Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 34, Issue 2

Volume 34, Issue 2, Spring 2006, Page 2-135


CALCIUM BIOAVAILABILITY OF CALCIUM CARBONATE BASED DIETS FOR MALE GROWING RATS

Abdullah M. Thannoun

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 2-13
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26324

ABSTRACT
Calcium (Ca) bioavailability of different levels of calcium carbonate using male Sprague-Dawley derived weanling rats was determined. Normalized value (NV), the relative bioavailability (RBV) and calcium absorption in three levels (0.14, 0.19 and 0.24 %) of three balanced diets (diets No 1, 2 and 3) of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as a source of calcium were estimated. Normalized values and RBVs in femur, tibia and fibula for rats fed diet containing 0.19% calcium (No.2) were significantly (P<0.05) higher (81.8 and 100 %, respectively ) than those (78; 95 and 78; 95 ) for rats fed diet containing 0.14% (No.1) (78; 95 and 78; 95, respectively) and diet containing 0.24% calcium (No.3)(60.8; 74.2 and 60.2;73.6, respectively). Results also show that calcium absorption, total body calcium and serum calcium for rats fed diet No.2 were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of rats fed diets No.1 and 3. It was concluded that calcium carbonate based diet containing 0.19% calcium with 1.5:1 calcium to phosphorus ratio may give high calcium bioavailability for growing rats which was considered as standard (control) diet for other diets.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS TO DETERMINE THE OPTIMUM AGE OF MARKETING LOCAL RED FEMALE TURKEY COCKS IN NENAVAH

Abdul Salam Mohammed Hussien

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 4-7
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26348

This study was made depending on field experiment data done at the college of Agriculture and Forestry/ University of Mosul. The experiment was concerned with breeding local red turkey cocks where three types of different compositions fodders, were given to these birds. Through statistical and economic analysis it was shown that the optimum age of marketing and selling local red turkey cock is the 17th week where the weight of each bird 2.193 kg. At this weight the net profit is (1807,700) dinar which is the greatest profit that could be attain under the current price and the fodder cost.

COMPARISON OF FODDER USED IN CHICKEN PROJECTS IN NINEVAH WITH OPTIMUM FODDER COST EXTRACTED BY LINEAR PROGRAMMING METHOD

Abdul Salam Mohammed Hussein

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 8-12
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26346

The study compared the fodder provided by the Ministry of Agriculture with the fodder extracted by using linear program method. Analysis results showed that the cost of fodder provided by the Ministry of Agriculture does not provide the minimum requirements for feeding birds. The primary and final fodder extracted by linear programming provide all the nutritional requirements. Thus, the two kinds of fodder extracted by linear programming is the best for feeding birds as they are full of protein, energy, lycine, calcium, phosphorus and this is reflected on birds growth and their marketing availability in a less breeding period that Ministry of Agriculture fodder.

PROMOTION OF EMBRYOS GROWTH FOR IN VITRO CULTURED SEEDS OF LOCAL Citrus limon L. BRUM. F.

Ammar Zeki Kassab-Bashi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 13-21
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26349

In this study seeds of local lemon were cultured in solidified Murashige and Skoog medium in order to examine the effect of combining Benzyladenine (BA) and Kinetin (Kin), in different concentration on the growth of embryos with / without seed coat. Favorable results were obtained after 6 weeks from seeds without seed coat comparably with seeds with seed coat, embryos growth from seeds without seed coat was in different degrees, were as, optimum results obtained in treatment containing Kin alone 3mg/L, average number of seedling from each seed 2.6 compared with 1.75 of control treatment (completely without cytokinins). The individual or combined use of BA and Kin caused increasing seedling steam length of seeds without seed coat compared with control treatment, while increasing root length when treated with Kin alone at concentration of 3mg/L .The subsequent use of BA and Kin at concentration of 2.5+0.5 mg/L caused elongation highest number of lateral buds of seedling which 2.29. When highest number of adventitious bud (80 %) occurred in treatment seeds without seed coat containing BA and Kin at concentration 1.5 mg/L for each one that was 2.13 buds from every seed.

