Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 35, Issue 2

Volume 35, Issue 2, Spring 2007, Page 2-146


EFFECT OF SOAKING PERIODS , GIBBERELLIC ACID , AND BENZYLADENINE ON PISTACHIO SEEDS GERMINATION AND SUBSEQUENT SEEDLING GROWTH (Pistacia vera L.)

Nabil M. Ameen A. Al-Imam

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 2-8
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26495

A nursery experiment was conducted in the College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Ninevah, Iraq to evaluate the effects of soaking periods (12 and 24 hours), Gibberellic Acid ( 0, 100 and 200 mg.l-1 GA3) and Benzyladenine (0,50 and 100 mg.l-1 BA) on pistachio seeds germination and subsequent seedlings growth of Pistacia vera Ashoury cultivar.Soaking seeds for 12 hours in (200 mg.l-1 GA3 + 100 mg.l-1 BA) showed the highest germination percentage (88.5%). Better seedling growth parameters (seedling height and diameter) were obtained with seed soaking in 200 mg.l-1 GA3 for 12 hours, while the internode length was significantly improved by soaking seeds in 200 mg.l-1 GA3 for 24 hours . Dry weights of seedling shoot and root were significantly increased by soaking seeds for 24 hours in (200 mg.l-1 GA3+100 mg.l-1 BA) and 24 hours in (200 mg.l-1 GA3), respectively.

PERCEPTIONS OF COLLEGE AGRISCIENCE TEACHERS AND EXTENSION AGENTS REGARDING SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE IN NINAVAH

Mohammad Yousif Jamil

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 4-11
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26489

There is a growing public interest in sustainability and environmental conservation. This growing public concern implies the need for focusing programs on sustainable agriculture, where by, agriscience college teachers, and extension agents can play a key role.. However, the question is whether agriscience teachers, and extension agents have been prepared to carry out this task? The focus of this study was to identeify agriscience teachers', and extension agents' perceptions regarding sustainable agricultural practices. This study used survey design and was conducted on 68 agriscience teachers and 112 extension agents in Ninavah. An instrument was developed to collect data consisted of two parts utilized to identify their perceptions regarding importance and impacts of sustainable agrecultural practices. The form also consisted of two questions, one about the importance of diffusion of sustainable agriculture concepts among agriscience teachers, extension agents, and farmers, and the other about their perceptions regarding importance of including agricultural education programs a subject on sustainable agriculture. The results showed that both agriscience teachers and extension agents perceived importance and impacts of sustainable agricultural practices.However agriscience teachers were more positive toward instruments items than extension agents. Both teachers and extension agents interested in diffusion of sustainable agricultural concepts among agriscience teachers, extension agents, and farmers, as well as they had apositive view towards including agricultural education programs a subject about sustainable agriculture in agricultural college, institutes, and schools.

EVALUATION OF SOME FABA BEAN (Vicia faba L.) CULTIVARS FOR DROUGHT RESISTANCE AND WATER CONSUMPTIVE USE:

Caser G. Abdel

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26469

This experiment was carried out during the growing season of 2004 – 2005 at Horticulture field researches, Agriculture and Forestry College, Mosul University to evaluate five faba bean cultivars for water stress and supplementary irrigations by withholding complementary watering at either vegetative (RWW), flowering (WRW), pod developments and seed fillings (WWR) stage, whereas the check and other treatments were watered whenever 25% soil AWC is depleted to a depth of 25 cm. The results revealed that Pod developments and seed fillings was the most drought susceptible stage where supplementary irrigation should be applied to improve yield and yield quality. However, other stages were less sensitive, particularly the early vegetative stage. The five cultivars were categorized in the following order according to their performance at the most drought susceptible stage: Local Syrian > Aquadulce > Towaytha > Babylon > Taka357. Subsequently, forecasting depending up on cultivar seeds germinations under sub-optimal conditions could not be used as indicator for the approval of drought resistance cultivars. Finally, results confirmed the Taka357 was the most drought susceptible during all stages particularly in seed filling stage.

