Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 33, Issue 1

Volume 33, Issue 1, Winter 2005, Page 3-133


A STUDY ON FLEECE CHARACTERIZATION OF HAMADANI SHEEP IN ERBIL PLAIN

Kasim O.Aziz

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 3-12
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36140

This study was undertaken on 196 Hamadani sheep (179 ewes & 17 rams) to characterize the fleece quantitatively and qualitatively and to determine the effect of flock ( 1 – 4 ), ewe age (1.5 to ≥ 5.5 years) and ewe status (barren, rearing single and twin lambs) on the studied traits besides the relationships among these traits. The results indicated that the overall means were: body weight 59.4 kg, greasy fleece weight 2.3 kg, staple length 11.9 cm, fiber length 18.3 cm, fiber diameter 37.2 μm, crimps 0.65 crimps/cm, medullated fibers 3.4 %, hairy fibers 59.4 %, fine fibers 36.7 %, heterotype fibers 1.1 % and kemp fibers 2.8 %. Furthermore, it was noticed that the grease content in greasy and scoured wool were 1.73 and 0.86 % respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a significant effect of flock on body weight, greasy fleece weight, staple length, fiber length, fiber diameter, crimps, medullated fibers, heterotype fibers and kemp fibers whereas, age of ewe affected only greasy fleece weight, staple length, fiber length and fiber diameter significantly.Non of the studied traits were affected significantly by ewe status.

EFFEC OF DECALICIFICATION ON BORON ADSORPTION IN SOME CALCAREOUS SOIL IN NORTHERN OF IRAQ.

M. A. J Al-Obaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 5-12
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36062

Boron adsorption have been studied in eight decalcified surface soil in Ninevah province using a quiet equilibrium with different boron concentration as a boric acid levels (0 , 2.5 , 7.5 , 10) mg Boron L –1 . Adsorption was described by two Langmuir equation of a single and double surface & Frendlich equation before and after decalcification. It was appeared that the maximum adsorption was textured found in the fine soil. Before decalcification the results showed that boron maximum adsorption was significantly correlated with both total and active lime, Organic matter and clay contents. The bonding energy in calcareous soil before decalcification was dereased from (0.5 – 0.9) to (0.3 – 0.6) ml. gm –1 after decalcification, and the bonding engergy was increased in the soft textured soil that gives evident for the high boron boning and its difficult phase to the liquid phase, adsorption capacity reduced from (42 - 72) before decalcification to (36 – 60) gm –1. Both surface Langmuir equation referred to two kinds of soil surfaces. The first one was characterized by low adsorption capacity and high bonding energy while, the seemed was characterized by high adsorption capacity and low bonding energy for the second surface.

EVALUATION OF GRAIN QUALITY PROPERTIES OF SOME IRAQI AND ICARDA SELECTED DURUM WHEAT CULTIVARS

Ahmed Salih Khalaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 13-20
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36146

Four samples of Iraqi durum wheat cultivars and six selected varieties of ICARDA were involved in this study, for their grain quality tests and flour rheological properties comparison. Their gliadin electrophoresis was also conducted. Results showed a significant variation among tested varieties for the grain characters, protein quantity and quality in term of SDS-sedimentation test. The highest levels of SDS-values and SDS-index were recorded for Haurani, Korifla, Gidara-2, and Om rabi-5, but Caronia is the best in pigments. Among the tested cultivars, Iraqi cultivar Caronia resemble the Syrian one (Haurani) in giving positive reaction with phenol test. Concerning with the gliadin subunits electrophoregrams patterns, cultivars can be classified into two groups, those possess the gamma gliadin components designated 45 and the linked omega gliadin 35, include cultivars (Caronia, Acsad-65, Simeto, Creso, Om rabi-5, Haurani, Korifla and Gidara-2, while those possess gamma gliadin 42, included cultivars (Waha, , and Cham-5).

