Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Volume 33, Issue 2

Volume 33, Issue 2, Spring 2005, Page 2-135


STABILITY OF RAPESEED (Brassica napus L. ) VARIETIES UNDER RAINFALL CONDITIONS IN NORTHEREN OF IRAQ

Mohammed Y. Hammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 2-9
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.38566

Four rapeseed varieties, Paktol, Kebel, Forte and Karat were tested in five environments represented limited and semi-limited dryland area in northern of Iraq, Mosul province (Rashidia during 1999-2000 and 2000-2001, singar during 2000-2001 and Bashiqa site during 2000-2001 and 2001-2002 seasons) in order to determine stability of these varieties for plant height, heading,yield and its components.Significant varietal and environments differences were observed for the traits investigated except no. of seed per pod and 1000 seed weight.GXE interaction effect was highly significant for all traits except 1000 seed weight. Paktol were better adapted to favorite environments for plant height, no. of days to heading and no. of pods per plant and better adapted to a wide of environments and stable for seed yield.

STUDY OF VOLUM 'S ECONOMY OF SUGERBEET CROP IN NINEVAH PROVINCE FOR 2001 – 2002 SEASON

Adnan Ahmed Thallaj

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 4-7
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35912

Study of this research is to study the economics volume of sugar beet crop in Ninavah province, for agricultural season 2001-2002 depending on the experimental data of season 2001-2002 for a specimen of farmers(25). The function of total expenses was estimate from which the function of median total expenses was derived to calculate the optimal size which can achieve economic efficiency. by estimating total cost function to compute the optimal volume of the production which reached (89.16 tone). This volume which reduced to cost of product, where as the average volume of actual production reached to (69.27 tone) for study sample. It was demonstrated that the majority of sugar beet's achieved (93%) of volume economics.

IN VITRO PROPAGATION OF PEAR ROOTSTOCK(Pyrus communis L.)BY TISSUE CULTUR OF SHOOT TIPS

Hana S Assaleh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 8-15
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35923

Propagation of Pyrus communis L. rootstock by tissue culture methods using MS medium with different concentrations of growth regulators was examined. Experiments showed that BA and IBA at concentrations of 10 and 1.0 mg / L alternatively were most effective in vegetative multiplication. Different auxins (IAA , IBA) were added to MS medium with different salt strength. Results showed that addition of IAA at 10 mg / L, to MS medium with ¼ salt strength ,was most effective in root formation.This study showed that by using tissue culture methods and suitable growth regulators it is possible to obtain more than 60.000.000 plants from single segment in a year, these plants could be easily transfer to soil and grown in the field

EFFECT OF WATER STRESS , LIQUID PARAFFIN AND NAPHTHALENE ACETIC ACID IN GROWTH , YIELD AND QUALITY OF POTATO (Solanum tuberosum L . )

Mohammad T. El-Habar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 16-25
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35930

A field experiment was conducted during two spring seasons of 2002 and 2003, to study the possibility of decreasing water stress decay and improved growth , yield and quality of potato plants cv. Desiree by using liquid paraffin as antitranspirant and Naphthalen acetic acid as growth regulator. Plants were exposured to water stress twice by no water supply till plant wilting during tubers formation period 51 and 82 days after planting date. Liquid paraffin at two concentration ( 0 and 2 % ) were applied twice after 53 and 84 days of planting ,and naphthalene acetic acid at two concentration ( 0, and 40 mg / L. ) were applied twice after 48 and 78 days of planting .The study included 8 treatments laid out in factorial experiment within split–plot design replicated three times .The results can be summarized as follows : Exposuring potato plants to water stress caused a significant decreases in total water content (TWC) in leaves , leaf area , dry weight of plant , tuber number per plant , tuber weight , and plant and marketable yield .However ; a significant increases was observed in dry matter percentage , total soluble solids (TSS) and percentage of loss and decayed tubers after storage .Foliar application of liquid paraffin at 2 % significantly increased the TWC and total chlorophyll content in leaves , tubers number , tuber weight , plant and marketable yield . Foliar application of NAA by 40 mg./ L. significantly increased the marketable yield and the total soluble solids percentage in tubers. The interaction treatments between liquid paraffin and NAA , significantly decreased the damage effect of water stress on stressed plants and improved growth and yield of unstressed plants , however the spraying of liquid paraffin and NAA decreased the differences between water stressed and non-water stressed plants in many growth and yield characters .