ESTIMATING AND ANALYZING SOME FACTORS AFFECTING IN PRODUCTION OF AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN SELECTED DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD 1970–2000

Kais Nadhim Ghazal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 12-19
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26488

The study aims at estimating and analyzing some of the factors affecting the growth of agricultural production in selected developing countries for the period 1970–2000. A sample of the developing countries have been selected and divided into two groups, the first of which is the countries with higher medium income, including: Turkey, Thailand, Tunisia, Syria and Yemen. The second group is the countries with low medium income, including: Morocco, Egypt, Jordan, Pakistan and Bangladesh. An econometrical model was used with three models: linear, semi logarithmic, and double logarithmic where concepts of the economic theory and previous studies concerning estimating and analyzing the factors affecting the agricultural growth obtained from time series data for each country are used as they reflect the factors affecting the agricultural growth of each country as related to their characteristics differing from the other country.

FORMATION OF Tagetes patula L. PLANTS BY TISSUE CULTURE

Kasim M. Al- Hamdani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 20-28
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26486

The present study succeeded in the initiation of callus from different explants of axenic Tagetes patula Marigold seedlings using Murashige and Skoog medium MS supplemented with 5 mg/L benzyladenine BA and 0.5 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid NAA or with 0.05 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid 2,4-D alone or together with indole acetic acid IAA 5 mg/l. The results confirmed the differentiation capability of callus to produce plants in agar solidified MS medium containing 5 mg/L of BA and IAA. Cotyledons and leaf callus exhibited their spontaneous formation of intact plants in one step. Also Tagetes plants were produced from differentiated of other cultures of cotyledons and leaf callus in agar solidified MS medium containing 10 mg/L of gibberellic acid GA3 and 3 mg/L of IAA with 5 mg/L of BA. The produced plants were readily rooted, and subsequently were adapted to the environmental conditions through transplanting them in soil. These plants showed Somaclonal variations including plants height, number of leaves, branching system with reduction of flower size and their pedicle length as well as number of seeds, but flowers kept their red color.

EFFECT OF NITROGEN AND KINETIN ON THE GROWTH OF APPLE SEEDLINGS

Sulaiman M. Kako Al-Zebari

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 29-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26481

This research was conducted out Nenava research station during 2001-2002 season to study the effect of four levels of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 10, 20 and 30kg N/donum (2500 m2)) and four concentrations of kinetin (0, 50, 100 and 150 ppm) and their interaction on the growth of one year old of apple (Malus communis L.) seedlings. A factorial experiment with three replications was carried out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD), each replicate was consist of (30) seedlings. Data Obtained of this research was tested by using Duncan Multiple range test at 5% level, the important results of this study could be summarized as following: The addition of the nitrogen fertilizer caused significant increases in all the characters for the vegetative growth of the apple seedlings stem length, stem diameters, dry weight of vegetative growth. Also dry weight of roots and the contents of nitrogen in leaves, total chlorophyll content in leaves. The addition of the kinetin treatments revealed significant increases in dry weight of the vegetative growth, dry weight of roots in apple seedlings and nitrogen content in the leaves, total chlorophyll content, but there is no significant increase stem length, stem diameter. The interaction between nitrogen and kinetin affected significantly in most of the characters of the vegetative growth, dry weight of roots, nitrogen content in leaves, total chlorophyll content in apple seedlings. The best treatments in apple was 20kg N/donum + 50 mg/L kinetin in stem length, 20kg N/donum + 100 mg/L kinetin in stem diameter, 30Kg N/donum + 100 mg/L kinetin for dry weight vegetative growth dry weight of roots, nitrogen content in leaves, total chrophyll content.

ROLE OF DEPTH AND TYPE OF N – FERTILIZER IN AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM CALCAREOUS SOIL UNDER DEFFERENT ECOLOGYICAL CONDITIONS

Raida I.Al- Hamdany

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 37-42
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26474

Urea , sheep manure , and mix (urea + sheep manure ) fertilizers were added to calcareous soil of northern Iraq / Mosul. Soil which classified as calci-camborthids. Fertilizers were added at rate 80 kg N. D-1 for each fertilizers, surface, and subsurface (depth 15cm) application for four season (Spring , Winter, Summur and Autumn) in order to study the effect of type and depth of fertilization and ecologyical conditions on ammonia volatilization. The results indicated that the, urea application produced ahigh ammonia volatilization (19.76, 51.14, 38.82 and 0.34 %)of nitrogen added for surface application during four seasons respectivily, and 3.03, 13.69 ,9.15 and 0.103 of nitrogen added for sub surface application during four season repectivily, while sheep manure record less amount of ammonia volatilization, comparing with urea fertilizer. The amount of ammonia volatilization were (6.66, 7.58, 12.19 and 0.14 %) of nitrogen added for surface application during the four seasons respectivily. Sub surface application of fertilizers reduced the amount of ammonia volatilization and reductive percent were 2.75, 4.66, 6.85 and 0.042% of nitrogen added during the four seasons respectivily .The low in temperature has caused a significate reduction in ammonia volatilization and increasing of temperature caused increase in ammonia loss.