EFFECT OFF IRRIGATION WATER SALINITY IN YIELD AND QUALITY OF SUGAR BEET (Beta vulgris)

Saleh.M .Al-Rashidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 13-16
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36066

Field experiments were conducted in three agricultural regions in Mosul. and Krikuk provinces (Kaira, Shrkat, Hawja) to study the effect of saline water of surface well on the yield and quality of sugar beet results showed a yield and quality reduction under the effect of saline water. Negative correlation were obtained between the yield and the salinity of water (r = -0.81) and also between sugar beet quality, and salinity of water (r = -0.65).

MODELING WATER FLOW IN THE SOIL UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS USING FINITE ELEMENT

E. M. Mohamed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 17-19
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36079

The purpose of this study was to apply water flow equations by using mathematical model in one and two dimensions equations by finite element, and compare the results with the fieldcondition. The study was conducted at the farm of College of Agriculture and Forestury/ Hammam Al-Alil from 1-11-1997-1-6-1998. including the following experiments:
1-Evapo-tranbspiration and moisture redistribution :Field experiment were conducted with two treatments,the first one was planting and planting,the second one was irrigated and non-irrigated (depending on the rain only).2-Infiltration:A double ring infiltrometer with inside diameter 20 cm and a hight of 30cm was used to measure average and accumulated infiltration,and also the vertical moisture distribution. 3- Two dimentional moisture distribution: A double ring infiltrometer was used ,water was supplied continuously for six day,soil moisture content was measured at depths 5,10,20,100,cm with intervals of 6,12,24,72,96,120,144 hours on the radius of circle which has the ring in its center. Computer program was developed with Fortran language to solve Richard's equation using finite element in two dimensions. This program includes a main program that controls other program subroutines. Generally the results show a good agreement between the measured and calculated data for all the conducted experiments which can be summarized as follow:1- High agreement was found between the measured and calculated volumetric moisture content for non irrigated and planted treatment. The percentage of the average deviation not exceed 5% for all measured soil depths and intervals. While the percentage of the average deviation around 11% for irrigated and planted treatment. Lower agreement was found for non-planted treatment at the end of the experiment especially with depths less than 20cm and more than 70cm. 2- Good agreement was found between measured and calculated accumulated and infiltration rate and the percentage of the average deviation of 9% and 15% respectively. On the hand, highly agreement was found between the calculated vertical moisture distribution and measured one except the moisture content at the interface between the two layers. Comparing the measured volumetric content in two dimensions with the calculated one, the percentage of average deviation does not exceed 5% for all the experiment time of 5 days value. 3- T he model sensitivity of unsaturated hydraulic conductivity was greater in case of reducing the value of hydraulic conductivity than increasing its value.

ECONOMICAL EVALUATION OF BROILER RATION USED IN NENAVA PROVINCE

Rafh M.T. Khuleel

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 30-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36084

The aim of this study is to evaluate the ration usually used in broiler farms in nenava province, which consist of 30% corn, 35% wheat, 25% soybean meal (45% cp), 10% protein concentrate. The results shows that , by using linear programming we can formulate a starter ration consist of 8.22 % corn, 61.78 % wheat, 15.87% soybean meal,14.13 % protein concentrate, and a finisher ration consist of 79.46% wheat, 11.85% soybean meal, 8.69% protein concentrate , and that will reduce the cost of feeding by 505.47 thousand Iraqi Dinars for each house and each stock.

EFFECT OF SUCKLING REGIEM AND WEANING AGE ON MILK YIELD AND COMPOSITION AND KIDS PERFORMANCE OF LOCAL AL-MARIZ GOAT

Qussay Z. Shams al-dain

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 44-51
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36091

This study was conducted on 48 local Al-mariz does with different ages (2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 years) and weights (31-35, 36-40 and 41-45 kgs) with single kids immediately after kidding. After kidding the does with kids were divided into two main groups according to suckling regime (natural and restricted suckling), also each main group was divided into two sub-groups according to weaning age (57 and 87 days). Body weight and measurements of kids were recorded at 87 days of age. Also milk yield, milk composition and lactation length were measured. The results indicated that kids weaned at 87 days under the natural suckling regime had significantly higher body weight and some body measurements than kids weaned at 57 days under the restricted regime. The results indicated that age and weight of doe, sex of kids and weaning age had significantly affected milk yield until 87 days, total milk yield and lactation length, while suckling regime had significantly affected commercial milk yield only. All studied factors (age and weight of doe, sex of kid, suckling regime and weaning age) were significantly affected fat percentage, while not significantly affected protein percentage.