EFFECT OF THE SOILTEXTURE AND TOTAL CARBONATE IN SOIL CONSISTENCY FOR SOME LOCATIONS IN NINAVAH

Faris Akram Saleh AI-Wazan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 26-31
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35937

Five soil samples collected from different locations in Nineva province with different texture and total carbonate content (126-237 gm/ Kg) . Each soil sample was divided in to two parts the first one was kept on its natural condition however the total carbonate was removed from the second one .The studied upper and lower limits and classification of soil according to casagrande (1948). Indicated that the results both liquid and plastic limits increased as clay content increased . and removed of total carbonate showed that liquid and plastic limits are increased compared with natural soil samples . Medium plasticity group according to casagrande are classified .the result showed that all the soil belonged to inactive clays .

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LIVE BODY WEIGHT AND BODY DIMENSIONS IN KARADI CALVES

Osama A. Abdul Aziz

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 32-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35944

This study was conducted at department of Animal Resources at College of Agriculture and Forestry to study the correlation between body weight and different body dimensions during different fattening periods (every 4 weeks) for (140) days. The results showed highly significant (P < 0.01) effect of fattening periods on heart girth , body length., and the fore and rear thickness and significant (P < 0.05) in fore and rear deepness, while there was no significant effect on fore and rear highness. The average final body weight and the different body measurements were (249.13 kg) and (146.50, 127.63, 110.25, 114.25, 53.75, 46,50, 31.88 and 34.88 cm) for the heart girth, body length, fore and rear height, fore and rear deepness and fore and rear thickness respectively. Correlation coefficient between body weight and body measurements were highly significant (P < 0.01). stepwise regression for prediction about increasing body weight gain at the end of the experiment could be done thrue the known values of heart girth, rear highness, fore deepness and rear thickness.

NONENZYMATIC BROWNING DEVELOPMENT OF CONCENTRATED LEMON JUICE BY USING MODEL SYSTEMS DURING STORAGE

M.M.Al Zubaidy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 37-41
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35947

Synthetic model systems of concentrated lemon juice (50%) were prepared with different contents of some compounds (Ascorbic acid ,Reducing Sugar , Amino acids) that may play an important role in brown pigments ( Melanoidins )formation. Samples were stored at 25 and 35ْ c for 12 weeks .Results showed that the main brown pigments formation pathway in this highly acidic synthetic model system (pH >2.5) was ascorbic acid degradation rather than reducing sugar acid decomposition and strecker decomposition of amino acid.

XANTHAN PRODUCTIONBY THE WILD TYPE BACTERIA Xanthomonas campestris AND STUDY OF PRODUCTION CONDITIONS

A. O. Kocha

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 42-55
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35951

The aim of this study was the isolation and identification of Xanthomonas campestris form the leaves, flowers, and roots of califlower, as well as from the soil grown in it. The effect of medium components as well as the effect of incubation temperature, pH, period of incubation and agitation velocity to determine the optimum conditions for xanthan production were studied. Four isolates among 20 showed ability of xanthan production in the range from 7 to 9.4 g xanthan / l of liquid Luria-bertani medium (LBG) medium containing 2.5% glucose, 0.5% yeast extract, with pH of 7.0 using shaker water bath at 200 rpm and incubation time of 78 hr at a temperature of 28 C. Xanthan produced contained 1.25 – 1.4 % pyruvate with high ability to form firm rubbery gel with locust bean gum.