USING QUERCUS INFECTORIA GALL NUT TANNIN AS A BINDER INPARTICLEBOARDS PRODUCTION

Walid A. Kasir

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 14-22
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26325

Adhesives derived from oak (Quercus infectoria) galls tannin and urea-formaldehyde were used to produce particleboards of 18 mm. thickness from pinewood particles at 8 and 12% resin content and target density of 0.60 gm / cm3. Five levels of blending ratios were followed namely; 100 TF:0 UF, 75 TF:25 UF, 50 TF:50 UF, 25 TF:75 UF, and O TF:100 UF. The physical and mechanical properties of the produced panels were tested after conditioning according to ASTM standard D-1073. The results indicated, that tannin from oak galls has good potential for use as adhesive. It has been shown from the results that incorporating urea-formaldehyde with tannin-formaldehyde produced good quality adhesive for the manufacture of particleboard for interior use. An increase in the levels of urea in the adhesive blends caused an increase in panels strength such as MOR, MOE, and IB, while WA and Th.S. decreased by increasing levels of tannin-formaldehyde. The increase in resin content of all produced panels improved all particleboard properties.

ROLE OF HEAT SHOCK IN STIMULATION DIVISION OF SUNFLOWER Helianthus annuus AND CALLUS FORMATION IN AGAR MULTIPLE DROP ARRAY

J. H. Rasheed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 22-29
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26342

In this study, cultures of friable callus derived from hypocotyls explants of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings were readily obtained. It was observed that Murashige & Skoog medium supplemented with (BA) Benzyl adenine and (NAA) Naphthaleneacetic acid with different concentration encouraged the formation of callus. This friable callus used in obtaining cell suspension cultures in liquid MS medium containing 1.0 mg/ L BA, 2.0 mg /L NAA. The cells started their first division after 24hours and continued their division. Density of these cells reached to 7.33-8.50 x 103 cell / ml at the fourth day of age. The results of culturing cell suspension by embedding them in agar using Multiple Drop Array (MDA) technique proved the suitability of this method. Cells begin the first division within 5-6 days and continued their division until the formation of cell colonies, Which then developed to form callus primordia. The work have studied the effect of exposing cell suspension to heat shock. The treated suspensions were cultured by following MDA technique. Results indicated that heat shocked cell begin the first division at 2-5 days and increase the total number of cell colonies and callus primordias compared to the untreated samples (control).

RESPONSE OF THREE ONION (Allium cepa L.) CULTIVARS GROWN UNDER IRRIGATED AND NON-IRRIGATED CULTIVATION TO POLYETHYLENE MULCHING

Caser G. Abdel

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 23-32
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26354

This study was carried out at horticultural research fields, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq, during 2004-2005 growing season to investigate the influences of polyethylene mulching, supplementary irrigation and rainfall incidences on the production of dry bulb of three onion cultivars grown in spring season. Results showed that supplementary irrigated onions resulted in significant increases bulb fresh weight, bulb size, bulb bulk density, number of storage leaves per bulb, plant dry weight and yield of dry onion bulbs, as compared to these of rainfalls onions. Production of dry onions on bare soil under rainfall incidences in mosul are possible in fall season. Polyethylene mulching substantially improved growth and yield of onions, as compared to un-mulched treatment, particularly these grown under rainfalls. Therefore the ability of producing dry yield of onions under rainfalls was confirmed. Clear polyethylene mulching appeared to be the most effective treatments. It displayed significant increases in area per plant, leaf area index, individual bulb size, single bulb fresh weight, bulb bulk density, and dry yield of onion bulbs. Moreover, it significantly lessen the water requirements and weed eradication labor cost. However, it increased onions bolting. Local Red was the paramount cultivar. It showed the highest responses to supplemental irrigation, rainfalls and polyethylene mulching, as it showed the highest values in bulb size, bulb fresh weight, , and yield of dry onion bulbs. Furthermore, it resulted in the lowest stalk numbers per plant, and dry weights of flowering stalks. On the other hand local white cultivar displayed controversial results. Bashiqi cultivar manifested moderate responses as it occupied the gap spared between Local Red and Bashiqi cultivars. Finally, the highest yield (3.59 kg.m‾²) and yield quality of dry onion bulbs was concomitant to supplementary irrigated Local Red onion cultivar grown on clear polyethylene mulched soil.

