Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 36, Issue 2

Volume 36, Issue 2, Spring 2008, Page 2-212


EFFECT OF VERY HIGH LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPOURS FERTILIZERS, PINCHING, AND SEED RATE SOWING ON GROWTH, SEED YIELD AND COMPONENTES OF Nigella sativa L. 2- SEED COMPENENTS

Yousif H. Hammo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 2-11
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26610

This field experiment was conducted during the season 2005-2006 in Singar - Mosul city to investigate the effects of very high level (320 N, 300 P2O5) kg ha-1, and high level (280 N, 260 P2O5) kg ha-1 of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, pinch and with out pinch, and plant seed rate sowing 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 g/10m2 was done by hand within 3, 4, 5, 6 rows respectively in (10)m2 plot size on seed components of Nigella sativa L. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results include the following. Very high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus caused a significant increase in fixed oil, volatile oil, protein, and phosphorus; in contrast carbohydrate was significantly decreased, while humidity and ash cannot be affected with this factor. Pinching nigella plants causes a significantly increasing in fixed oil, ash, and carbohydrate of seeds while volatile oil, protein, and phosphorus were decreased significantly when compared with non pinched plants. Increased seed rate sowing from 0.8 to 1.2 g/10m2 caused significant increasing in fixed oil when compared with 0.6 g/10m2 while decreased seed rate sowing 0.6, 0.8 g/10m2 caused significant increases in volatile oil and ash when compared with 1.0, 1.2 g/10m2. Protein also Increased significantly from 20.67 to 24.40 with decreased seed rate sowing from 1.2 to 0.8 g/10m2.while medium rate cause significant increase in phosphorus when compared with lowest and highest rate, the lowest rate of see rate give the highest percentage of carbohydrate when compared with other .

EFFECT OF CONCENTRATIONS AND APPLICATION DATES OF

Zuhair A. Dawood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 4-10
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26744

This research was conducted in Horticulture dept., College of Agriculture and Forestry, at Mosul university to test the effect of four concentrations (0, 20, 40, and 60 mg Fe/l) and two dates of application (15/3 and 15/4) of Fe-elements used as a chelating compound Fe-EDTA; on growth, yield and quality of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) Cv. Hapil. A factorial experiment (randomized complete block design) with three replicates, each experimental unit contain ten plants. Data obtained from this experiment was tested by using Duncan’s multiple test at 5% level. The obtained results indicated that there were a significant effect of foliar spray of Fe-EDTA on most growth and yield characteristics, and the most effective treatment was 60 mg Fe/l specially when applied at the first date (15/3) which significantly overtopped in: leaf area, number of runners/plant, dry weight of vegetative growth, total chlorophyll content, number of fruit per plant, average yield per plant and per unit area, total soluble solids and the content of vitamin C as compared with control treatment.

EFFECT OF PROPAGATION METHODS, SPRAY WITH PACLOBUTRAZOL AND MICRONUTRIENT ON GROWTH OF

H. A. Abdel-Kadir

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27804

This study was carried on Dahlia hybrida cv. Edinburgh, to compare two propagation methods, application of paclobutrazol PBZ at 0, 10 and 20 mg/liter and micronutrients at concentrations 0, 0.25 and 0.50 g/liter on vegetative growth. The results can be summarized as follows: The plants propagated by tuberous roots gave higher values for plant height, stem diameter and shoot number when compared with plants propagated by cuttings, for two seasons, respectively. Spraying plants with PBZ at 20 mg/liter significantly increased stem diameter and shoot number when compared with untreated control. Fertilization with any concentrations micronutrient caused a significant decrease in plant height. But stem diameter, shoot number and chlorophyll content significantly increased at concentration 0.50 g/liter. In general, plant propagated by tuberous roots which sprayed with 20 mg/liter PBZ and 0.50 g/liter micronutrient gave a higher values for stem diameter, shoot number, stomata number on lower leaf surface.

