Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 36, Issue 4

Volume 36, Issue 4, Autumn 2008, Page 2-232


EFFECT OF DIFFERENT METHODS OF WEED CONTROL ON WEED GROWTH AND YIELD OF COTTON ( Gossypium hirsutum L. )

A . M . Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 2-8
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26812

Weed control study on cotton conducted during summer growing season 2005 at Sumel and Zakho (Dohuk Governorate) in Iraqi Kurdistan region, to determine the effect of different methods of weed control. Cultural practices used in different row spacing (60 or 80 cm) while mechanical methods used hoeing at 4, 8, 4+8 weeks after sowing (WAS). Also chemical herbicides such as Treflan pre-planting soil incorporated, Gallant super early post – emergence and Treflan+Gallant were used. Weeds can compete strongly with cotton, potentially reducing cotton yields .Decrease in row spacing (60 cm) was much better for reducing weed dry weight than 80cm within 75 or 100 days after sowing. On the other hand, the narrow spacing gave more cotton yield and increase up to 76.88 %, 40.81% at Sumel and Zakho locations respectively. Hoeing at an early stage or two times of hoeing was a good option for weed control. Also two times of hoeing 4+8 (WAS) was more effective on weed than row spacing. Lint yield was higher up to 408.75%, 173.55% in two times of hoeing treatment at the two locations, respectively. Treflan or Treflan+Gallant gave significant result in reducing weed biomass in both locations over two periods. However, Treflan+Gallant reduced weeds dry weights 42.8%, 41.8%, 70.6% and 71.5% at the two locations within the two periods, respectively.

RESPONSE OF ALEPPO PISTACHIO TRANSPLANT CV. ASHOURY (Pistacia vera L.) TO DIFFERENT GROWING MEDIA AND SPRAY WITH GIBBERELLIC ACID AND ZINC

Nabil M. Ameen Al-Imam

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 4-16
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27357

This experiment has been carried out in the nursery of college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, Iraq during the season of 2005 to study the effect of five agricultural media : sand loam soil (river soil) 100 % ;sand loam soil : manure (3:1) by volume ; sand loam soil : peat moss (3:1) ;sand loam soil : manure : peat moss (3: 1/2 : 1/2) and sand loam soil : manure : peat moss (2: 1 : 1). Seedlings has been sprayed with three levels of GA3 (0, 50, and 100 mg.l-1) as well as three level of chelated zinc Zn-EDTA (0, 25, and 50 mg.l-1)and their interaction . The aim of the present study was to know the best agriculture media and concentration of GA3 and Zn-EDTA for improving the growth of pistachio rootstocks during one seasons. The results obtained in this study could be summarized as follows : Using the Fourth mixture gave the best results of stem diameter, leave number per seedlings and total chlorophyll. Fifth media gave the highest stem height. Spraying plants with 100 mg GA3.l-1 caused significant increase in plant height, stem diameter and number of branches. Foliar application with 50 mg Zn.l-1 resulted in a significant effects on plant height, leaves number, root length and total chlorophyll content. However, the interaction between Fifth and Fourth media which sprayed with 100 mg.l-1 GA3 + 50 mg Zn.l-1 improved all vegetative growth parameters and root length.

PROPAGATION OF GARDENIA ROOT STOCK Gardenia thunbergia L.F. By Stem Cuttings

A. O. Al-Atrakchii

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27067

This study was conducted in greenhouse of Department of Horticulture and Landscape Design, College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University. The aim of this work is to study the effect of two planting dates, December and March after treated the cuttings with IBA+NAA mixture at 0+0 (control), 1000+1000 and 2000+1000 mg.l-1 in quick-dip method for 10 seconds, in addition to wounding the cuttings base or without. The results of this investigation were showed that planting date had a great effect on rooting ability, planting cuttings in March gave higher rooting percentage 58.89%, and best results of all rooting characters studied. Wounded cuttings gave higher values of rooting percentage 58.11% and all other characters. On the other hand, cuttings treated with IBA+NAA mixture at 2000+1000 mg.l-1 gave 58.33% rooting percentage, 3.91 roots per cutting, longest root length 7.98cm, 1.58 shoots number and 1.25cm shoot length. In general, wounding apical cuttings taken in March and treated with 2000+1000mg.l-1 IBA+NAA mixture proved most effective treatment in rooted Gardenia thunbergia cuttings.