STUDY ON SOME PRODUCTIVE CHARACTERS OF GOATS

Faris Younis Abdulrahman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 30-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26353

This study was conducted on goats of three genetical groups. these groups were local (L) Shammi (S) and shammi X local (SL), raised at Agargouf goat breeding station to study birth weight and weaning weight of kids and productivity of dose ( total weaning weight of kids / dose and / k.g. of dose weight). The overall mean of birth weight for 591 kids was ( 3.023 ± 0.035) k.g. Significant effect of year of kidding , sex of kid and type of birth on birth weight were found. The males exceed the females by 0.198 k.g. and the single exceed the twin by 0.412 k.g. However genetic group and weight of does showed no significant effect on birth weight. The overall mean of weaning weight for 472 kids recorded was (13.048 ± 0.214)k.g. Significant effect of year of kidding, type of birth, sex of kid and weight of does at kidding were observed. The (S) kids exceed both (L) and (SL) kids by (1.560 and 1.307)k.g. respectively. The male exceed the female and the single exceed the twin by (0.607 and 2.361)k.g., respectively. The overall mean of productivity (total weaning weight of kids/does) was ( 13.713 ± 0.196) k.g. The effect of genetic group and year of kidding were significant. The (S) exceed both (L) and (SL) by (1.399 and 1.342) k.g., respectively. The overall mean of total weaning weight of kids/k.g. of does was (0.386 ± 0.005)k.g. Significant effect of genetic group on total weaning weight of kids/k.g. of does observed. However the genetic group (SL) exceed the (S) and (L) groups, while the effect of year of kidding was significant. Repeatability estimated for total weaning weight of kids/does was ( 0.28 ± 0.06).

STUDY OF THE OVARIANS ACTIVITIES OF THE LOCAL GOAT IN DIFFERENT SEASONS OF YEAR IN DOHUK PROVINCE

Muoffig S. Barwary

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 37-45
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26357

The study was conducted in the Dept. of Animal Production College of Agriculture, University Duhok . 230 local goat ovarian samples were tested . These samples were collected from the slaughter house of Duhok area. Physiological activities of these samples were determined during 3 seasons of a year. These were 91 samples (39.57%) from non pregnant goat and 139 samples (60.43%) from pregnant goats. The sexual activities of the three samples were measured then weight of ovaries and corpus lumen found in the ovaries during the three reasons. The ovarian shapes of the non pregnant goat were kidney shape and rounded while in the pregnant goat were oval and elongated , the weight and size of the right ovaries were higher than that of the left ovaries , and were different whether the animal was pregnant or not , and weight of corpora letea in the ovaries. The percent of corpora letea in the right ovary for the three stages (parturition, suckling and in semi nation) in the non pregnant ovaries were 42.8 , 38.2 and 87.5% respectively while in the pregnant animals were 94.3 , 73.8 and 86.4% in the right ovary and 43.4 , 42.2 and 18.2 in the left ovary respectively . The size of corpora letea in right ovary was bigger in size and weight than that in the left ovary . The percent of single embryo was 65.09 most of them in the right horn (84.55%) , while the percent of twin was 33.14% some of them in the right horn (37.5) and (62.5%) in the left side and one case of triple (1.77%).