EFFECT OF KASNAZAN IMPOUNDMENT AND WELLWATER IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND PLANT

Pakhshan Mustafa Maulood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 12-23
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26605

Soil, plant, and water (Kasnazan impoundment and well water) samples were monthly collected from Kasnazan (10 Km north east of Erbil city) during August 2004 to February 2005. Chemical and statistical analysis indicated that the irrigation with well water resulted to decreases EC from 0.87 dS.m-1 to 0.49 dS.m-1, because of leaching and dilution effects. Statistically there is a positive significant correlation (P< 0.05) between SAR value of well water and irrigated soil with it, whereas, a negative correlation of Mg+2 concentrations observed between well water and soil irrigated with it. On the other hand, there was high content of Mg+2 and low content of K+1 for eucalyptus plant irrigated by well water in comparison to that irrigated with impoundment water.

EFFECT OF PROPAGATION METHODS, SPRAY WITH PACLOBUTRAZOL AND MICRONUTRIENT ON GROWTH OF

A. O. AL - Atrakchii

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27800

This study was carried on Dahlia hybrida cv. Edinburgh, to compare two propagation methods, application of paclobutrazol PBZ at 0, 10 and 20 mg/liter and micronutrients at concentrations 0.00, 0.25 and 0.50 g/liter on vegetative growth. The results can be summarized as follows: Plants propagated by cuttings gave best results for flowering time and inflorescence stalk while plants propagated by tuberous roots gave best results of inflorescence number and inflorescence diameter. Plants sprayed with 10, 20 mg/liter PBZ gave best results of flowering time in the second season and inflorescence diameter in first season. Spraying plants with micronutrient at concentration 0.50 g/liter gave best results of inflorescence number and diameter. In general, plants propagated by cuttings treated with any concentrations of PBZ and micronutrients gave best results of flowering time, but the largest number of inflorescences/plant 12.88 obtained when plants propagates by tuberous roots were treated with 20 mg PBZ/liter and 0.50 g/liter micronutrients in first season, but the largest number 6.77 inflorescences/plant obtained in the second season when plants werenot treated with PBZ.

USING RESINS AND OLSEN IN STUDYING PHOSPHORUS AVAILABILITY FOR CORN PLANTS IN CALCAREOUS SOIL IN THE NORTH OF IRAQ

Raida Ismail Abdalla Al-Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 33-43
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26741

This study conducted at the field of the department of soil and water sciences /College of Agriculture and Forestry / Mosul University to study the effect of surface and sub – surface (15cm), soil using of nitrogen fertilizers Urea and Sheep manure and both in the presence and absence of sulphur on the available and P uptake by corn plants (Zea mays L.) . Urea and Sheep manure each alone or mixed with each at equal rate ( 80 kg N.D-1) and two levels of sulphur (Zero and 2.5 Ton D-1 ) before seeds corn (Zea mays v.106) planting which was done at Spring (April 1st) 2004.Available P was determind weekly,lasted for seven weeks,started from the 7th day of germination. The results indicated that addtion of both fertilizers (Urea and Sheep manure ) with sulfure significantly dominated over other treatments in the available and P uptake in both methods of application in all stages. Also available and uptake P significantly increased with time of fertilizers soil contact both methods of application. The sub – surface of urea and sheep manure with sulphur in the 7th week gave the highest amounte of available and uptake P.

BORON AVAILABILITY IN SUGAR BEET ( Beta vulgaris L) USING VARIOUS LOCATIONS IN NINEVAH GOVERNORATE

M.A.J. Al-Obaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 44-51
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27799

Eleven sites with (0-30) and (30-60) cm depth presenting root area were selected to study boron contents in some Ninevah governorate soils. These soils which classified within a calciorthid soils had been analyzed chemically, physically and morphologically where their available boron were calculated by using hot water. Field surveying results showed that available boron of soils ranged between (1.57-9.34) mg B.kg-1. According to the fertility status the soils were considered as an average in boron supply for sugar beet. High significant correlation between available boron values were Ec (r = 0.282*), silt (r = 0.353*) and clay+silt ( r = 0.242*).Field experiment results indicated that there were different root yields according to these locations. The fertility estimation for boron concentration in fresh sugar beet roots and leaves ranged between (31-44.5) and (37-64) mg B.kg-1 respectively. This concentration range was within the low sufficient level which makes these locations lack of boron in the next agricultural seasons. So there is a need to increase boron concentration in soil solution due to application of boron fertilizer in the next agricultural seasons.