USING NIGELLA SATIVA OIL SEED MEAL IN FEEDING AWASSI EWES 1 -EFFECT ON SOME PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTIVE TRAITS

Qussay Z.Shams Al-Dain

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 52-61
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36095

This study was conducted by using 72 awassi ewes at different ages (3,4 and 5 years ).The ewes were divided into three groups and these groups were fed on three rations different in nigella sativa oil seed meal percentage(0,7 and 14%) since 45 days before mating season and until the end of lactation season.the effect of using different percentages of nigella sativa oil seed meal were studied on some production and reproductive traits.The results indicated that using of nigella sativa oil seed meal has significantly effected most studied traits,ewes weight,lambs weight at birth and at weaning, milk production for pre-weaning ,commercial , total milk, length of lactation and the percentages of fertility , prolificacy at lambing and at weaning, lambs livability until weaning , protein and total sold not fat were increased significantly (p<0.05 ),while the percentages of barreness, fat and total solid were decrease significantly (p<0.05 ) by increasing the percentage of nigella sativa oil seed meal in ration , while length of gestation ,percentages of lactose and ash has non significantly effect by feeding nigella sativa oil seed meal. Also the age of ewe has significantly (p<0.05) effect the percentages of fertility, prolificacy at lambing and weaning , barrenness and weights of lambs at birth and at weaning only.

EFFECT OF PROTEIN AND ENERGY LEVELS ON SOME PERFORMANCE CHARACTERS OF AWASSI LAMBS

Ebrahim A. Arafat

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 62-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36098

Fourty eight Awassi lambs (5 months age ± 5 days) were used in this experiment. Lambs were allocated to six groups at randomly each of eight lambs. Effect of three levels of protein (12, 15 & 17%) and two levels of energy (standard 2450 Kcal and high 2750 Kcal) were studied on some performance characters of Awassi lambs (before and after slaughter) .All lambs were slaughtered after 90 days. The statistical analysis showed significant difference between the protein levels on average daily gain and rib eye area , while it showed no significant differences on the other characters studied in experiment. Mean while the energy levels showed no significant differences on all the studied characters.

RECYCLING OF COTTON STEMS IN THE PRODUCTION OF PARTICLEBOARDS FOR FURNITURE

Basim A. Abd Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36101

The research has conducted to investigate the suitability of cotton stems for the production of standard particleboards. Thirty nine boards were manufactured ; 27 of them were single -layer and 12 were three - layers boards. The research dealt with the effect of particles size, board density, and the number of layers on the board properties. The results showed that the smallest particles improved the properties of the boards. The specific gravity of 0.550 had a very low mechanical but not physical properties. Multi layering of the board duplicated both of modulus of rupture and modulus of elasticity and improved the water resistance. The experiment assured the suitability of cotton stems for the production of particleboards by using the recommended levels of manufacturing variables.

ESTIMATION OF VARIANCES, CORRELATIONS AND HERITABILITY FOR SEVERAL NEW GENOTYPES OF BREAD WHEAT IN TWO ENVIRONMETS OF NINEVA GOVERNORATE

A. a. Ahmed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 72-85
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36105

Twenty new bread wheat genotypes in addition to the local variety Abo-Graib 3 were evaluated in Nienavah governorate for Al-Rashidia and Rabeeah locations. The characters studied were: number of days to flowering, plant height, spike length, number of spikelets/spike, number of grains/spike, number of spikes/m2, yield and biomass yield, harvest index, 1000 grain weight and protein percentage. The genotypes were significantly different for all the characters except for the number of spikelets/spike. Phenotypic and genetic variances were significant for all the characters. Genetic correlation was significant between grain yield and harvest index for both locations. Broad-sense hertability estimates were high for protein percentage and low for plant height, grain yield, biological yield, harvest index and 1000 grain yield for both locations.

