ECOLOGICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF Vespula. Germanica
Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture,
2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 61-75
AbstractVespula germanica ( German wasp) is considered a dangerous pest that attacks bees and orchards, and its sting harmful to humans , found in much of the Northern Hemisphere, Khalaf was recorded in Iraq in 1958, it was limited to registration within the Iraqi insects fauna only, and no any biological or environmental studies in Iraq. Therefore, study aimed for understanding of some aspects of the insect. During three years, 2018-2019- and 2020, field survey in different fields in Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan, collected 27 nests to investigate several colony characteristics. Our study showed the size of mature nests is correlated to number of individuals produced. observed that the German hornet builds its nests in different places as on trees and shrubs, on roofs of houses , buildings, animal pens, poultry fields, and near water sources. Queen begins to appear at beginning of May, workers at beginning of July, as for the males and virgins, they appeared in October. And all members cast die in winter except newly fertilized queens remain, who hibernate to next season. Showed the activity of workers increases with the progression of the hours of the day and that their highest activity is during the hour (9-11) in the morning, at rate 100 wasps/hour. seasonal activity starts from May to November, and highest activity recording during July, August, and September. The highest average of sealed brood area 3.11inch during July , highest average number of hexagonal eyes 91 eyes/nest in October.
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