RESPONSE OF ALEPPO PISTACHIO TRANSPLANTS CV. ASHOURY (Pistacia vera L.) TO DIFFERENT GROWING MEDIA AND SPRAY WITH GIBBERELLIC ACID AND ZINC

Nabil M. Ameen. Al-Imam

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 17-19
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27356

This experiment has been carried out in the nursery of college of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Iraq during the season of 2005. To study the effect of five agricultural media : sandy loam soil (river soil) 100 % ; sandy loam soil: manure (3:1) by volume ; sandy loam soil: peat moss (3:1) ;sandy loam soil: manure: peat moss (3: 1/2 : 1/2) and sandy loam soil: manure : peat moss (2: 1 : 1). Seedlings has been sprayed with three levels of GA3 (0, 50, and 100 mg.l-1) as well as three level of chelated zinc Zn-EDTA (0, 25, and 50 mg.l-1) and their interaction on the growth of Aleppo seedling pistachio cv. Ashoury. The aim of the present study was to know the best agiculture media and concentration of GA3 and Zn-EDTA in improving the growth and nutreint concentration in seedlings leave. The results obtained in this study could be summarized as follows: Vegetative growth parameters were significantly effected by the agricultural media .Using Fourth mixture gave the best results of seedlings : leaf area, seedling leaf area, Phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaves .Sprying plants with 100 mg.l-1 GA3 caused significant increase in leaf area, seedling leaf area, whereas spraying with GA3 did not caused any significant effect on dry weight of plant and decreased the concentrations of N,P,K and Zn in the leaves. Foliar application of Zn-EDTA caused significant increase on all vegetative and root growth parameters, N,P,K and Zn concentrations in the leaves of pistachio seedlings. The best treatment was 50 mg Zn .l-1 which showed the highest concentrations of N and Zn in leaves, leaf area, seedling leaf area and vegetative dry weight.

EFFECT OF SPRAYING WITH PACLOBUTRAZOL AND MICRONUTRIENT ON GROWTH OF Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott

A.A. Al-Mukhtar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 30-40
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27339

This experiment was conducted in a private nursery in Mosul city, Nenava Governorate, with aim to improve growth characters of N. exaltata (L.) Schott by spraying the plants with Paclobutrazol at concentration 0.0 (control), 5.0 and 10.0mg.l-1 and Micronutrient at three concentration of Micronate 15 fertilizer 0.0, 0.25 and 0.50 gm.l-1 and the interactions. The results can be summarized as follows: Spraying plants by PZ at 10 mg.l-1 caused a significant increase in frond number 31.06 leaves, frond length 32.33 cm, leaves area 1474.2 cm2, leaves dry weight 4.01 g., roots and rhizomes dry weight 4.55 g. compared with control. On the other hand, the treatment above caused significantly decrease of leaflets number, chlorophyll content and concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, in leaves tissues. Spraying plants with Micronate fertilizer at concentration 0.50 gm.l-1 caused a significant increase of fronds number, frond length, leaves area, dry weight of vegetative growth, root and rhizome dry weight, in addition of chlorophyll content, but these treatment caused a significant decrease in concentrations of Fe, Mn and Zn. In general, to obtain lest values of growth characters the plants must sprayed with 10 mg.l-1 PZ and 0.50 g. l-1 of Micronate fertilizer.

EFFECT OF STEM TIP EXCISION, SPRAYING WITH BENZYLADENINE AND CYCOCEL ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH OF TWO CULTIVARS OF

A. O. Al - Atrakchii

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 41-52
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27340

This study was carried out in the College of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University, between February and November/2006 on Gerbera jamesonii cv. Esstafette (red inflorescence) and Essandre (yellow inflorescence), to investigate the effect of stem tip excision and spraying plants with benzyl adenine (BA) at 0, 250 and 500 mg.l-1 or Cycocel (CCC) at 500 and 1000 mg.l-1 separately, on vegetative growth character. The factorial experiment was conducted by using randomized complete block design, each treatment was replicated three times with four plants in block. The results can be summarized as follows: Plants of Essandre cultivars gave largest values of leaves number, leaves area, number of lateral shoots and length of lateral shoots significantly. Excision of apical portion of stem caused a significantly increase of leaves number, chlorophyll content and number of lateral shoots. While the largest length of lateral shoots, higher dry weight obtained when the apical portion of stem wasn't excised. Spraying plants with BA at 500 mg.l-1 caused a significantly increase of leaves area, chlorophyll content, number of lateral shoots and dry weight compared with control. But plant sprayed with CCC gave higher values of leaves number and number of lateral shoots. In general, pinched plants of Estafette and Essandre cultivars sprayed with BA at 500 mg.l-1 revealed best results of leaves number 22.00 and 25.48 leaves /plant, leaves area 1928.0 and 1926.7 cm2, chlorophyll content 10.65 and 10.39 mg. g fresh weight for two cultivars, respectively.