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION OF CULTAR AND PROMINAL AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF BARLEY (HORDEUM DISTICHIM L.)

A.S. Jabar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 86-94
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36110

Field experiment was conducted in the season of 2001-2002 to study the effect of mixture of three concentrations of cultar (0, 1000, 2000ppm) with two concentrations of prominal (0, 1000ppm) and three levels of nitrogen (0, 20, 40, kg/ donum) on growth and yield of Barley (local black). The results indicated that cultar reduced plant height upper amnd lower internode and increased number of tillers, number of spike per plant, number of seed per spike and number of seed per plant. No significant have been shown from cultar on spike and 1000 wight of grain characters. Prominal decreased slightly plant length and upper internode length. The results also indicate significant increase in the plant height, internode length, number seed per spike, nimber of seed per plant, with nitrogen fertilizwes. The effect of interaction between the two and three factors in this study were obvious by decreasing plant height and increasing tillers number, number of seeds per spike, number of seed per plant with high concentrations. It was concluded that the effect of interaction between cultar and nitrogen decreased plant length and increased the yield per plant .

THE ROLE OF PHOSPHORUS AND ROW SPACING IN THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF FIELD BEANS(Vicia faba L. Minor)

K.K. Kasim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 95-100
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36113

A field experiment was conducted at Rabiaa agricultural research station in Ninevah province under area of moderate rainfall (350 - 450 mm) with supplementary irrigation for the two growing seasons 1996/1997 and 1997/1998 to study the effects of four levels of phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 120 kg P2O5/ha) and for row spacings (10, 20, 30, 40 cm) on the growth and yield of field beans (Vicia Faba L. minor) cv. Troy. The distance between seed and another was (15 cm). Factorial experiment was organized in a randomized complete block design in three replications. Results showed the superiority of (80 and 120 kg P2O5/ha) levels over (0, 40 kg P2O5/ha) levels in the seed yield 3408 and 3484 kg /ha in 1996/1997 and 3500 and 3620 kg /ha in 1997/1998, whereas (0, 40 kg P2O5/ha) gave seed yield 2908 and 2928 kg /ha respectively, in 1996/1997, and 2568 and 3016 kg /ha in 1997/1998. Number of pods/plant followed a similar pattern of seed yield. Height of plant and number of branches/plant were increased by using phosphorus fertilizer. Row spacing of 30 cm gave the highest seed yield in comparison with (10, 20, 40 cm) phosphorus fertilizer and row spacing had no effect on seed weight and number of seeds/pod.

EFFECT OF SOME GROWTH REGULATORS ON THE INITATION AND GROWTH OF COTTON (Gossypium hirsutun L.) CALLUS

Abdul-Mutallib S. Mohammad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 101-107
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36117

The effect of some growth regulators on the initiation , growth of (Gossypium hirsutun L.) callus and root / shoot formation was studied . The results showed that best medium callus for growth contain 0.5 mg/l BA with 1.0 mg/l NAA depending on callus fresh weight . The fresh weight reached 3.99g after 90 days of growth on their medium . Shoots formation occurred on medium containing 1.0 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l NAA after 80 days . However roots proliferation take place on medium containing 0.1 mg/l K and 1.0 mg/l IAA . The plants regenerated on particular medium was transferred to the soil after harding .

EFFECT OF INTERACTION BETWEEN DEPTHS AND SPEEDS OF PLOWING BY USING THE MOLDBOARD PLOW IN THE YIELD OF BARLEY CROP AND SOME FIELD PERFORMANCE CRITERIA.

Saad A. Al-Rejbo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 108-111
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36119

A field study was conducted at Al-Mahalabia to study the effect of two plowing depths (15-20) cm, (20-25) cm and three plowing speeds (2.57, 3.31 and 5.63) km/hr by using the moldboard plow in the yield of barley crop (spikes number in the meter square, spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of grains per spike and grain yield) and some field performance criteria (practical speed, slippage percentage and practical productivity), Results showed that the effect of interaction between depths and speeds of plowing were significant in weight of grains per spike and grain yield while there were no significant differences concerning other studied characteristics.

