether extract digestibility in T2 and T3 83.97 and 83.90% respectively as compared with T1 54.97% . Results indicated that the treatments had no significant effect on rumen liquor pH and ammonia concentration before and after feeding . Blood triglyceride concentration was significantly ( P < 0.01 ) increased in T2 and T3 29.52 and 32. 73 mg/100 ml as compared with T1 20.28 mg/100 ml . Results of Expt 2. showed that the treatments had no effect in dry matter intake, average daily gain , feed efficiency and dressing percentage . however , chemical analysis of meat showed a significant ( P < 0.05 ) increase in meat protein percentage 17.06% in T3 as compared with T1 and T2 15.39 and 15.04% respectively

EFFECT OF ADDING SUNFLOWER SEEDS TO THE RATION COMPONENTS ON SEMEN CARACTERISTICS AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS IN AWASSI RAMS.

Sabah A. Shamoon

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 113-121
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28040

Twelve Awassi rams, 2 – 3 years of age with average body weight 63.13 kg. were used in this study. The rams were randomly divided into three groups each of four. The first group was fed on ration which consist mainly from barley, wheat bran, soybean and wheat straw ( T1 ) , while the second group was fed on the same ration after the inclusion 10% of sunflower seeds ( T2 ). formaldehyde treated sunflower seeds 10% was used ration three ( T3 ). Results showed that the treatment had no significant effect on average body weight which was between 0.174 – 0.187 kg , ejaculation volume (1.95 – 2.3) ml , sperm concentration (2.05 – 2.33 × 10 9 ) , percentage of live, dead and abnormal sperms. However, significant (P < 0.05) increased in the initial motility in T3 (73.75%) than T1 and T2 (31.51 and 37.81%) respectively . Also, total protein in the blood was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in T1 (7.9) g 100 ml than T2 and T3 (6.63 and 6.63) g 100 ml respectively. Although, no significant differences apperant in the hormones concentrations between treatments, but a mathematical increases were noticed in LH, FSH and testosterone in T3 as compared with T1 and T2 .

EFFECT OF ADDED FAT SOURCES IN THE FINISHER RATION OF BROILER ON SOME PRODUCTIVE TRAITS AND RATE OF FEED PASSAGE

Thair Mohammed Abdul-Baqi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 122-127
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28036

This experiment was conducted on 72 hubbard birds (4- 8)week to study the effect of fat source in the finisher ration of broiler. The birds were divided into four treatments iso energetic( 3000 Kcal/Kg) and protein(18%) each consist of 9 replicates with 2 birds raised in cages. The experimental treatment were as follow : (1)control without added fat , (2) 3% added vegetable fat (3) 3%added vegetable oil (4) 3% added animal tallow.
The results showed that The experimental treatments have no significant effect on live body weight, daily weight gain, relative growth rate, dressing percentage, percentage of carcass parts and edible giblets , while there was a significant difference in feed and protein consumption in all periods except 6-7 weeks and in feed and protein conversion ratio in 5-6 weeks only. There was non-significant increase in intestine and ceca length in added fat treatments as comparing with control . The second treatment was less in feed passage time comparing with other treatments . Added fat treatments were less economic efficiency than The control.

USE OF LOCAL COMMON VETCH VICIA SATIVA IN POULTRY NUTRITION 1. EFFECT OF PARTIAL REPLACEMENT OF SOYBEAN MEAL BY RAW COMMON VETCH ON BROILER PERFORMANCE AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF BLOOD.

Ibrahim S. Ibrahim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 128-133
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28028

This study was carried out in the farm of Animal Resources dept. University of Mosul. A total of (480) day old chicks were used (cobb 500) in four treatments with two replicates per treatment (40 chicks/rep.). The experimental dietary treatments were T1: 0% vetch (control), T2: 9.4 and 8.3%, T3: 17.3 and 16.5% and T4: 28.1 and 24.8% raw common vetch in the starter and finisher diets resp. All diets were iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous. The results showed a significant decrease (P≤ 0.05) in everage live body weigh at 8 weeks of age, daily feed consumption also decreased as the level of vetch increased in the diets, birds of T4 showed a significant reduction of dressing percent, packed cell volium, serum total protein, glucose, triglyceride and uric acid. It is also revealed that inclusion of common vetch in the chick diets caused a significant increase in the relative wights of liver, gizzard pancreas and mortality. It is concluded that raw common vetch were not recommended to inclusion in broiler diets.

THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING DATA IN SELECTING SITES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF GREEN SPACES IN THE CITY OF MOSUL

Basman Younis Hameed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 134-142
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28035

The aim of this study is to select different sites to increase the forestry regions and green spaces around and inside Mosul city to protect the risky environmental condition that happens due to the shortage and shrinkages of green areas and high temperatures, gasses emission affects human health because of the settlement of environmental pollutants in the city which is facing to a numbers of cyclone during latest years due to the drought phenomenon cover most of agricultural areas. Natural factors such as geomorphology, land use/ land cover, drainage system, soil and climate conditions have been studied and five sites have been chosen; these sites comprises: Tigris river flood plain, intermittent and perennial tributaries and others in the NW and south of the city for stabilization forestry regions and green spaces around the city. The study was also including the species of trees that are suitable to the conditions of each site selected and the climate of the city.

STUDY THE TREE FORM FOR Pinus brutia Ten. SPECE IN NINEVAH STANDS

Muzahm S.Younis

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 143-147
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28079

In this study. we were limited the different of tree form for Pinus brutia Ten. In Ninevah stands. By using four methods (form factors. form quotients. form point and stem taper) applications to sample of 56 trees of pinus. We are obtaining the value of absolute F.F.. True F.F. and breast height F.F. (0.34517. 0.4633. and 0.46706) respectively. Also the value of form quotient and form point (0.74596. 0.70676). We are draw graph of stem taper of Pinus brutia Ten. and differential mathematical to estimate the diameter at any level of height tree. The result indicated had significant different between form factors and the other methods. While. there was no significant between the form quotient. form point and stem taper.

STANDS DENSTIY INDEX OF Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn. IN THE IRRIGATED PLANTATION OF NINEVAH

Muzahim S.Younis

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 148-151
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28078

Nonlinear mathematical models were used to develop regression equation by relating the mean diameter square as a dependent variable and number of trees per hectare as the independent variable. As a result the nonlinear regression equation screened was
N=EXP (7.02906-0.03638 Dq)
The statistical characteristics of the nonlinear equations were:
R2=0.93 S.E=0.1099
The following equation could be used to find out the stand density index (S.D.I).
Log S.D.I=log N-0.005744 (DK-Dq)
When the number of trees per hectare, mean diameter square, mean diameter and age, were known.

RESPONSE OF LENTIL (Lens culinaris medic)AND ITS NODULATION TO NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND CHEMICAL WEED CONTROL

A.M.Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 152-156
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28029

Pots experiment was carried out at the college of Agriculture. and Forestry, Mosul University in winter growing season 2005 to determine the effect of herbicides (Trifluralin 1.08 , 1.44 , Focus ultra 0.1 , 0.2 L/ha) with check treatments and nitrogen fertilizer (0.0 , 40 , 80 Kg N/ha) on growth of lentil and its nodulation . The result indicated that terflan had negative effect on all plant growth charactertis and number of nodulation on its roots, but focus ultra had positive result on plant high, number of branch and number of nodulation . 40 Kg N/ha.fertilizer gava a significant result on plant high and nodulation than 80 Kg N/ha . In general focus ultra and 40 Kg N/ha was more positive effect than treflan or 80 Kg N/ha The best result obtained was when interaction between focus ultra 2L/ha with 40 Kg N/ha fertilization or 1L/ha of the same herbicide with 80 Kg N/ha occurred and gave a good growth nodulation on root lentil crop .

EVALUATING THE YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS, PHENOTYPIC AND GENOTYPIC CORRELATIONS IN INTRODUCED SYNTHETIC VARIETIES OF MAIZE ( Zea mays L. )

Mohammed Y. Al-Fahady

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 157-186
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28076

This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of thirty three synthetic varieties of white maize in addition to the local variety (Bohoth 106) which obtained from Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maiz Y Trigo (CIMMYT).The synthetic varieties were planted in two seasons ; spring and autumn at the first of April and the twelfth of July 2008 in farms of Al-rahmanya village near Mosul University by using randomized complete block design with three replications.The studied characters were: tasseling and silking date, plant height, plant ears, maturity date, ear diameter, ear rows, ear grain, 500 grain weight , grain yield per plant and oil and protein percents. The synthetic varieties showed significant difference in all the studied characters in spring season, also all the characters except silking date in autumn season.The synthetic variety Bohoth 106 showed more earliness in tasseling and silking date, while the synthetic variety SO3 TLW-Bm-RE gave higher number of plant ears in spring season. In autumn the SO3TLW-2-AB gave higher yield per plant and SO5 TLWQ-HG-B showed superiority in oil and protein percent. The grain yield gave high significant negative genotypic correlation with number of days to tasseling , silking and maturity but positive with plant height, and ear grain. The selection index including grain yield, number of days to tasseling and silking, ear rows was the best one which gave high relative efficiency.

