Resistance Saffower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) Callus and its branches to salinity Stress
Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture,
2018, Volume 46, Issue 4, Pages 447-462
AbstractThe study was implemented in the year 2013-2014 in the tissue culture laboratory of the field crops department/ faculty of agriculture and forestry for the purpose of producing callus and saline resistant plants , the results showed capability to initiation leaves callus with high levels which was 100% at present 2,4-D alone or its interaction with BA in medium of MS, which supported by sodium chloride salt levels (0.0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 Molar) except a concentration (0.3 molar) which significantly reduced the initiation ratio.
The estemation results of proline acomulation in leaves callus as an indicator of salinity resistance showed that the proline content was significantly higher at all levels of salinity used (0.05-0.3 molar) for more than 30 μg/g frish whight compared to 2.3 and 2.8 μg / g After 4 and 8 weeks of treatment any more than 10 times its presence in control tretment.
Salinity resistance results showed that branches forming from callus of shoot tip and leaf showed resistance to salinity after four weeks of transfer of branches to growth medium and multiplication which suplimented with sodium chloride salt. Although the number of branches decreased slightly in the fourth week, they were able to grow and showed tolerance to the medium content of 0.2 molar NaCl, while no significant differences were observed in the number of branches during the four weeks on the saline medium (0.1 molar). The number of branches arising from leaf callus did not differ significantly in all medium (0.0-0.2) and showed continuous resistance for four weeks. Results of interaction salt with the plant part showed that increased salinity led to the reduction of branches with a significantly increased concentration of the tip stem and were not significant for the branches of the callus leaves. The effect of the time showed that it was not significant in reducing the number of branches in the two parts of the plant. It was also noticed that there was an increase in the length of the branches of each of the stem tip and leaves callus in the medium containing (0.1 molar NaCl). In high concentrations of salt (0.2 molar) It continued to grow in all saline medium, suggesting that salts may be resistant to saline stress, possibly for genetic mutations that have adapted to growth in these medium,
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