EFFECT OF LONGITUDINAL SLOPE ANGLES, VIBRATION SPEEDS AND OUTLETS FOR THE PRODUCE IN GRADING, SEPARATOR OF WHEAT SEED BY USING SPECIFIC GRAVITY SEPARATOR LOCALLY MANUFACTURE

Yasen H. Al tahan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 112-116
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36122

In this study a specific gravity separator has been used in order to consider the effect of three levels of: longitudinal slop angles, vibration speeds, outlets for the produce and their effect on specific weight, productivity and seed purity. The results show the longitudinal horizontal slop angle (0) surpassed significantly in recording the greatest values for all characteristics of the study. While the second vibration speed surpassed significantly in specific weight and productivity and there were no significant effect in seed purity. in the product out lets, the first out lets achieved the highest significant specific weight and seed purity, were as the third out let surpassed in giving the highest productivity. from the interaction between the three factor we can see the interaction between (-2) longitudinal slope angle and the second vibration speed at the third out lit showed the highest productivity was opteined by the interaction between the same angle (-2) and first vibration speed at the first out lit.

DIFFERENT SYSTEMS IN PREPARATION OF SEED-BED AND THEIR EFFECTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD PROPERTIES OF COTTON CROP

Aziz R.Al-Banna

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 117-121
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36123

The field study was carried out in 1999 at Salamiyia area on a land in which the soil texture is a mixed clayey one in order to study the effect of the soil preparation on the growth of cotton crop (Ashoor type). The study included four levels represented by four soil preparation systems, these treatments distributed according to the R.C.B.D. design in three replicates for each (first: subsoiler plow in addition to two perpendicular plowing with an inverse disc plow + spring teeth harrowing, second: subsoiler plow in addition to two perpendicular plowing with an moldboard plow + spring teeth harrowing, third: subsoiler plow in addition to two perpendicular plowing with a disc and mold-board plows + spring teeth harrowing, fourth: subsoiler plow in addition to two perpendicular plowing with an chisel plow, in addition to that a control treatment as fifth treatment was executed).The main result of this study was that the first, second and third treatment showed significant effect on most of growth properties of cotton crop. While the first, second and third treatments were equal in their effect on the number of mature bulls, the weight of the first harvesting and mean of weight of one bull, and also showed significant effect on the other studied properties.

EFFECT OF HERBICIDES ON CRTAIN ROOT ROT DISEASE OF SEASAME IN NINAVEH PROVINCE

A. K. Al-Taae

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 122-127
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36125

Labrotory test of four herbicides on growth of fungi (Pythium aphanidermatum, Macrophomina phaseolina and Fusarium solani) showed that focusultra inhibited the growth of pathogenic fungi causing root rot disease, while the effect of the herbicide on percentage and severity of disease showed that all herbicides except treflan gave aprotection for plants during three months, and the symptoms of the disease appeared later .Focusultra was the best herbicide for reducing the percentage and severity infection which were 10 % and 0.04, respectively. Results of field and greenhouse experiments were applicated together.

BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS AND POWDERS FOR SOME PLANTS ON KHAPRA BEETLE Trogoderma granarium EVERTS

Muneef A. Mustafa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 1, Pages 128-133
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36132

A series of experiments were carried out to study the effects of powders and aqueous extract of plants Matricaria chamomilla L. , Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Dehn.) , Allium sativum L. , Allium cepa L. and Achillea micrantha M.B., at four concentrations , 1,2,4 and 6 % as wheat grains treatment against the khapra beetle Trogoderma granarium Everts . Powders of plants showed repellent effect to the larvae when used free choice test for feeding , it was found negative values for repellent especially at 6% concentration. The aqueous extracts , also , shows repellent effect but lower than effect of powders . Rearing of T. granarium on wheat grains treated with the A. micrantha , A. sativum , A. cepa and E. camaldulensis at 6% concentration effect the biology of the insects ,the adults gave a progeny of 12,15,16 and 20 individuals at powders and 17 , 20 , 23 ,and 24 individuals at extracts from one pair of insects , respectively , incomparison to 40 individuals in the control treatment.