EFFECT OF USING ADDITIVES ON SOME CHEMICAL AND QUALITY PROPERTIES OF LOCAL BASTURMA DURING STORAGE

Naska A. Al-Marazany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 52-59
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26739

This study was conducted to study the effect of using some food additives like ascorbic acid, nitrate and nitrite, sodium phosphate, lactic and acetic acid with different concentrations upon some chemical and quality properties of local basturma during storage within open climate temperature from march to june. The results of the study revealed that the value of pH was decreased in most of the treatments during storage period with increase in some treatments at the last month of storage. Treating with vitamin C with different concentrations resulted in the decrease of peroxide value, free fatty acids
(FFA) and amino nitrogen during the storage period and decrease of pH from April till June. When nirate and nitrite were used , an increase of pH value, peroxide value, FFA and amino nitrogen during the storage were risen. The compact treatment {Vitamin C + nitrate and nitrite} increased significantly pH value in comparison with the control. It was found that the highest value of pH was 6.7 and 6.8 when sodium phosphate was added in concentration of 0.3% during May and June, respectively . The treatment with acetic and lactic acids resulted in a decrease of pH value, peroxide value and amino – nitrogen and an increase in the free fatty acids .

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF SOME CONSTANTS IN DIFFERENT TYPES FROM OLIVE OIL PACKAGED IN GLASS BOTTLES

S.R.Al-Obady

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 60-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26750

The present investigation was conducted to study four types of olive oil (Iraqi , Syrian,Turkish and Spanish) packed in glass bottles. The olive oil samples had been collected from local markets in Nineva province (Mosul city). The study aims at estimating and analyzing some of the factors affecting the quality of the oils , such as peroxide value, free fatty acids, refractive index, saponification value, relative density, and iodine value after storage in darkness for four months at 10, 20 and 30 ْC . The results showed a significant increasing in peroxide number during storage period in all types of olive oil . The oils stored at 20 and 30 ْ C provided the highest increase in peroxide number than those stored at 10 ْ C . The highest increase was noticed in Iraqi samples , Followed by Syrian , Turkish and Spanish, respectively . The results showed that the highest increasing of relative density and saponification value for oils were noticed at 30 ْ C . The figures were indicated increasing of free fatty acids percent with progress in storage period at 10 , 20 and 30 ْ C, and the relationship between refractive index with iodine number for Iraqi, Syrian , Turkish and Spanish of olive oil types .

INFLUENCE OF INTERESTEREFICATION REACTION IN PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SOYBEAN OIL AND HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OIL BLENDS

O. F. Abdulaziz

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 67-78
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27805

This study deals with the blends of hydrogenated soybean oil to low iodine value (HS), with Soybean oil (SB), in ratio 20:80,40:60,60:40,80:20% fat to oil. Each blend was divided in to tow groups , the first one was saved under frizzing and the others was interesterified. Characterizations of these blends were done Which include Fatty Acids (FA) , FA in position sn2 and Tri Acyl Glycerol (TAG) composition, physical and chemical properties which include melting and slip melting points, penetration force, solid fat index (SFI), iodine value, refractive index, trans fatty acids (TFA) ratio and oxidative stability. Obtained results of these characterizations compared among esterified and non interesterified blends.The factor interesterefication reaction affecting on the properties of the blends were studied. The results showed that the reaction factor affected on most TAG ratios, some TAG were appeared, and others disappeared, the largest influence of reaction in the 2nd and 3ed ratio of blending , The results showed that the interesterefied fats has fatty acids' random distribution. The reaction affected on all physical and chemical characteristics, except iodine value and total FAs ratio, the results showed that there was some decrees in the means of TFA in SB with HF blends , Also showed that peroxide number with increasing time of storage for the blends before reaction is less than after reaction.