BORON ADSORPTION IN SOME SOILS OF NINEVAH GOVERNORATE

M. A. J. Al-Obaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26491

The present investigation was conducted to study behavior of boron adsorption in six Ninevah soil samples, different in clay and available boron contains, by using isotherm equilibrium adsorption with boron solutions at different concentrations (0,0.5,1,2,4,6,8,10,20) mg B. L-1 . Results show that adsorption phenomena was successfully described by using langmuir one and two surface and freundlich equations. Langmuir two was the best fitting equation. A maximum adsorption was in fine texture and adsorption parameters (m,k)were have a highly significant relations with calcium carbonate, clay and (clay+silt). The results also show there are two types of adsorption-sites according to langmuir two surface equation. The first site had a high bonding energy with low adsorption capacity while the second site had low bonding energy with high adsorption capacity. The average of adsorption capacity were (3.56 , 246.58) mg B. kg-1 for first and second surface adsorption respectively. While bonding energy were (14.79 , 0.0099) cm3. µg-1B, respectively.

GENETIC AND NON GENETIC PARAMETERS OF WEIGHTS , AND BODY DIMENSIONS AT BIRTH AND WEANING OF HAMADANI SHEEP

Salm Omar Raaof

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 53-62
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26475

Five hundred and seventy one records of birth weight and 540 records of weaning weight of Hamadani sheep were collected to study body weights and dimensions at birth and weaning weights The overall mean of body weight. and dimensions at birth were 4.62 kg , and 28.83, 37.82, 38.84 , 40.64 , 8.81 and 10.54 cm for the body length , heart girth , height at shoulders , height at hip , width at shoulders and at hip, respectively. The overall mean of body weight and dimensions at weaning were 23.23 kg , and 49.63 , 61.10 , 54.54 , 56.47, 14.47 and 16.59 cm for body length , heart girth , height at shoulders , height at hip , width at shoulders and at hip, respectively .The effects of flock – year , and sex of lamb on birth , and weaning weights and body dimensions were significant (p< 0.01) .The effects of type of birth on birth and weaning weights and most of body dimensions were significant (p< 0.01) .Whereas the effect of age of dam at birth was significant (p< 0.01) on most studied traits. eritability estimates for birth and weaning weights were 0.14 and 0.18, respectively .Heritability estimates for body dimensions ranged between 0.02–0.23.Genetic correlations between body weights and body dimensions at birth and weaning were positive and heigh (0.22 – 0.99) .While the phenotypic correlations were (0.08 -0.63 ) /

THE USE OF METHIONINE IN TREATMENT OF FATTY LIVER HEMORRHAGIC SYNDROME EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED OF HYDROGEN PEROXID IN LAYING HENS

Rahman; Saeb . Y. Abdul

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 63-69
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26483

This study was designed to determine the ability of hydrogen peroxide (0.5 %) consumed in drinking water to induce oxidative stress in lying hens and to make sure of oxidative stress interference occurred in creating fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome (FLHS) in this pattern. Oxidative stress was determined through measuring the levels of glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver tissue and of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) aspartate amino enzymes levels . H2O2 treatment showed significant increase in glucose , cholesterol and triglycerides levels and significant decrease in liver tissue glutathione GSH and asignificant increase in liver tissue malondialdehyde MDA . The levels serum AST and ALT were significantly increase also , the above changes indicate the ability of oxidative stress in laying hens . Methionine was used to determine its ability in preventing oxidative stress or to remove the effects of oxidative stress .
The methionine was used as capsules given orally . Laying hens were divided into (5) groups . Each group included (7) birds were treated daily for (28) days .
Methionine was chosen in order to test their ability to protect birds against oxidative stress or To remove the effect of oxidative stress as follow :
1- Treating the laying hens with methionine with out oxidative stress for 28 days .
2- Treating the laying hens with H2O2 together and methionine from beginning of treatment .
3- Stressing the laying hens from the beginning of treatment water with then treat it with methionine from the (15th) day of the beginning of H2O2 treatment .
The treatment of methionine showed similar effects when it was used . It reduced the levels of glucose , cholesterol , triglycerides , ALT and AST in serum . Also the level of GSH increase whereas the level of MDA decreased , as well as decrease in the fat liver % . The results of this study were identical with the hypothesis that states : free radicals are considered strong causative factor in (FLHS) in laying hens so the H2O2 (0.5 %) induced oxidative stress in laying hens can be considered anew experimental pattern to be used in different scientific studies in order to create asimilar case of fatty liver hemorrhagic syndrome .