EFFECT OF SEEDS PRIMIING IN SOLUTION OF POLY ETHYLEN GLYGOL AND MINERAL FERTILIZATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF CARROT (Daucus carota L.) c.v.NANTES

Khaleida Abdullah Omar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 53-59
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27329

The experiment was carried out in horticulture department ,College of Agriculture and forestry ,Mosul University, during agri-season 2005-2006 ,to study the effect of priming seeds of carrot cv. Nantes in osmotic solution of PEG6000 with concentration 0,-4,-8 Bar,also the effect of fertilization by mineral fertilizer Calcium nitrate, Super phosphate and Potassium sulphate with three levels (30,40.45),(60,80,90) and (120,160,180) kg/ donum in addition to fourth level (without fertilizer) and the interaction of them in vegetative and root growth ,and production per unit area ,and the concentration of chlorophyll in the leaves.Results revealed that there are significant increase in fresh and dry weight for canopy of priming seeds in osmotic solution for PEG with concentration -8 bar also as a result of adding fertilizer at three levels ,the highest fresh and dry weight for canopy were 27.45,3.63 gram /plant adding for the interaction treatment between prim the seeds in concentration -8 bar from PEG6000 with the third level of fertilizer. Fertilizer treatments caused significant increases in length ,diameter root and the highest values for these characteristics were 12.63,3.73 cm respectivellay ,and the interaction treatment between prim seeds in -8 bar concentration for PEG6000, with the fertilizer treatment at fourth level 120,160,180 kg/ donum gave highest weight / root 114.25 gram with highest production for unit area 2.23 ton /donum and the highest concentration for chlorophyll content in leaves 12.22 mg/ ml susp. green matter.

INFLUENCE OF CULTURE MEDIA AND DENSITY OF SOYBEAN CELL SUSPENSION CULTURE BY MULTIPLE DROP ARRAY ON FORMING CALLUS PRIMORDIA

Mozahim K. Al-Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 60-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27353

The present study established cell suspensions from the friable callus derived from the stem explant of soybean (Glycine max L.) seedlings. These suspensions of certain densities were cultured by embedding in agar using MS & B5 media supplemented with favorable level of Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and Benzyl adenine (BA) using Multiple Drop Array (MDA) technique. Culture density reached up to 7.3×105 cell/ml with viability between 47-81% and 4.1×105 cell/ml in B5 medium. Colonies were developed to form callus primordia and continued their subsequent growth so they increased in size to form small piece of callus in agar drops reached up to 85% in MS medium.

ROLE OF PHOSPHATE SOLUBILIZATION BACTERIA ON PHOSPHATE SOLUBILITY IN SOIL

Rand A. Al-Tae

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 67-75
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27333

A laboratory experiment was conducted to study the effect of bacterial inoculation rock phosphate solubilization in the presence or absence of rock phosphate under different levels of organic matter (0, 10, 20 gm.kg-1) and in sterile and non sterile soil. The results indicated the following; Phosphate potential values were increased after 1% rock phosphate addition as compared with the control treatment (0% rock phosphate) in about 91% , also phosphate potential values were increased in soil amended with both levels of the organic matter as compared with the control treatment (0 gm.kg-1 organic manure). Increasing the organic matter level from 10 to 20 increased the phosphate potential (30 – 155%) , the values of phosphate potential were greater in the non–sterilized soil than the sterilized soil in about 9% . Results showed also that Bacillus subtilis increased phosphate potential 104.5% while Pseudomonas fluorescence bacteria was increased the phosphate potential about 74.5% . Results of P solubility by using solubility diagram showed that most of the points were under saturated with DCPD at 7 days period and no indication of hydroxyl apatite formation in this experiment after 56 days.