UTILIZATION OF CORN COBS IN THE MANUFACTURING OF PARTICLEBOARDS

Basim A. Abd Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 56-61
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35960

The research has conducted to investigate the possibility of corn cobs utilization in particleboards production . Forty two boards were manufactured within two experiments . At the first one 18 boards produced to test the effect of two factors ; particle size ( 3 levels ) , and resin content ( 2 levels ) on the board properties . The results of this experiment affirmed the superiority of the smallest size of particles . The second one dealt with the influence of three factors ; board layering , resin content , and board density . Half of 24 boards of this stage were manufactured by using wood particles as board surfaces to the corn cobs core . Testing results showed that 3 – layer board were more better than single layer one in all of mechanical and physical properties . This difference was at its higher level in case of high density boards. In spite of the significant improvement occurred with increasing resin content from 6% to 8% the first one seemed to be sufficient especially with 3 layers high density boards. Hence, the introducing of wood in a 3 : 7 ratio with corn cobs resulted in a very high improvement that should not neglected when trying in the utilization of this raw material.

THE INFLUENCE DATE AND LEVEL OF CUTTING ON GROWTH OF

A . M . Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 62-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35968

The experiment was carried out at Albosife ( Near Mosul city ) in 2003 growing season to determine the influnce of time , level of cutting and their interaction on growth of Johnson grass . Date were subjected to the conventional analysis randomized complete block design ( R ، C ، B ، D)as a factorial experiment with three replicates . The result showed that the cutting plant at 5 or 10 cm above the soil had markedly depressed the dry weight of plant and rhizomes if it compared with out cutting treatment . Also the frequent cutting at every 10 days was more effect on plant growth than 20 or 30 days if it used as a method for it control . It reduced the length of rhizome up to 98.6 , 78.8 and 55.6 % respectively and 98.2 , 77.8 and 50.6 % for number of buds on rhizome . On other hand the same treatment ( cutting every 10 days ) had excellent in decrease in D . W . of plant growth and rhizomes which reduced up to 96 , 94.3 , 84.9 % for D . W . of plant growth and 99.7 , 91.9 68.2 % for D . W . of rhizomes . The best result interaction between two factors was the frequent time of cutting of every 10 days which cutting near the soil surface .

THE EFFECIENCY OF SOME SYSTEMIC HERBICIDES ON JOHNSON GRASS (Sorghum halepense(L.) pres CONTROL

A . M .Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 67-71
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35973

The experiment was carried out at College of Agriculture and forestry , Mosul Univ. at Hammam Al-Alil in 2003 growing season to determine the effeicency of six systemic herbicides with three levels of concentration for control Sorghum halepense(L) . Data was subjected to the conventional analysis of randomized complete block design (R،C,B,D)as a sample experiment with three replicates .Results indicated that glyphosate (232ml a.i / ha) , Focus altra (150 ml a.i./ha) and Fuselate (33 ml a.i ./ha ) had completely control S . halepenses , while others herbicides such as Topic , Illoxan and super galant had less effected .These three herbicides had more effect on rhizom dry weight than on shoot of plant which reduce 76.6 % for Topic , 46.6 % for Illoxane and 66.6 % for super galent if it compered with the check treatment ( no herbicide).

GENETIC ANALYSIS OF THIRD FILIAL GENERATION

N.K. Yousif

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 72-78
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35975

Three generations (P1 , P2 , and F3) of four crosses in a six – row barley (Jazera – 1 X Badia , Tadmer X Arivate , Rehan X Benedict and Forest X Baraka) were used to estimate average degree of dominance , habitability , and expected genetic advance from selections for the following quantitative characters : maturity time , plant height , grain yield and it’s components. The results indicated that direct selection will be effective in the third filial generation to improve plant height , grain yield and number of grains per spike in the all crosses. Recurrent selection or selection in the forth generation will be suggested to increase the desirable alleles for the other traits.