EFFECT OF SOME ANTIOXIDANTS ON GLUTATHIONE AND LIPID PEROXIDATION IN LAYING TISSUES

Saeb Younis Abdul-Rahman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 70-74
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26493

This study was conducted to investigate the effect of some antioxidants ( Methionine , Vit.C and Vit.E ) in lipid peroxidation Malondialdehyde ( MDA ) and Glutathione ( GSH ) level in heart , kidney and pancreas tissues in laying hens . Hens ( 8 weeks old ) were divided into four groups ( 10 hens each – 2 replicates ) randomly , the 1 st group was given the standard ration , the 2 nd group was treated with methionine ( 450 mg/ kg. ration ) , the 3 rd group was treated with Vit.C ( 300 mg/ kg. ration ) and the 4 th group was treated with Vit.E ( 600 mg/ kg. ration ) daily for 12 weeks . At the end of the experiment , tissue samples were collected from heart , kidney and pancreas .Results showed that the treatment with antioxidants causes a significant decrease in lipid peroxidation MDA , and a significant increase in GSH levels in heart , kidney and pancreas . In conclusion , the study revealed that the antioxidants used in the study enhance the antioxidant status of the laying hens tissues .

EFFECT OF GERMINATION IN IMPROVING THE FEED VALUE OF TWO LOCAL BARLEY CULTIVARS IN BROILER CHICK DIETS

Mahdi T. Al-Kaisey

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 75-83
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26494

جرى انبات بذور الشعير صنفي الاسود المحلي وشعاع لمدد زمنية مختلفة (24-72 ساعة). ادت عملية الانبات الى خفض اللزوجة النسبية في بذور الشعير بنسبة بلغت بحدود 80% عند انباتها لمدة 60 و48 ساعة لصنفي الاسود المحلي وشعاع على التوالي بالمقارنة مع الشعير غير المنبت. درس تاثير الانبات في المكونات الكيميائية للبذور. أستخدم الشعير المنبت صنف الاسود المحلي في تجارب تغذية على فروج اللحم تم فيها استخدام الشعير المنبت محل الذرة الصفراء وبنسب احلال 60و 80 و 100% على التوالي، أي ان نسبة الشعير المنبت بلغت 30 و 40 و 50% على التوالي من العليقة الكلية في التجربة الاولى، تلتها تجربة ثانية استخدم الشعير المنبت صنف شعاع بنسبة40 و60% من العليقة الكلية. بينت نتائج التحليل الاحصائي عدم وجود فروقات معنوية في صفات النمو ومعامل التحويل الغذائي بالاضافة الى حالة الفرشة ونسبة التصافي ونسبة الهلاكات بين الافراخ المغذاة على العليقة القياسية والمغذاة على معاملات الشعير المنبت لصنفي الشعير قيد الدراسة الذي تم احلاله محل الذرة الصفراء في العليقة. بينت النتائج امكانية احلال الشعير المنبت محل الذرة الصفراء في علائق فروج اللحم دون ان يؤثر على الصفات المدروسة والاستفادة من الغذاء. ان اجراء عملية الانبات كانت سهلة ومبسطة ولا تحتاج الى تقنيات عالية للتنفيذ الواسع وبخبرات محلية واشراف فني بسيط.

FINDING PREDICTIVE EQUATIONS FOR THE EFFECT OF FORWARD SPEEDS OF THE HARVESTER ON THE QUANTITY LOSS OF WHEAT IN MECHANICAL HARVESTING

Adel A. Abullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 84-89
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26484

The study aims at constructing regression predictive equations for quantity loss of some varieties of wheat under the effect of different forward speed of harvester. The results showed that the saberbeak variety surpassed significanty in giving the least quantitative loss, maximum performance efficiency and maximum capacity ton/hr, where as the maxibac variety gave the highest quantitative loss and the minimal performance efficiency and the minimal capacity. The speed 1.6 km/hr gave less quantitative loss and maximal performance efficiency and minimal capacity while the speed 4.8 km/hr gave highest quantitative loss and minimal performance efficiency and maximal capacity. The highest positive correlation was between the loss in the separation unit and the threshing unit, highest negative while the correlation was between performance efficiency and cutting unit loss.