EVALUATION OF OLIVE IRRIGATION IN BASHIQA AREA

Eman H. sheet

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 76-83
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27324

ِAn evaluation of olive irrigation in Bashiqa area was done. Informations were collected for ten different orchards, which describe area of orchard, numbers and age of trees, and their average production. with the calculation of discharge applied to every one. Field measurements also were done to find depth of irrigation water in the year. This is compared with the calculated depth of irrigation water requirement by using CROPWAT software depending on average monthly climatological data and rainfall. The results show that the age of tree affect the productivity, also the applied irrigation water to these orchard are less than their requirements. So, it is recommended to increase the amount and frequency of irrigation water. A seasonal irrigation water depth of 400-650 mm, with an average of 100 mm during summer months, is a good choice for better production.

EFFICIENCY OF MODIFICATION OF EMITTER LOCATIONS FOR SUB MAIN PIPES IN TRIKLE IRRIGATION SYSTEM

Bahram kh. Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 84-93
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27325

A study was carried out in apricot orchard in Garderashe field– Salahhadeen University – Arbil. Two Drip irrigation systems were used. Normal tubing & Modified emitters locations with two emitters are short & elongated during three months: March, April & May and effects of this factors on; Mechanization parameters and Plants parameters. The statistical results illustrated the effect of drip irrigation system on all parameters which included; superlative of the modified system significantly on all parameters than the normal system. The effect of interaction between drip irrigation system with emitters and with months on all parameters are The treatment of the modified system with the short emitters in April month is recorded highest ratio of weeds control (85. %), highest wetted Area (0.640 m2), highest height of the trees (19 cm), highest diameter of the tree (0.877 cm), highest height of the main branch of the trees (23.333 cm). highest number of flower bud in one tree (889), highest number of fruit tie in one tree (830), highest quantity of fruit yield (11 kg). The interaction of the modified system with the short emitters in April month is recorded highest efficiency (91%) and lowest manufacturers variation (0.03). The modified system generally is superlative on the normal system by recorded lowest (qc) values from the normal system. From this modification an increased stationary force of roots in the soil and be achieved by increasing wetted area and easily cultivation for weed protect that will effect on trees breeding, as a result production increased.

EFFECT OF FORCE MOLTING ON SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS

Khalid H. Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 96-100
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27326

The study was conducted to determine the effect of force molting program on fertility (%) and the semen characteristics including mass motility ,individual motility (%), ejaculate volume (ml.), sperms concentration and number of sperms per ejaculate. The study used Hubbard flex broiler breeder flock at 65 week of age consist of 24 cocks and 40 hens . The cocks divided into two groups ,the first group and all hens were subjected to force molting program while the second group of cocks were used as control. Semen collected artificially and examined to evaluate the semen traits and the hens artificially inseminated with 0.05 ml. semen with four replications. Eggs were collected through 2-8 days after insemination and incubated for seven days before they broken and examined for embryo development to determine fertility. The results indicated that there were significant (P< 0.05) reduction in fertility, mass motility and individual motility and highly significant (P< 0.01) reduction in sperms concentration for the force molted cock semen as compared with the control group.

EFFECT OF USING BENTONITE IN AWASSI EWES RATIONS ON MILK PRODUCTION AND COMPOSITION

Qussay Z.Shamsaldain

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 101-109
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27355

This study was conducted on 36 Awassi ewes at different ages(2,3 and 4 year old) together with their single lambs in sheep farm و Mosul Technical Institute. Ewes were divided into four groups according to their ages ,and fed on four rations containing different levels of bentonite( 0,1,2 and 3% respectively ), after parturition for 12 weeks ( weaning time ), to study the effect of bentonite level on milk production and chemical composition. The overall mean of the total and daily milk yield during 12 weeks were 79.534 and 0.88 Kg respectively, the results revealed that bentonait levels in ration had significantly (p> 0.05) effect on daily and total milk yield, were ration of 2% bentonite showed better milk yield. However age of dam and sex of lambs had no significant effect on daily and total milk yield. The results showed that percentages of protein and total solid not fat were increased significantly(p>0.05),while milk fat percentage was decreased significantly (p>0.05) the total solid ratio was significantly decreased (p>0.05)in ration content 3% bentonite .Level of bentonite in the diet had no significant effect on lactose,total solid and minerals.The results showed that age of dam had a significant effect( p >0.05) on fat ,protein, total solid ,and total solid not fat ,while sex of lamb had no significant effect on milk chemical composition.