INFLUENCE SUBSTITUTION OF SOYBEAN MEAL BY SUNFLOWER MEAL SUPPORTED WITH MULTI ENZYME ON GROWTH OF COMMON CARP Cyprinus carpio L. DIETS

M. A. Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 46-54
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26356

This experiment was conducted to improve the nutritional value of sunflower meal in order to substitute soybean meal after the addition of multi enzyme (Safizyme) and certain amino acids (lysine and methionine) in common carp Cyprinus carpio L. diets. Statistical analysis showed there were no significant differences (P<0.05) among control and diets containing 50% and 83% sunflower meal in weight gain, relative growth rate, specific growth rate, food conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, sediment protein and protein productive value. Complete substitution of soybean meal by sunflower meal caused significantly a decrease (P< 0.05) in all criteria examined, except for food and protein consumption, which revealed mathematical differences. Phenolic compounds were investigated via thin layer Chromatography (GF-254), and the results indicated that sunflower meal and improved (screened) sunflower meal contains 0.8-3.517 and 0.36-2.12 g/100g respectively. In addition, the proximal apparent digestible coefficient and composition of the fish body; crude protein, ether extract and ash were examined .

USING NIGELLA SATIVA OIL SEED MEAL IN FEEDING AWASSI EWES 3-EFFECT ON SOME HEMATOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMIAL

Qussay Z. Shams al-dain

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 55-61
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26337

This study was conducted on 72 Awassi ewes, while were divided into three groups, and fed rations contain Nigella sativa seed meal (0,7 and 14% ) from 45 days pre-mating and until the end of lactation season. Some hematological and biochemical parameters and concentration of some minerals in blood serum were determind. The results indicates that some haematologyical ( red and whit cell counts, hemoglobine value, packed cell volume , mean corpuscular volume )and biochemical parameters( concentration of total serum protein ,globulin ,total lipid, triglycerieds ,cholesterol and glucose and percentage of lymphocyte cell ) were increased significantly, while the percentages of eosinophils and neutrophils cells were decreased significantly ( p0.05) , as the percentage of Nigella sativa seed meal increased in ration ,while the concentration of blood minerals was not significantly affected by Nigella sativa seed meal.

EFFECT OF TETRACYCLINE AND MALIC ACID ON THE PROTOLYTIC AND LIPOLYTIC BACTERIA IN COOLED STORED BEEF MEAT

Younis A. Y. Mashhadnay

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 62-69
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26344

The aim of this work was to study the effect of different concentration of tetracycline, malic acid and their mixture in different concentration in proteolytic and lipolytic bacteria count in the stored beef meat at 5oC. There was a gradual significant in proteolytic bacteria counts with the increase of storage time in all the treatments except in malic acid treatment where there was insignificant decrease in the number of these bacteria, in addition, there was a significant decrease in the treatments (30 ppm tetracycline and 1% malic acid and 30 ppm tetracycline and 1.5% malic acid) at the beginning of storage period, but with the continuation of storage, the number increased gradually till they reached a high number at the end of storage period and these increases in the bacteria counts in all the treatments were lesser than those in the control group during the storage. There was a decrease in Lipolytic bacteria counts in all treatment at the beginning of storage period except in control group and tetracycline treatments and the treatments (10 ppm tetracycline and 0.5% malic acid), but with the increase of storage period, the counts increased gradually and significantly in all treatments till they reach higher period, but they were lesser those in the control group.

EFFECT OF HEIGHT , NUMBERS , AND DATE OF POLLARDING ON SOME GROWTH CHARACTERS AND BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF Luceana lecocephalla SEEDLINGS.

Ekhlass Daood sulimon

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 70-79
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26333

The present study was conducted in Ninevah forest to study the effects of the height, numbers and date of pollarding of the shoots of leucaena at one years age. The pollarding was done monthly at fired different heights above ground level namely , 15 , 30 and 45 cm to stimulate the regrowth of the plant and ,arimize biomass production . The results indicated the following Growth characteristics: - The highest average monthly grouth in length (4.13 cm) obtained the pollarding was done at 15 cm height, while the highest average in diameter (0.89 mm) occurred in plants pollared at 30 cm above the ground level .With respect to the number of pollarding , it appeared , that pollarding for one time was the best in comparing with the other number of pollarding since it gave the highest average of minthly growth in length (13.88 cm) and diameter ( 1.22 mm ) As for pollarding dates , october the first was the best achieving . the highest increase in the average monthly grow the in hieght (41.94 cm) and in diameter (2.83 cm ) among the other pollarding dates . Biomass production was the best height of pollarding which gave the best increase in dry weight of the shoots per pollard and the accumalated mass due to the total pollards was 45 cm above the ground level a since it gave the highest averages and 154.64 gm ) , on the other hand , pollarding for one time was better than the other pollarding numbers in giving . the highest values in dry weight and in the accumlated total due to pollards in regard to the date of pollarding , first of November was the best ingiving the highest mean ( 197.82 g ) in dry weight of shoots .