INFLUENCE OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS AND PLANT DENSITY IN COTTON CROP

Arshad Thanoon Al-niaumi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 169-176
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28030

A factorial experiment in RCBD was conducted in the season 2002 at technical institute of Mosul at Namrood location to study the effect of distance between holes (20,30,40 cm) and levels of N fertilizer (120,160,200,240 kg Urea/ha.) on vegetative characters and yield and its components using cotton variety Koker-310. The results revealed significant effects and quadratic trend for number of fruiting branches and seed cotton yield, while number of bolls/plant was affected significantly with linear trend, where 40 cm planting distance recorded significant higher for number of fruiting branches and seed cotton yield. The number of bolls/plant was significant higher at 30 cm and just higher than distance 40 cm which revealed significant response for these characters with increasing distance between holes. The nitrogen fertilization levels had significant effect to increase number of fruiting branches, number of bolls/plant, boll weight and seed cotton yield when adding 240 kg Urea/ha. , Trend analysis for nitrogen fertilization levels revealed significant linear for these characters as well as seed index except seed cotton yield revealed to significant cubic trend. The distance between holes and levels of nitrogen fertilization interaction where significant for boll weight and seed cotton yield with significant trend analysis (AL BQ) and (AQ BQ) respectively and (AL BL) for lint percentage.

EFFECT OF SEED GRADING, SEED RATE AND ZERO TILLAGE PLANTING METHOD ON GROWTH , YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF DURUM WHEAT ( Triticum durum DESF.)UNDER RAINFED AREA

Abdulsattar A. Jassim Alrijabo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 177-190
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28050

This research contain two studies aiming at investigation the effect of seed grading, seed rate and zero tillage planting method on growth, yield and its components of Durum Wheat ( Triticum durum DESF.)
The first study includs the effect of seed grading and seed rate. The grading factor included three levels:- ( 79.0, 80.5, and 81.5 kg/hectoliter). the first level represented control treatment (un grading). the second level represented grading (Grade b). the third level represented grading (Grade a). second factor are three levels (200, 300, 400 seed/m2). the seeds were sown by (Z.T.) method in two neighboring fields. the first field was sown last year by using ( supplementary irrigation) . the second field was (rain fed). the two fields sown depending on rains. the results showed that the seed levels (400, 300 seed/m2) had a predominant effect in increasing the number of tillers, spikes per square meter, the number of seeds per spike, grain yield, and the straw biomass (kg/m2) for the two fields. also increasing the leaf area in the second field. as for the levels of gradation (Ga, Gb) the results showed significant increasing in the number of tillers, spikes per square meter, and grain yield for the two fields. leaf area and weight of 1000 grain increased in the second field compared with control treatment (un grading). The interaction between seed rate (300 seed/m2) with grade (Gb) realized best quantitative and economic yield for the two fields where no significant difference with grade (Ga) despite the differences in seed rate (kg/donum).
The second study included the comparison between the (Z.T.) with convential tillage (farmer method) in the morphological and productivical traits for wheat. the results showed that there is no difference between (Z.T.) and convential tillage in the number of tillers, the number spikes per square meter, weight of 1000 grain, and the height of the plant; while the (Z.T.) was higher than the convential tillage in the number of seeds per spike, grain yield, and straw biomass (kg/m2).

EFFECT OF SOWING AND HARVESTING DATE ON RAPESEED YIELD COMPONENT (Brassica napus L.)

A.T; Shaker

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 191-196
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28034

The experiment was conducted at the farm of Agriculture and Forestry college – Mosul Univ. for two seasons 2005 / 2007. The effect of three sowing dates ( 15 Oct. , 4. Nov. and 25 Nov. at 2005 – 2006), and (13 Oct., 2 Nov. and 22 Nov. at 2006 - 2007) for the seasons subsequently, with two harvesting dates: after 30 and 40 days from forming 50 percent of flowering / plant were studied. The experiment was laid out as randomize complete block design with split plot arrangement with three replications. The results showed that high values were obtained from No. siliqua / plant, wt. of 500 seeds, seed and oil yield with first sowing date ( 15 and 13 Oct.) for 2005 – 2006 and 2006 – 2007 seasons respectively. Second harvesting date (after 40 days from forming50 percent of flowering / plant) was higher in wt. of 500 seeds , seed and oil yield. The interaction of the first sowing date with the second harvesting date gave a significant increase in seed and oil yield , which increased up to 1885.9 and 837.3 kg ha-1 at the first season, and up to 1425.4 and 621.5 kg ha-1 at the second season respectively. Correlation between seed yield and No. of siliqua / plant and wt. of 500 seeds were significantly higher, while seed yield correlated negative decrease with No. of seed / siliqua for both seasons.

MECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN PREPARAING LAND FOR CULTIVATING WHEAT UNDER CROP ALTERNATION CONDITIONS

Asiz Ramo Al Banna

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 197-202
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28054

The present study deals with 8 different cultivation systems in two different timings namely, November 11 and December 25 in two different sites as regards the previous crop. The first was planted with okra and the second one with peas. It also studies the effect of these conditions on the apparent and porous concentrations and the number of wheat plants per sq. m, spike length, number of corns per spike, corns weight per spike and the total crop. The results show a significant difference in favour of disc plow, the disc harrow and the board level in the majority of the studied characteristics especially the spike length, number of corns, weight of corns per spike and total weight. The second timing had a significant difference as compared with the first one in the second site in characteristics spike length, number of corns per spike, corns weight per spike and total crop whereas the second time surpassed the first time in the second site (peas) in the characteristics spike length, number of corns per spike and corns weight per spike, while the second site (peas) surpassed the first site (okra) significantly for both crops in the characteristics spike length, number of corns per spike, corns weight per spike and total crop. The three studied factors interaction (systems, timing and sites) show a significant difference in favor of disc plow, disc harrow and board level in the second timing and second site in the spike length, number of corns, spike corns weight and total crop at all levels.

EVALUATING OF PERFORMANCE THE SEED DRILL (GASPARDO SC-250) WITH DIFFERENT GROUND SPEED AND SOWING RATE IN CHICKPEAS (Cicer arietinum L.) CROP PRODUCTION

Mosab Abd Al-wahid Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 203-210
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28081

This research was contacted during 2006-2007 in semi- arid rainfed region of silty clay soil in mosul city field to study the effect of two speed sowing
(3.5-4.5)Km/h with three sowing rate (60,80,100) Kg/ ha in some characteristic of mechanization, growing and yield of chickpeas. The results indicated the possibility of using seed drill (Gaspardo SC-250) for planting chickpeas at the first speed because it achieved the lowest ratio in (slippage, deviation ratio between the rows and seed damage)% while the second provides showed results in (No. of plants/m2, No.of plant/5m length, weight of 100 seeds and seeds yield).
The sowing rate (100 kg / ha) indicated better results in all growth characteristic and seed yield except (No. of branches/plant , No. of pods/plant and weight of 100 seeds), the interaction between sowing rate (100 kg/ha) with sowing speed (5-6) Km/h achieved the best results on growth and yield properties and the slippage ratio was within an allowed level with a lowest seed damage .

EFFECT OF DISK ANGLE IN PERFORMANCE OF DISK HARROW AT DIFFERENT SPEEDS

Mothana A. Noori

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 211-216
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28074

The experiment was carried out at fields of college of agriculture and forestry, university of Mosul to study the effect of two disk angles for the offset disk harrow 15°, 20° and 20°, 25° for the front and rear gang respectively , and three forward speeds 5.77 , 7.18 and 9.04 Km/hr on pulling force , drawbar power , slippage percentage , cutting depth , cutting width , coefficient of cutting width , effective field capacity and number of soil aggregates larger than 5 cm/m2. Results showed that the effect of disk angle was significant in drawbar power , cutting width and coefficient of cutting width while there were no significant differences concerning other studied characteristics , there was extrusive relation between the disk angle and all studied characteristics. The effect of interaction between disk angle and forward speeds was significant in cutting depth while there were no significant differences concerning other studied characteristics.