THE EFFECT OF SUBSTITUTION OF SOYBEAN MEAL BY COTTONSEED CAKE IN COMMON CARP Cyprinus carpio L. DIETS.

Mahmoud; A. Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 110-121
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27352

This investigation was carried out to utilize cottonseed cake in formulating diets for common carp Cyprinus carpio L. fish in an attempt to substitute for soybean meal. Cottonseed cake was treated with multi enzyme (Avizyme) and autoclaving. A 105 fish carp with average weight (26 ±2 gm/fish) of had been distributed randomly at seven experimental diets, with three replicates replication for each diet. The fish fed for 70 days on experimental diets which contained different rates of cottonseed cake; zero% (control diet, diet 1) and three diets contained 25%, 32.5% and 41% of cottonseed cake of the total diet (2,3 and 4) respectively instead of 50 % ,66.66 % and 83.33 % of soybean meal a long with added multi enzymes while the last three diets contained 25%, 32.5% and 41% respectively treated cottonseed cake with (5, 6 and 7) autoclave respectively . The Statistical analysis of results showed there were no significant differences in the weight gain, growth rate and relative growth rate among control diet, The best values for food conversion ratio and food efficiency ratio were recorded for fish which fed on diet 5. There were no significant differences ( p> 0.01) among fish that fed at different experimental diets for protein efficiency ratio except for fish fed on diet 5 .The precipitate protein for fish fed at diet 2 and 5 were exceeded as compared with fish fed at diet 1 and the character of the protein productive values (PPV) were 23.16, 29.44 and 29.47% for the above mention three diets respectively. The chemical analysis of body composition were performed
( crude protein, ether extract, ash ) for fish fed on experimental 4 diets .It can be concluded that replacing 83.33% of treated cottonseed cake by either Avizyme or autoclaving is possible in formulation in common carp diets as adverse effect on the studied growth faster for fish wasn’t evident .

EFFECT OF SORGHUM AND WHEAT COMPOSIT FLOUR ON DOUGH FERMENTATION AND QUALITY OF SOME BAKERY PRODUCTS

Mohammad Wajeeh Zainnulabideen

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 122-128
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27346

The effect of partial substitution of wheat flour by percent of three varieties of certified local cultivars of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.Mocnch) flour on the dough fermentation and the quality of cake, biscuit and roqak bread were studied. The results showed that, the fermentation of sorghum composite dough increased with substation increasing. Although there were significant differences between the sorghum varieties in their bakery products quality but using 30% substituted sorghum flour in cake, biscuit and roqak bread making were accepted. Panel test results for cake, were 87.3, 84.97, 83.12 degrees from 100 degrees, for Enkath ,Kaffer ,Rabih sorghum varieties respectively comparing to 87.26 degrees for wheat flour. The results also showed that biscuit panel test degrees were 51.49, 48.00, 46, 87 degrees from 60 degrees, for Enkath, Kaffer, Rabih respectively comparing to 52.16 degrees for wheat flour. Roqak bread had 30.8, 27.8, 20.9 degrees from 40 degrees for Enkath, Kaffer, Rabh respectively comparing to 37 degrees for wheat flour. Enkath was the identical variety among them which had the most acceptances by taste panel.

EFFECT OF CARROT ROOTS JUICE (DAUCUS CAROTA) ON INDUCTION OF CHROMOSOMAL ABERRATIONS IN WHITE MICE BONE MARROW CELLS

Ilham A. Khalaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 129-138
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27068

The effect of carrot (Ca) juice on induction of chromosomal aberrations in white mice bone marrow cells was studied under natural conditions and induction of cyclophosphamide (Cp). Results showed that administration of juice (0.1, 0.25, 0.5)ml orally for 6 days had no effect on induction of chromosomal aberrations(Chromosomal breaks, Chromatid breaks, Ring chromosome and Dicentric chromosome), except that the higher dose (0.5 ml) elevated the level of chromosomal aberrations slightly and it was beyond the statistical significancy (P< 0.01). While oral administration of Cp (50 mg/Kg of animal body weight) increased the aberrations 9 times in comparison to the negative control , the latter level of aberrations was lower to 7 times due to natural defense processes of the body. Using the juice and mutagens in different combinations, such as using juice after administration of the mutagen (Cp/Ca), or using the juice before administration of mutagen (Ca/Cp) or administration both of them together resulted in lowering the aberrations in general, but the treatment of (Ca/Cp) was the best especially when used for 6 days.