A COMPARISON OF POTATO LIFTER PERFORMANCE THAT LOCALLY DESIGNED (A CYLINDRICAL SOLTER SYSTEM) WITH CHAIN LIFTER IN ESTIMATING THE QUANTITATIVE & QUALITATIVE LOSS

Saad Abdul Jabbar AL-Rajaboo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 90-98
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26477

There was significant difference between the two separation devices of lifters machines in their effects on all the studied properties with better results obtained by the locally designed lifter than the chain (Algerian) one. Also there was significant difference of the effect of relative speed at the property of undamaged tubers only the better results obtained was 1.15 relative speed. significant differences showed between different ground speeds of the lifting operation on property of undamaged tubers and slightly damaged tubers only, the better results obtained was 1.5 km/h, forward speed. Also there were significant differences on the effect of the interaction between type of separating device and relative speeds on all studied properties. The locally lifter gave a better results at relative speed of 1.38 for all the properties except for the quantitative loss, which showed better results obtained by use of the locally lifter at the two relative speed of 1.38 & 1.15 together.

HARMONIC RELATION OF SPEEDS OF SOME OPERATED UNITS WITH GROUND SPEED OF HARVESTER AND THEIR EFFECT ON THE LOSS OF WHEAT

Saad Abdul-Jabbar Al-Rajabow

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 99-108
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26480

This study was carried out during Agriculture season 2001-2002 to calculate quantity and quality losses of wheat by using John-Deere harvester at two sites in Nenevieh governorate. The first was in Basheka region under rain fed conditions, the second was in Talafer region under sprinkler irrigation system. The experiment was conducted according to RCBD by three factors combine ground speed, Reel speed and cylinder speed by three replications. the harvesting speed 2.5-3 km/hr with the reel speed 21 rpm with the cylinder speed 950 rpm surpassed in giving the least loss in quantity at both sites with the highest performance efficiency. The harvesting speed 3.5-4 km/hr with the reel speed 26 rpm with the cylinder speed 950 rpm surpassed in giving the least visible qualitative loss rate in Basheka region while the same ground speed and cylinder speed, but the reel speed 21 rpm surpassed in giving the least visible qualitative loss rate n Talafer region. the harvesting speed 3.5-4 km/hr with the reel speed 31 rpm with the cylinder speed 950 rpm surpassed in giving the highest seed dead rate at both sites. the losses average was about 16.5% from the total yield, and the wheat yield quantity for one Donum was 616.5 Kg/Do. It means that there is losses quantity 90.84 Kg/Do. than the international standard losses 2%.

EFFECT OF EGG TREATMENT BY SUBLETHAL CONCENTRATION OF SOME CHEMICAL AND MICROBIAL INSECTICIDES ON BIOLOGY OF Phthorimaea operculella (Zell.), GELECHIIDAE, LEPIDOPTERA

Nazar M. Al-Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 109-118
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26496

The results of egg treatment by sub lethal concentration of Bacillus thuringiensis strains and their mixtures and chemical insecticides Fastac, Medamec, Runner, showed a different effect on biology of Phthorimaea operculella (Zell). Eggs hatchability reached zero percent when treated with the B.t. alesti strain alone and its mixtures with B.t. kurstaki. Eggs treatment also led to the depression of pupation percentage and adult eclosion percentage from pupae. The results of treating eggs by chemical insecticides showed a superior effect of Runner in reducing eggs hatchability, in comparison with Medamec and Fastac and control treatment and the average eggs hatching percentage reached 28.7, 31.7, 45.3 and 43.6% respectively, while eggs treatment by chemical insecticides had no clear effect on larval, pupal and adult stage of potato tuber moth.

INTEGRATION BETWEEN INSECT GROWTH REGULATOR NOMOLT AND TWO PREDATORS Metasyrphus corollae F. (Syrphidae : Diptera) AND Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coccinellidae : Coleoptera) TO CONTROL Aphis fabae Scop.