STUDY OF THE REACTIONS OF FORMALDEHYDE WITH HYDROLYZABLE AND CONDENSED TANNINS OBTAINED FROM BARK EXTRACTS OF EUCALYPTUS CAMMALDULENSIS ALONG WITH THE DETERMINATION OF ADDED FORMALDEHYDE RATIO

Walid A. Kasir

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 80-85
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26358

The reactions of the hydrolysable tannin (Gallic acid) and condensed tannin (Flavanoid) with the released formaldehyde as a result of high temperature and different pH values along with different added ratios of para-formaldehyde were studied. According to the results obtained from Gel time and Pot life tests, the best values of pH and ratio of formaldehyde needed were determined, and they were 6.5 and 20% respectively. These values considered to be good enough to promote co-polymerization between the sites of tannins and those of formaldehyde to give suitable adhesive which can be used in manufacturing many wood products.

EFFECT OF SITE GEOGRAPHY AND DIRECTIONS IN MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF Populus nigral.GROWING IN DIFFERENT SITES IN DOHUK GOVERNORATE

Asem M. Salem Hassan Bajalan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 86-96
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26345

The complete randomized design method was used to study the morphological variations in Populous nigra L. on 10 characteristics of the leaves of these nonnative trees to Iraq. Each character which contains 240 samples (3 samples for each one direction of the four) taken from 20 trees (each 10 growing along river sides ) at Sarsung & Zakho sites in Iraqi Kurdistan region was analyzed. The result of statistical analysis using SAS show that there is high level of significant variations for most characters among individual trees between both sites and that a high level of significant variations present between both sites. Again the results reflected significant variations between directions but in lesser level. The results also showed that are one of eastern and southern directions of the first tree in Zakho site gives larger values for studied characters than the other directions of other trees. This is often due to the genetical and environmental factors together. The ultimate wide range of variation patterns suggest the use of individual tree selection method in breeding and improvement programs of this species, so that, we thing it is right to suppose depending those directions from that tree in Zakho site to use their seeds in breeding and improvement of the populous nigra L. trees programs in Iraq.

SEASONAL VARIATION IN THE NUTRITIVE CONTENT OF SOME FORAGE SHRUBS WHICH GROWN IN NINEVAH GOVERNORATE

Y.M.Q.Al-Alousy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 97-108
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26327

Leaves and Twigs for six species of trees and shrubs consumed by livestock and wild ungulates: Albizia lebbek, Robinia pseudoacacia , Acasia farnesiana , Leucaena leucocephala , Populus negra , Morus alba were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of crud protein, ash, ether extraction, crud fiber, carbohydrates, organic matter, dry matter, N, P, K and Ca .Samples were collected in five dates (15th April, 15th Joun, 15th Auogest, 15th October, 15th December
in 2001) in Ninevah Governorate.The result indicated that there were significantly differences among sampling dates, species and plant parts. Content of ash, ether extraction, crud fiber, calcium and dry matter was increased as the season progressed whereas crud protein, soluble carbohydrates, organic matter, potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen content decreased. The results exhibited that the first sampling date (15th.April) was the best date to collect and dried this forage which gave higher percentage of crude protein, soluble carbohydrate, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium and less percentage of crude fiber than other dates to use it as a supplementary nutrition for Livestock and wild ungulates. Also higher nutritive compounds and element were found in leaves than twigs. The legume trees and shrubs have higher percent of crud protein than others.