ANTIMUTAGENIC EFFECT OF ROCKET (Eruca sativa ) ON INDUCTION OF STREPTOMYCIN AND RIFAMPICIN RESISTANT MUTANTS IN BACTERIAL SYSTEMS

Ilham A. Khalaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 139-149
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27317

G- system (Bacterial system) , composed of three strains , G3 (Bacillus spp) , G12 (Artherobacter spp) , G27 (Brevibacterium spp) which are Gram positive , sensitive to crystal violet and Streptomycin (10 µg / ml) and Rifampicin (20µg / ml) (Chromosomal markers) . This system was used to study the mutagenic effect of rocket juice (Eruca sativa) and its antimutagenic activity against the cyclophosphamide(Cp) mutagenic activity using different combinations by measuring the cytotoxicity (Estimating the survival index) , and genotoxicity by estimating the induction of streptomycin and rifampicin resistant mutants (As chromosomal markers) . Results showed that rocket juice at 50 and 100 µl / ml of log culture cell suspension in phosphate buffer had no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects , higher levels (200µg / ml) had slight cytotoxic and genotoxic activities . Cp had both cytotoxic and genotoxic activities . Combinations of plant juice and mutagen (Cp) together (J+Cp) or using juice before treating with mutagen (J/Cp) or using the juice after treatment with mutagen (Cp/J) showed different effects . The treatment (J+Cp) and (J/Cp)protect the cells and the survival index didn't exceed the cutoff value of mutagenic agents , while the (Cp/J) treatment was unable to protect the cells . The latter effects appeared as an induction of streptomycin and rifampicin resistance .

ANTIMUTAGENIC EFFECT OF ROCKET (Eruca sativa ) ON INDUCTION OF STREPTOMYCIN AND RIFAMPICIN RESISTANT MUTANTS IN BACTERIAL SYSTEMS

Ilham A. Khalaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 139-194
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27069

G- system (Bacterial system) , composed of three strains , G3 (Bacillus spp) , G12 (Artherobacter spp) , G27 (Brevibacterium spp) which are Gram positive , sensitive to crystal violet and Streptomycin (10 µg / ml) and Rifampicin (20µg / ml) (Chromosomal markers) . This system was used to study the mutagenic effect of rocket juice (Eruca sativa) and its antimutagenic activity against the cyclophosphamide(Cp) mutagenic activity using different combinations by measuring the cytotoxicity (Estimating the survival index) , and genotoxicity by estimating the induction of streptomycin and rifampicin resistant mutants (As chromosomal markers) . Results showed that rocket juice at 50 and 100 µl / ml of log culture cell suspension in phosphate buffer had no cytotoxic or genotoxic effects , higher levels (200µg / ml) had slight cytotoxic and genotoxic activities . Cp had both cytotoxic and genotoxic activities . Combinations of plant juice and mutagen (Cp) together (J+Cp) or using juice before treating with mutagen (J/Cp) or using the juice after treatment with mutagen (Cp/J) showed different effects . The treatment (J+Cp) and (J/Cp)protect the cells and the survival index didn't exceed the cutoff value of mutagenic agents , while the (Cp/J) treatment was unable to protect the cells . The latter effects appeared as an induction of streptomycin and rifampicin resistance .

ISOLATION, IDENTIFICATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF DIHYDROFOLATE SYNTHETASE FROM HYPOTYL STEMS CALLUS OF LETTUSE PLANT ( Lactuca sativa L. )

Sajida A-Abood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 150-156
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27334

Callus from hypocotyl explants of lettuce ( Lactuca sativa L.) was initiated on a modified Murashige and Skoog medium containing 1.0 mg/l of benzyladenine (BA) and naphthaleneacetic acid ( NAA ) .Dihydrofolate synthetase (EC.6.3.2.12) was found in lettuce callus and purified about 36 fold by treating with ethanol and chloroform, ammonium sulfate and gel filtration on Sephadex G-200. The molecular weight of dihydrofolate synthetase was found to be around 40 KD. By Sephadex G-200 column chromatography. The optimum pH for the activity was 6.8 . The optimum reaction temperature was 32C°. The Michaelis constants using dihydropetroic acid and adenosinetriphosphate were 0.036x10-3M and 5.263x10-3M respectively.