Sahil K. Al-Jameel

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 119-125
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26482

The result of the integration study between insect growth inhibitor regulator nomolt and two predators Metasyrphus corollae F. (Syrphidae : Diptera) and Coccinella undecimpunctata L. (Coccinellidae : Coleoptera) to control Aphis fabae Scop. show the significant interaction effect between density of each predator and nomolt to kill percentage of A. fabae at 20 , 40 nymph/plant indicated the significant interaction effect between density of each predator (one and two larvae) and a prey density 20 and 40 nymph/plant its about 100% then 77.70% when we use single larval from each predators in 40 nymph/plant. The best result registered when the killed percentage in Aphis fabae were 85.70% when controlled with nomolt only, comparasim with (53.58, 53.41)% when used biological factor.

EFFECT OF CODLING MOTH Lespeyresia pomonella L. ON APPLE FRUIT PROPERTIES WITH SPECIAL REFERENC TO ITS CONTROL

O.S.Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 126-130
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26471

Codling moth is very common pest that infesting the apples in addition to pear and quince. Also produce high economic looses. The percentage of fallen fruits as a result of infestation was 60.34 %. Infestation by this pest also caused that the fruits to be not approached to the normal size and weight as well. The size of invaded fruits was 56.18 cm3, while that of the non-invaded was 71.68 cm3 in average. The average weight of infested fruits was 46.78 gr. and that of the non-infested was 59.98 gr. Chemical control of the pest was conducted using three concentrations of the pesticides: Actellic (1, 1.35 &1.6 cm3 / L.), Danitol (0.6, 0.9 & 1.2 cm3 / L), and Sumicidin (0.67, 0.95 & 1.2 cm3 / L) at the three peaks 20 April, 21 May & 1 July according to the threshold level. Results of control showed high activity for the three insecticides giving 0.77, 0.87 & 4.74 % as an average of infesting fruits respectively, while that of control was 77.59 %. It can be concluded that for successful control it must be precisely define the emergence of the pest using the light and food traps which considered being very important issue to demonstrate spray times for the chemical control.

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF Achillea fragrantissma L. AND FRUITS OF Citrus aurantifolia L. EXTRACTS AGAINST SEVERAL GRAM POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE BACTERIA

Hanan Sami Nori

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 131-138
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26472

Biological activities of Citrus aurantifolial and Achillea Fragrantissmal extracts were tested against two species of Gram positive bacteria , Staph. lococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis and four species of Gram negative bacteria , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Proteus vulgaris , Kiebsilla pneumonia , Escherichia coli . Fruit of Citrus aurantifoliaL. and flowers of Achillea FragrantissmaL. were extracted using Dist water and Soxhlet apparatus in presence of Ethanol , Chloroform , and Aceton . Water extract of Achillea FragrantissmaL. showed no activity against all bacterial species tested , but the water extract of Citrus aurantifoliaL. showed a good antibacterial activities using disc diffusion method and comparing with the standard antibiotic (Gentamicin and Tetracycline ) . Result also indicated that ethanol extract showed high antibacterial activities in all types species tested . Chloroform extract of Citrus aurantifoliaL. and Acetone extract of Achillea FragrantissmaL.on the other hand, showed no activity on all species of bacteria tested , The study also detected the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of the two plant extracts , tested bacterial showed high sensitivity against acetone extract of Citrus aurantifoliaL. , Staph. aureus , B.subtilis , Pr.vulgris and E.coli was more sensitive than other tested bacteria , the calculated (MIC) reached 0.125 mg/ml while the ( MBC) reached 0.5 mg/ml .

EFFECT OF COLOR AND DENSITY OF LIGHT TRAP IN ATTRACTING SOME LEPIDOPTERA ADULTS

Haitham Mohie Al-Deen M. Al-Jallal

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 139-146
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2007.26492

This study was conducted in College of Agriculture University of Mosul during 2004 to show the light color (blue, green, red and white) and light density (100, 160, 250 W) which was used in Hestand light trap on adult trapping of lepidoptera. The effect of color and density of light on adult of some specis of order lepidoptera cutworm attractively was studied, the result showed that the traps with blue color bulb were more effective than of green, red & white color where the average of captivity were the 2.80, 1.93, 0.67 & 0.93 adult night, respectively. The study also showed that there were no significant differences between the traps of the white light density of with 160W bulb power and 250W bulb power which gave average captivity of 7.17 & 7.43 adult night, respectively, while traps of 100W bulb showed lower effect in adult capture.