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS ON VERTICILLIUM WILT OF TWO OLIVE CULTIVARS

Ali Kareem Al Taae

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 217-229
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28070

Four water stresses, 0.3, 4, 8, 12 bar, were used to check their effect on Verticillium wilt in olive. Results showed that the highest effect and percent of the affected branches was associated with first water stress treatment that is significantly different from other treatments in both readings. Second stress treatment (0.13 and 14.97%) for the first reading respectively came second. The third and fourth stress treatments did not differ significantly in their severity with the first reading but they differ significantly in the second reading and they also differ significantly in their percent severity of the affected branched in both readings. The intervention effect of the two olive cultivars (Nibali and Sorani) and their contamination coefficients showed significant increase in the Nibali cultivar in its severity and percent of the affected branches in comparison with Sorani cultivar in the first reading (0.26%, 29.80%) respectively. No symptoms were shown on non–contaminated both of the two cultivars of olive seedlings. The first water stress treatment showed the highest effect and percent of the affected branches with the contaminated Nibali cultivar(0.75%, 65.58%) that were significantly different from other treatments and for both readings respectively. This was followed by severity incidence and percent of the affected branches with the second water stress treatment (0.63%, 50.05%) respectively and was not significantly different from the first water treatment for Sorani cultivar (the contaminated) in severity and for both readings. The third and fourth stress treatments were not different from each other in the Nibali cultivar (the contaminated) and not significantly different from the second and third water stress treatment for Sorani cultivar (the contaminated) in the first reading. However, they were different in the second reading as related to severity and percent of the affected branches. The less was in the fourth stress treatment and reached (0.18%, 6.26%) in the Nibali cultivar and (0.19%, 9.72%) in the Sorani cultivar. The study concluded that the fourth stress treatment is the best and caused a reduction of (37.57% and 59.32%) in the Nibali cultivar and for both readings, respectively.

BIOASSAX EVALUATION OF THE EFFICIENCY OF SOME INSECTICIDES AGAINST THE POPLAR LACE BUG Monosteria unicostata M.R. ( Tingidae : Hemiptera)

Shaheen A. Mustafa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 230-236
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28039

The results of efficiency of three insecticides Abamaction (E.C.1.8 %), Diazainon (E.C.60 %) and Chemosiden (E.C.20%) on poplar lace bug Monosteria unicostata M.R. Showed a significant differences in toxicity of the used insecticides according to the type of insecticide , concentrations and usage period under both laboratory and field conditions .The insecticide of Abamactin was more toxic when compared with the others, which gave 40% mortality in 0.1 % concentration. The LC50 values, toxicity indicator and relatively efficiency for insecticides confirm the results of laboratory study, these values reached (0.0009, 100 and 177.77) respectively for Abamaction of laboratory conditions. The interaction between insecticide, concentration and durations showed that the duration factor had significant effect in adults response for insecticides of duration (1-7) day, the mortality of lace bug increased over 90% for all insecticides in different concentration after 7 days from treatment in field conditions, and the best insecticide was Abamaction with concentration 0.3% when compared with the others.

EFFECT OF SOME AQUEOUS PLANT EXTRACTS,CONCENTRATION AND TREATMENT METHODS OF Aphis fabae Scopoli ON PREDATION EFFICIENCY OF ADULTS OF Coccinella septempunctata L.

Nazar M. AL-Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 248-257
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28084

The feeding of the Lady beetle Coccinella septempunctata L. on black bean aphid Aphis fabae Scolopi which was treated directly and indirectly by three concentration (2, 4, 8%) of aqueous seeds extract of Celery, Apium graveolens L., grassnut, Cyperus rotundus L. and Lettuce , Lactuca sativa L., the results of this study showed that the means of daily predation efficiency, percentage of predation efficiency and percentage of increase or decrease in daily predation efficiency reached its maximum level when the paird lady beetles fed on the black bean aphid that treated directly with lettuce seed extracts of 8% conc. during oviposition period which were 159.05, 79.56% and 12.87% respectively , in comparison with 140.94, 70.47%, respectively for control.

FIRST RECORD OF Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici ON PEPPER Capscium annuum IN NINEVAH PROVINCE AND ITS CHEMICAL CONTROL

Nidhal Y. Mohammed Al-Morad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 273-247
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2011.28088

The study was conducted at the Department of plant protection. College of Agriculture and forestry. University of Mosul. during the growing season of 2007–2008. The result of field survey which was carried out on pepper field in Al-Rashedia and al Gayara / Ninevah governorate showed that pepper wilt disease was caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici. Pathogensity test showed that the fungi caused total wilt to the pepper plants and for the three verities which were used (California Wonder . Local Varity Hot pepper. Local verity sweet pepper) Results also showed that fungicide Benomyl. Elsa. and Beltanol with three concentration (50.100.150 mg/L) were fully inhibited the growth ray of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. capsici .In greenhouse experiment chemical control with Benomyl .Elsa and Beltanol caused significant decrease in diseases incidence. and improved all growth parameters and best results were obtained with Beltanol.