COMARING MANY SAMPLING PROCEDURES IN DETERMINING THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF Populus nigra L.GROWN IN NINEVAH PLANTATARTION

Talal K. Al-Takay

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 157-161
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27336

This work was put to determine the best value of specific gravity of Poplar nigra through different sampling criteria. Four groups of seven years old poplar trees were used (3, 5, 7 and 12 trees). Samples were taken at different heights from the stem of each tree(at :stump height , Breast height , at each one meter and two meters along the stem )in addition other samples were taken from fixed position (at: Breast height ,1/2 and 2/3 the height of tree) to determine the specific gravity . The results showed , a significant variation among the groups of trees and throughout the stem height .It is found that the groups of 3 and 5 trees gave values of specific gravity not representative to the actual values ,The same is true for the average values at breast height and for the three levels of height in the stem ,because it appeared that the first gave average value was lower and the second level gave higher average than the actual value of the specific gravity of poplar trees, while the average values at stump height in the group of 12 trees gave a considerable value which is close enough to the actual value ,and one can use it as a representative value of the specific gravity of Poplar nigra.

STUDY OF GENETIC VARIABILITY AND CORRELATIONS IN MAIZE

A. S. A. Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 162-172
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27338

A half diallel analysis among five inbred lines of maize (OH40, N28, W17.161, B57 and Agr183) was done. Inbred lines and crosses were planted using randomized complete block design with three replications. Data were taken for traits: plant height, upper ear height, number of ears per plant, length and diameter of ear, number of rows per ear, number of grains per ear, 100 grain weight and grain yield per plant. The results showed that mean squares of genotypes, general and specific combining abilities were significant for all traits. Marked significant heterosis was observed for almost all the traits studied. It was shown that dominant variance was more than additive one for all traits except number of grains per ear. The two inbred lines OH40 and B57 were good general combiners for the most traits, and the crosses (N28 x OH40) and (B57 x N28) were the best specific combinors. Broad sense heritability was high for all the traits while narrow sense was high for number of grains per ear. The genetic advance as percent of the mean was moderate for number of grains per ear and low for the remainder traits. Average degree of dominance exceeded one for all the studied traits, and this an indication of the presence of over dominance.

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS , HETEROSIS , PHENOTYPIC AND GENETIC CORRELATION IN DURUM WHEAT

Ahmed A. Ahmed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 173-180
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27349

Six durum wheat (1-) Azul-5 (2-) Yousef-1 (3-) Omgenil-3 (4-) Syrian-4 (5-) Mrb3/mna-1 (6-) Um Rabee varieties and their half diallel crosses were used to study genetic parameters, heterosis, correlation, for 1- no. of days to 50% flowering 2-plant height 3- no. of grains/spike 4- no. of spikes/plant 5- biological yield 6- grain yield 7- harvest index 8- 1000-grain weight 9- protein percentage. Significant differences were detected between genotypes at 1% of probability for all the characters. Additive genetic variance was higher than the dominance for all the characters except for 1000-grain weight and protein percentage .Narrow- sense heritability values were low for 1000 grain weight and moderate to protein percentage two characters. The average degree of dominance value was less than one for all the characters except no. of spiks for 1000-grain weight and protein percentage .Heterosis was obtained for Azul-5 x Syrian-4 for no. of spikes/plant, biological yield ,grain yield ,harvest index and protein percentage. Genetic correlation was positive and significant between grain yield and each of number of days to 50% flowering , no. of grains/spike, biological yield, and harvest index.

STUDY OF SOME ECONOMICAL CRITERIA EVALUATION THROUGH USING DIFFERENT MECHANIZATION SYSTEMS UNDER SEMI ARID CONDITIONS

Yassen H. Al-tahan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 181-186
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27363

This research was carried out at Ninevah governorate to study some economical criteria evaluation through using different mechanization criteria under semi arid condition, these criteria included (mechanical support, mechanical power availability, financial support, coefficient of time exploitation and hectare revenue). Data were taken from four agriculture companies specialized in wheat and barley planting during (2004 – 2005) agric. season. These companies were different with each other in planted areas human, technical and mechanical capability. These companies were compared with each other in plowing and planting operation as well as in harvesting and then in total or general agriculture operation. The results for the general agricultural operations were summarized as follows: The second company showed that the highest value in mechanical support (11.19)kW/man while the first company gave the highest value in mechanical power availability (0.33) kW/ha. The first company showed the highest financial support (1771484) Dinar/man, while the highest time exploitation coefficient (59%) was for the second company. highest revenue (84400) Dinar/hectare was for first company.