EFFECT OF LACTATION PERIOD AND MILKING INTERVALS OF HAMDANI SHEEPS MILK IN DUHOK GOVERNORATE

Mahmood Younis Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 79-86
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27810

266 samples from the herd of college of Agriculture, Duhok University, were analysed during the lactation period. Total solids precentage was 12,26-23,92% with an awerage of 17,29% in morning milk, while in evening milk it was 9,66-24,62% with an average of 17,89%. Total solids percentage inereased at the end of lactation period. Fat percentage was between 2,00 8,00% with an average of 5,59% in morning milk and 3,00-7,80% with an average of 6,15% in evening milk. Lactose percentage was 1,33 8,77% with an average of 4,79% in morning milk and 1,53-6,86% with an average of 4,36% in evening milk. Protein percentage was 1,25- 9,95% with an average of 5,34% in moring milk, in evening milk it was 2,32-9,67% with an average of 5,67%. Non protein nitrogen percentage was 0,026-0,178% with an average of 0,089% in morning milk, in evening milk it was 0,026 0,187% with an average of 0,096%. Ash percentage was 0,30 1,56% with an average of 0,89% in morning milk while in evening milk it was 0,30-1,60% with an average of 0,87%. About physicochemical preperties of sheep´s milk, most samples were not clotted by alcohol test, alotted samples were excluded. No clotting was observed during boiling test. The clotting time of milk was 25-1200sec. With an average of 104 sec. In morning milk. in eveninf milk it was 30-540sec. with an average of 106sec.

EFFECT OF LACTATION PERIOD AND MILKING INTERVALS OF HAMDANI SHEEPS MILK IN DUHOK GOVERNORATE

Mahmood Younis Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 87-91
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27814

The pH value of yoghurt during storage at 40C for 1, 7, 14 days, was 4.54, 4.32, 4.12 for samples made of morning milk and 4.59,4.29 and 3.57 for those made of evening milk, respectively. Sensory evaluation indicated that yoghurt made of morning milk was better than that of evening milk. The microbiological test indicated that the total aerobic bacterial count in samples during storage period was 1.84, 5.64 and 7.02 ×105 cfu/g , yeast and moulds count was 0.060, 0.176 and 0.316× 105cfu/g, respectively, for morning milk, after cold storage for the same periods, while the samples made of evening milk contain from aerobic bacteria was 1.63, 2.34 and 5.28× 105 cfu/g, yeast and moulds count was 0.001, 0.100 and 0.254×105 cfu/g, respectively, for the same periods and storage temperature. All samples of yoghurt were free from coliform bacteria.

EFFECT OF SOME GROWTH FACTORS ON GIBBERELLIC ACID PRODUCTION FROM WILD STRAIN OF Fusarium moniliforme

Mashhadany; Younis A. Y. Al

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 92-99
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27854

This study showed that the addition of certain compounds separately such as KH2PO4 , K2SO4 , corn steep liquor or yeast extract had affected gibberellic acid production from wild strain of Fusarium moniliforme. Corn steep liquor at the concentration 0.25 gm/L gave 92.31 mg/L of gibberellic acid, while potassium sulphate at the concentration 0.20 gm/L gave 91.95 mg/L of gibberellic acid, potassium dihydrogen phosphate gave the highest production where reached 93.48 mg/L especially at the concentration 0.5 gm/L, at the concentration 1.5 gm/L yeast extract gave 93.15 mg/L of gibberellic acid. The initial pH for highest production of gibberellic acid was 5.5 . The optimal incubation temperature to produce highest yield of acid was 30° C.

STUDY THE EFFECT OF CARBON AND NITROGEN SOURCES ON GIBBERELLIC ACID PRODUCTION BY LOCAL STRAINS OF

Mashhadany; Younis A. Y. Al

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 100-107
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27858

Two local strains of Fusarium moniliforme, were isolated from leaves and roots of maize plant. The two strains were compared for gibberellic acid production. The production of gibberellic acid by the local strain (1) was higher than strain (2). The strain (1) of F. moniliforme was chosen for the later experiments. The effects of culture components and conditions were studied at aiming to improve gibberellic acid production by the local strain (1). The optimum incubation period for the highest production of gibberellic acid was 9 days. The glucose, as a carbon source, gave the highest production of gibberellic acid reached 91.13 mg/liter especially at the concentration 2%. Ammonium nitrate, as a nitrogen source, gave the higher production of gibberellic acid reached 94.55 mg/liter and at the concentration 3 gm/liter. The technology of the spectrophotometer was used for the quantitative evaluation for gibberellic acid in the samples and at the wase longitude of 254 nanometer.