REHABILITATION OF DEGRADED RANGELAND IN NORTHERN IRAQ

K.K. Kasim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 79-84
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35981

This study was conducted at Mahalabia region in Ninevah province in Northern Iraq 45 km south west of Mosul city for the three successive seasons 99/2000, 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. The amount of the rainfall is less than 300 mm. This study included two field experiments. First, conducted on rangeland shallow highly gypsum soil (24% gypsum). The two sites were represented the rangeland in the cereal wheat belt area. In the first site, three treatments were established, first treatment was control represents (natural vegetation) and the two others were cultivated with vetch (Vicia sativa L. Var. IPA 2001) with and without triple superphosphate fertilizer 160 kg/ha. The second experiment was conducted on plate an shallow clay soil (52% clay). Also, three treatments were set up. First, was control represents (natural vegetation) and the two others were cultivated with annual medics (Medicago polymorpha Var. circle valley) with and without triple superphosphate fertilizer 160 kg/ha. The results revealed, that add phosphate reduced the phosphorus deficiency in the soil and lead to increase dry matter production for vetch and annual medics. Also, there was increase in the pod and seed yields, weight of 100 pods and 1000 seed of annual medics. On the contrary, phosphorus had no effect on the number of seeds/pod. There were significant differences in dry matter production between treatment cultivated by vetch and annual medics with and without phosphorus fertilizer in comparison with control treatment. Successful rehabilitation of degraded rangeland lead to increase the stability of animal wealth in the area and stop animal moving from place to another looking for natural vegetation for their feeding.

THE STUDY OF PERFORMANCE OF SOME POTATO LIFTING EQUIPMENT IN PICK-UP PEANUT CROP

Aziz R. Al-Banna

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 85-87
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35985

This research aimed to study some of the technical indications including the use of three kinds of potato diggers (Japanese plow, Chain and spindle type) under loamy clay soil conditions and depth about 15cm and four traveling speeds (1.71, 2.27, 2.56 and 3.41)km/hr. The results were analyzed statistically using the RCBD with split plot design with three replications. The main results of this study were follows: The local equipment (Japanese plow) showed significant effect on the studied properties when registered high weight of total pods, big size pods and undamaged pods with small weight of broken, search and unlifting pods. The travelling speeds of machines used showed no significant effect on studied properties.

INTEGRATED CONTROL OF FUSARIL WILT OF PLATANUS SEEDLING

Ali K.M.Al-Taae

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 89-95
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35991

The study showed that the tow fungside Atmi and Benlate caused growth inhibition 100% on medium of the fungus Fusarium oxysporum which caused wilt of platanussp. Seedling, The best treatment was using Benlate , fungal&Bacterial biological control which decrease the infection percentage to 30% compared with 100% when no control measure was used , followed by other treatment .Using the two fungside Atmi , Benlate alone or mixed with fungal& Bacterial biological control did not showed significant differences in the number of leaves , The fungal biological control was better than Bacterial biological control and the mean number of leaves was 25.33.It was showed that the fungus affect significantly on some characterizes of plant

EFFECT OF Fusarium solani, Rhizobium leguminosarum, BENOMYL AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION ON CERTAIN CHARACTERS OF LENTIL

J. M. Ahmed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 96-106
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.35997

The effect of seed inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum, Biavar viciae, seed treatment with benomyl, nitrogen fertilization and Fusarium solani (Mart.)Synder et Hansen on three lentil (Lens culinaris medic) cultivars were studied. In the presence of mixed inoculum (3 isolates) of the pathogen, the lentil cultivar IPA-98 was more resistant than IPA-2000 and Barka. It was superior into response to inoculation with a mixture of three races of R. leguminosarum and nitrogen fertilization in addition to into high production. Nitrogen fertilization decreased severity and improved plant growth, including production of three lentil cultivars, lentil yield and number of root nodules were increased when seeds were inoculated with R. leguminosarum. Yield increase and improvement of studied characters were recorded in the treatment which involved nitrogen fertilization, seed dusting with benomyl and inoculation with Rhizobium bacteria. This study constitutes the first of its kind, in which the effect of these factors on three cultivars was recorded in Iraq.

BIOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CONTROL OF DAMPING OFF AND ROOT ROT OF TOMATO CAUSED BY Fusarium solani WITH Pseudomonas aeruginosa AND THE FUNGICIDE BENLATED

Bassam Yahya Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 107-114
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36004

The present study revealed that the use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the fungicide Benlate greatly suppressed Fusarium damping off and root rot of Tomato caused by Fusarium solani,Benlat showed high level of antagonism against F. solani and that caused significant reduce in mycelium growth 100% and spores germination 49.53% in laboratory . It was also showed that Benlate has no toxic effect to Ps. aeruginosa while it caused effective suppression to F.,solani where the percentage of mycelium growth inhibition was 100% at 150 mg/L active ingredient of Benlate ,The interaction between Ps. aeruginosa and Benlate caused high suppression to Tomato seedling infection with F.solani in addition to significant increase in plants growth features.

PATOGINICTYAND PJYTOTOXITY OF HENDERSONULA TORULOIDEA NATTRAS ON CITRUS TREES

Bassam Yahya Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 115-121
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.36038

Isolation from orange trees infected with branch wilt showed the presences of Hendersonula toruloidea Nattras as potential pathogen , Seven fungicides were used in vitro in the following concentration 50,100,150mg/L Al the fungicides caused significant inhibition growth of mycelium .According to bioassay technique of H.toruoloidea culture filtrate which includes young shoot cutting and shortage in calculate water leakage. It was clear that culture filtrate caused shoot cutting wilt after one and totally dried after three days and this culture filtrate also caused water leakage in orange shoot cutting .Host range of H.toruoloidea include the following citrus species Lemon(C.limon)limetta (C.limetta)SourOrange (C.sinensis),Grapefrute(C.paradisi)&Mandarin (C.deliciose).

FOOD PREFERENCE OF Microcerotermes diversus Silv. (ISOPTERA, TERMITIDAE) TO THE WOODS OF SOME FOREST TREES*

Nazar M. Al-Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 122-129
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.38554

The result of feeding preference study of the termite Microcerotermes diversus Silv to the different species of wood tested ( Platanus orientals , Populus nigra , Cupresses sempervirens , Salix acmophylla ,, Pinus brutia and Eccalyptus camaledulensis ). Under both artificial and natural infection conditions. The insect preferred the wood of Platanus, Salix and Populus trees; the general mean of weight loss for wood during the period of experiment were: 65.95, 55.77, 26.35 and 37.85, 23.16, 37.74 gr. respectively, on the other hands Pinus and Cupressus wood showed loss preferred by the termite and gave 2.42, 2.89 gr. For natural infection and 4.95, 6.11 gr. for artificial infection respectively. The results obtained from study for wood preference and the free choice method emphasized the previous results.

THE ROLE OF YELLOW STICKING TRAPS FOR ESTIMATION OF LEAF HOPPER Empoasca decedens POALI ON DIFFERENT STRAINS OF POPLAR TREES IN MOSUL

M.A.Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 33, Issue 2, Pages 130-135
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2005.38528

The study was conducted in the plantation of poplar research station of horticulture & forestry in Rashidia – Mosul in 2002 , it was noticed that the presence of leaf hopper on poplar trees from the beginning of May up to the end of December .The results showed that the population density of the insect which attracted to yellow sticky trip reached maximum number in October on the strains under study, the strain populus deltoides 618 was more sensitive than other s P.d. 470,P.d. 479 & R-110 and its general means were 279.56, 255.02 , 205.6 & 144.28 insects respectfully . The statistical analysis showed significant differences between strains, date of sampling and monthly populations , in addition there were non significant positive correlation between insects numbers of strain with the weekly temperature (-0.06112) , and also non significant negative correlation with the weekly relative humidity (-0.25398) .For the monthly numbers ,the correlation was negative and non significant with temperature (-0.08191) ,but it was positive and significant with the relative humidity(0.57001)