FIELD EVALUATION OF CHISEL PLOW SHANKS THROUGH SOIL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES FOR SOME SOIL TYPES IN NORTHERN OF IRAQ

Saad Abdul Jabbar Al- Rajaboo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 187-199
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27332

This study was carried out at two sites of different texture which was clay and a clay loam in Mosul - Al-Rasheedia. and located at what is considered to be a semi water fall guaranteed arable area .A plough of three different shank shapes have been used . These shapes were vertical, inclined forward and curved with two plough depth of 8-12 cms and 13-17 cms successively with three speeds 3.70 ., 7.15 and 9.64 Km/hour. To study the effect of the shank shape on the some physical properties of soil (moisture content, bulkdnsity, porosity, penetration resistence and mean weight diameter) the two experimental farms have been designed by the use of complete randomize design which was used with three factors and replications. The main results of this study are: The curved shank outperformed at the first site and at the three dates in recording the lowest bulk density, highest porosity and the lowest penetration resistance for the two dates at the first site and by the use of the means of the two sites. The 8-12 cm depth outperformed at the two sites with their means in recording the lowest bulk density and highest porosity .The (7.15) Km/ hour speed recorded the lowest bulk density and highest porosity at the beginning , middle and the end of the season. The vertical shank at depth of (13-17) cm and at speed of (9.64) Km/hour gave the highest moisture content at the first site at the end of the season. The inclined forward shank outperformed at the depth of (13-17) cm with speed of (7.15) Km/hour at the second site giving the lowest bulk density and highest porosity at the end of the season.

EPIPHYTOTIC OF FUSARIUM CROWN AND ROOT ROT ON TOMATO CAUSED BY Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. radicis – lycopersici Jarvis & Shoemaker in Rabbia

Wazeer A. Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 200-210
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27361

Field survey conducted during 2005 and 2006 at Al – jazeera project (Rabbia), showed the prevalence of tomato Fusarium crown and root rot (FCRR), which is characterized by a chocolate – brown internal discoloration of the roots after 5 week of transplanting . Wilting symptoms developed after 8th week (fruiting stage), under highly temperature conditions in July contradictory as known that the cold weather was favorable to the pathogen .The rate of infection (r) was developed according to plant growth progress, most plants were collapsed throughout 8-12 week , since the pathogen colonized the epidermis and root cortex tissues. The (r) values were actually decreased during the harvesting stage after 12-16 week of transplanting .

SAPROPHYTIC COMPETION OF FUNGAL ANTAGONISM ON THE PATHOGENIC AND SAPROPHYTIC ACTIVITIES OF Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis – lycopersici

Wazeer A. Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 211-222
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27358

The study showed a negative correlation among soil – saprobs Aspergillus nigur , A. flavus, A. ochraceus , Mucor sp. , Penicillium glabrum , Stemphylium loti and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis – lycopersici (Forl) , i . e. ,a significant reduction in its inoculum density , with aprominance of A . nigur and A. flavus. Regression analysis exhibited that excess of Diammonium phosphate and of Forl inoculum resulted in reduction of its pathogenicity . Manures were increased each of saprobs and the pathogen.Thus , Manures as soil amendments stimulated saprophytic competition in the soil and also inhibited the growth and sporulation of Forl , particularly A. niger. The application of Diammonium phosphate plus mixed saprophytes and Forl inoculum decreased disease incidence insignificantly in the greenhouse, the use of manures also reduced disease severity. Soil humidity increase by 1% resulted in increase of severity by 0.02.

DIAGNOSIS OF FUNGI CAUSING ROOT ROT AND DEATH OF

Goner A. Shaker

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 4, Pages 223-232
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27343

An experiment was conducted on the causes of drying and death of the Ficus trees in three locations in Baghdad (Palastine street, Zaiyuna and Al-ghadieer). The isolation from wilted trees resulted in specifying of Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson.)Fitzp., and Fusarium solani (Mart.) Sacc. The pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum showed high pathogenicity with differences between locations. Trichoderma harzianum Rifai., and Paecilomyces lilcianus (Thom) Samson,. appeared efficient antagonism against both pathogens particularlyF.solani (1.6 and 2), respectively.