EFFECT OF CARROT JUICE (DAUCUS CAROTA ) ON MITOTIC INDEX AND FORMATION OF MICRONUCLEI IN FEMUR BONE MARROW CELLS OF WHITE MICE

Ilham A. Khalaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 108-116
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26612

The effect of carrot juice at different doses on mitotic index (MI)and micronuclei (Mn) formation was studied in white mice bone marrow cells . The counter effect of juice was also studied against the effects induced by cyclophosphamide (Cp) . Results indicated that carrot juice (0.1 , 0.25 , 0.5 ) ml administered orally had no effect on MI and formation of micronuclei , while Cp (50 mg / Kg body weight ) lowered the MI from 6.34 (The normal level ) to 1.97 after 24 hr , and increased the micronuclei from the normal level (1.48) to 13.06 . Different combinations of juice and mutagen such as using juice before mutagen (Ca/Cp) , or juice after mutagen (Cp/Ca) and using juice with mutagen (Ca+Cp) , had different effects , all of them were able to restore the MI to the natural values especially after 6 days . The level of Mn remained elevated compared to the natural values especially in using Cp/Ca and Ca+Cp treatments .

USAGE OF CORN STARCH INDUSTRY BY – PRODUCTS FOR PREPARATION OF MEDIA FOR PROPAGATION OF SOME FUNGI

Zahra M.Al-Khafaji

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 117-126
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26736

The by – products of corn starch industry were used for preparation of media to propagate some fungi , and these were corn steep water (S) and gluten after extraction of soluble fraction (G) . These by – products were used after suitable treatments , and used to prepare mixed medium (GS) . The by – products contain most of the essential requirements for fungal growth . They have been used to cultivate Aspergillus niger , Asp. flavus , Penicillium spp and the yeast Saccharomyces boulardii . The growth was recorded by measuring the colony diameter for moulds grown on solid media and biomass for liquid media . For yeast the viable count was determined , all these measurements were run in comparison to Sabouraud media (Oxoid ) as a standard medium .The results indicated that the GS solid medium was superior to support the fungal growth , followed by (S) medium . then the standard medium , and finally the gluten medium with significant statistical differences (P<0.05) for the three moulds . Growth in liquid media (Biomass) showed that steep water medium (S) was the best to support the growth. Shaked cultures gave higher biomass and differ from static cultures significantly (P<0.05) . Growth of S . boulardii in liquid media was better in shaked cultures than static cultures with significant differences (P<0.05) for different media .

HEIGHT GROWTH MODELS FOR Populus nigra STANDS GROWN AT ZAKHO REGION

Muzaham Saeed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 127-135
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27825

Yield of stand affected by different characteristics of a tree or the stand , correspondingly ,the height is one of the important factor effects the quality and quantity of the yield , for that this investigation was conducted in order to estimate growth of height for Populus nigra stands grown at Zakho Region depending on age ( A) , diameter at breast height (dbh) and density of stand . Forty five samples will be selected randomly from stands with different densities and ages . Data analyzed and mathematical models driven for many equations connect the studied variable of stands with the height by using regression system then constructing on the resulted precision measurements of the equation , the followings were selected:
H =-12.12 + 8.50(A) 0.5
H = -2.08 + 1.74(A) + 0.14(SP ) 2
H = 1.27 + 2.132(D) – 0.75EXP(SP)

The coefficient determination coefficient (R2) of above equations were (90.3, 91.02 ,91.33) with standard error (0.88,0.86,0.84) respectively. Resulted equations enable us to estimate average stand height at any age or density then different tables and graphics prepared to illustrate the development of stand height growth which is widely used by forest managers in order to predict the mean stand height also to estimate average growth annual growth in the height of stand through first driven of equations links the height with the age .

ESTIMTION OF HETEROSIS , COMBINING ABILITY , GENE ACTION BY USING LINE × TESTER INDURUM WHEAT (Triticum durum Desf.)