EFFECT OF POTASSIUM FERTILIZER ON NEW VARIETIES OF SUGAR BEET (Beta vulgaris L.)

Ayad T. Shaker

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 109-119
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26341

Field experiment was carried out at Rashedia field, Ninavah during 2001—2002 and 2002-2003 with clay loam soil to study the effect of different level of potassium fertilizer (0.0,30,60 and 90kg ha-1) on growth and yield of three sugar beet varieties (Tenor, Tripel which are monogerm and Panama is multigerm ).Results indicated that root yield, sugar percentage and total sugar yield had significant effect over two 30 and 60kg ha-1 potassium fertilizer, while total soild soluble material and extractable sugar yield were significant under 30,60or 90kg ha-1of potassium. It had noted a reduction in juice purity percentage when it used 90kg ha-1 of potassium. Tenor and Panama varieties had to excel in root yield, sugar percentage and total sugar yield, also Panama variety had to surpass in total solid soluble material and extractable sugar yield. Significant result was obtained in extractable sugar yield when it used all the different level of potassium (30, 60 or 90kg ha-1) with Panama variety. There is a significant and positive correlation between total sugar yield with the sugar percentage and root yield. Also extractable sugar yield had correlation with the percentage of total solid soluble material and root yield.

STUDY THE TOXICITY OF SOME PLANT EXTRACTS AND CHEMICAL INSECTICIDES AGAINST THE COWPEA WEEVIL Callosobruchus maculatus ( FAB.) COLEOPTERA : BRUCHIDAE

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 120-128
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26330

The toxicity of five insecticides and their mixture : Karate , Decis , Karate & Decis (Pyrethroid ) , Dizinon , Lorsban, Diazinon & Lorsban ( Phosphoric ) and Sevin (Carbamatic) have been evaluated against the southern cowpea weevil Callosobruchus maculatus ( Fab.) after 1 & 24 hours of treatment for the egg stage. The results were taking after 5 days of treatment which showed that the effect of the insecticides depending on the relative toxicity were as follows : Karate > Karate & Decis > Diazinon> Diazinon &Lorsban > Decis > Lorsban > Sevin . The egg stage was also depting for 1 minute in 5 concentrations of the extracts of the diethyl ether of four plants :Garlic, Horsemint, Sweet bacil & Rue. The results after 5 days showed that the relative toxicity were as follows : Horsemint > Garlic > Sweet bacil > Rue. Horsemint extract showed high relative toxicity giving a percentage of hatching 5.2 % only, while that of Rue gave 25.2 % . The adults of the pest were also treated with the different concentrations of the chemicals , depending on the L.D.50 values and relative toxicity the insecticides were in the following descending order : Karate > Diazinon > Karate & Decis > Diazinon & Lorsban > Decis > Lorsban > Sevin . The results of adults treated with the four plant extracts depending on the basis of L.D.50 and relative toxicity showed that Garlic extract was the highest one ,its L.D.50 value was 315.3 mg/L. and its relative toxicity was 61.6 % . While L.D.50 of Rue was the lowest reached 1744 mg/L. and its relative toxicity was 33.6% , for the 24 hours of treatment.

EFFECT OF DISK ANGLE AND PLOWING SPEEDS IN SOME PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOIL AND IN THE PERFORMANCE OF VERTICAL DISK PLOW

Mothana A.AL-Jarrah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 2, Pages 129-135
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2006.26355

The research was carried out at Hummaidat township 15km west of Mosul city to investigate the effect of disk angle (35ْ,42ْ,and 48ْ) of the vertical disk plow with three plowing speeds (4.86,7.24 and 9.30)km/hr on number of masses exceeded 10 cm/m2, bulk density, porosity, effective plowing depth, coefficient of working width, slippage percentage, field efficiency, effective field capacity, pulling force, drawbar power and the power lost due to slippage. Results showed that the effect of interaction between disk angle and plowing speeds was significant in bulk density and power lost due to slippage while there were no significant differences concerning other studied characteristics. The disk angle 42o showed higher significance in the effective plowing depth, coefficient of working width, bulk density and porosity .