Reproductive efficiency represented by sexual desire, semen quality, testicular dimensions, and level of sex hormones are among the main components of ram fertility, which affect the fertility and productivity of the herd. Since the development of the testicles is related to reproductive activity and the ability to fertilize, so measuring the dimensions of the testicles is important in evaluating the reproductive capacity of rams. In addition, the concentration of testosterone is reflected in most of the characteristics of male sexual behavior, as it is positively and significantly correlated with ejaculation volume, mass motility, and sperm concentration. An increase in the level of testosterone hormone in the blood plasma, causing an increase in male sexual desire and an improvement in the quality of semen through direct influence in the process of sperm formation. Reproductive traits are also affected by age, body weight, season and herd management, as well as the impact of the environmental conditions, which are temperature, humidity, level of nutrition, quantity and quality, and length of lighting period. The volume of semen increases and is more dense, individual motility, and mass motility of the sperm increases with the increase in the concentration of testosterone during the reproductive season. Therefore, this study aimed to discuss some of the traits responsible for improving the reproductive performance of Awassi rams by reviewing the results of some studies that dealt with the traits responsible for reproductive efficiency and sexual behavior of these rams.