M.J. AL-Layla

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 136-149
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27847

In 2005 , a crossed used by Line ×Tester among ten genotypes of Triticum durum are Atra-S , Crezo , Berch-1 , Azeghar-2 , LD-357-E , Sham-3 , Cimeto as male and Bakrajo-1 , ACSAD-65 and Om-Rabea-3 as female . In following year the seeds of the ten parents and their crossed were grown in the research farm of the college Dohok University using RCBD with three replication to study the genetic behavior of the yield and components . General and specific combining ability were estimated and heterosis . A significant differences between genotypes were shown for all the characters . some variation were found between the general combining ability effects , and the testers , however the parent (ACSAD-65) was superior to others . Crosses (Bakrajo-1×Crezo) , (Om-Rabea-3×Sham-3) exhibited significant specific combining ability effects in a desirable direction for all characters . Ratio of general to specific combining ability components were less than one for all characters . A broad sense heritability value was higher in all characters , while the heritability in a narrow sense was low . The average degree of dominance values was greater than one indicating a presence of over-dominance . Some hybrids were superior to others .

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS AND APPLICATION DATES OF NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH OF TWO

Saleh M.I. Al jobouri

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 150-164
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26755

Afield experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of varieties, nitrogen fertilizer levels and their application dates on growth characters of corn (Zea mays L.). The split -split plot design in RCBD with three replications was used. The experiment included two corn varieties (Buhooth 106 and Tallar) and four nitrogen fertilizer levels (0,80,120,160 kg N/ha) and three application dates of fertilizer (half of recommended level was added at sowing and other half after 30 days from sowing, half of recommended level was added at sowing and other half after 60 days from sowing, one fourth of the quantity was added at sowing and half after 30 days from sowing and the last quarter after 60 days from sowing. The varieties ,nitrogen fertilizer levels and application dates, represented as main plot , sub plot and sub-sub plot, respectively. The result indicated that the varieties Buhooth 106 was significantly superior than Tallar variety for grains yield and components with the exception of number of rows per ear and harvest index .Tallar variety was significantly exceeded than Buhooth 106 in crude protien , oil yield and percentage .Increasing nitrogen fertilizer rates caused continuous increase in all grains yield and components and continuous singnificant increase in grain quality with the exception of oil percentage.Application dates of nitrogen affected significantly all grains yield and components. Partitioning nitrogen to three batches gave higer grains yield and components , crude protien and oil .

EFFECT AND FREQUENCY OF APPLICATION OF SOME HERBICIDES ON FIELD BIND WEED CONTROL Convolvulus arvensis L.

S .H. Anter

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 166-174
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26748

The factorial pots experiment was conducted in order to investigate the effect of some herbicides ( Basagran , 250,500 , Glyphosate , 565 , 1250 , Gesagard , 1250 , 2500 cm3 a.i /ha) and unweeded check treatment which applied with different frequency of application ( one , two , three times )which take 20 days interval on control of fieldbind weed in summer season 2006 at Salah Aldeen prov . CRD design with three replicates was used . The significant result showed that all herbicides used were superiority on plant growth if it compared with unweeded cheek treatment . On other hand , two times or three times duration application of herbicides had more effect on plant length than one time of application . However, unsignificant result of different herbicides frequency had been on number of buds, no-capsule , and no-of seeds .

THE INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT TIME OF APPLICATION AND DOSES OF GRAMAXON ON BINDWEED CONTROL

S . H . Anter

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 175-184
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26746

Pots experiment was carrid out at Salah aldeen prov. in 2006 summer growing season to investigate the effect of herbicide doses (150, 300, 450 cm3a.i/ha) application time (15 , 25 , 30 days intervals ) and frequent application ( without application , one , two , three time of application ) on growth of bind weed . Data wrer collected at 25th October . CRD design with three replicates was used as a factorial experiment. Unsignificant result had seen on all growth characteristic of plant with the different time of herbicide application . While the third dose of herbicide was significantly superior than other doses . The more frequency of herbicide application had significant effect on reducing plant length , dry weight , number of buds , and number of branch . The interaction two or three time of application at dose 450cm3 a.i/ ha with every 15 , 25 or 35 days duration had markedly effect on plant growth which all plants was control

EFFECT OF SOWING DATE AND DEFOLIATION ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF SUNFLOWER (Helianthus annum L.)

Ayad T. Shaker

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 185-190
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26614

Field experiment on sunflower was conducted during the season 2006 at Al Rashidia field-Mosul city to determine the effect of sowing dates{ 27 March(S1), 20 April (S2) and 10 May (S3) } with leaves defoliation { non-defoliation(Dl),defoliated 4 (D2) and 8 (D3) leaves / plant } at stage pale yellow of back head. It used randomized complete block design as split-plot with three replications. The result showed that 27 March of date sowing had a significant superiority on leaf area, no. of seeds / head, wt. of 1000 seeds and oil yield, while defoliation of 4 or 8 leaves had exactly opposed effect except the leaf area. Higher oil and seed yield had reached at(S1), (S2) with (D1) interaction. However, linear relationship was seen between defoliation levels and yield reduction percentage.

THE EFFECT OF SOME PLOW TYPES ON GROWING AND YIELD PROPERTIES OF CORN (Zea mays ) UNDER SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

Yassen H. Al-Tahan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 191-196
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27850

This study was conducted in Telafar region, Mosul governorate during agriculture season 2002-2003 to study the effect of three plow types (mold board, chisel and one way disk) with two plowing depths (10-15 cm) (15-20 cm) and two sprinkler irrigation systems (center pivot and solid set) on growing and production properties of corn (plant height, number of ears plant, number of rows/ear, length of ear, ear diameter, number of grain/ear, weight of 100 grain and grain yield). Randomized complete block design (split-split plot design) was used and the results analyzed statistically. The results showed that the mold board, chisel and one way disk plows with the two plowing depths and with center pivot irrigation system surpassed in plant height and number of ear/plant properties. The mold board plow with the depth (10-15 cm) and center pivot irrigation system surpassed in number of rows/ear, and the one way disk plow with (15-20 cm) depth and center pivot irrigation system surpassed in grain yield property and its yield was 11.02 ton/ha.

NOURISHING PREFERENCES OF THE GREATER WAX MOTH WORMS (Galleria mellonella L .) WHEN THE FEEDIN

Mahdi Mohammed Salih Saeed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 197-201
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27829

Results of studying nourishment preference of the greater wax moth worms on wax combs that vary in their pollen, honey, and metabolic wastes of bees in addition to the appearance ( dark and white ) combs and elasticity of wax base showed that the consumption of these substances varied. The study of modified multiple range Duncan's test at p=0.05 showed that the optimum nourishment,optimum time for transformation from larvae to mature insect , and largest number of eggs laid by females were of the dark colored combs that contain pollen and honey which reached (12.84gm/treatment, 32.57 days , 2039.0 eggs) respectively , and the lowest nourishment was for combs with non elastic basic wax averaging ( 5.84 grams / treatment , 47.43 days , and 56.0 eggs ) respectively , The statistical analysis of the simple correlation coefficient (r) has also revealed that theresults were significant between nourishment and both the number of eggs laid and time of transformation from larvae to mature insect throughout the study period at p= 0.01 while the correlation between the number of eggs laid and time of transformation from larvae to mature insect was less significant at p= 0.05.

ROLE OF MICROWAVE ENERGY TO CONTROL THREE SPECIES OF STORE PRODUCTS INSECTS

Aead Y. Ismail

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 202-212
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.26734

Three levels of microwave energy low ,medium& ,high. 260,520 and 780 w, respectively were used to control three species of the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis L.,Red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum Herbst,the Khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Evert in Store Products ,viz. Jrush ,Burglar and Habia at three exposure periods 1,1.5 and 2 minutes. The results showed that the highest mortality percentage occupied in Oryzaephilus surinamensis 75.67%,followed by Tribolium castaneum which was 68.64% while the lower was 66.29% in case of Trogoderma granarium. Highest energy level gave 100% mortality percentage ,while the medium level gave 99.63% percentage whereas only 10.98% percentage was recorded with low level.The highest percent mortality in Burglar 71.48% while the lower was in Habia 67.9%. Exposure periods of 1.0,1.5 and 2 minutes gave 75.18 , 68.64 and 66.79% mortality percentage, respectively . The temperature produced was almost similar in three products ; 69.77 ,73.88 and 72.77 °C while that of control treatment was 25.33°C.The temperature of microwave energy level were 87.08, 62.41 and 31.83°C for high ,medium and low, respectively .