Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Current Issue
Volume 49, Issue 3

Volume 49, Issue 3, Summer 2021


EFFECT OF SALICYLIC ACID APPLICATION ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF GREEN ONIONS GROWN UNDER SALT STRESS

Noura Kka

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 1-11
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.130333.1133

Soil salinity negatively affects crop production and leads to loss of agricultural lands worldwide. In Iraq, poor agricultural practices, such as inadequate drainage facilities and low water quality, are known to be caused soil salinization. Onion (Allium cepa L.) is an economic crop that is consumed heavily as green or dry bulb onion. The cultivated area of green onion was statistically decreased in the Kurdistan region, Iraq, lately. Therefore, this study was conducted in the Directorate of Agriculture, Ankawa, Erbil, to examine whether salicylic acid (SA) mitigate the effect of salt stress and improve the growth and development of green onions. Two different concentrations of NaCl (20 and 40 mM) were injected around the base of each plant and after 24h, SA (0.5 and 1mM) was sprayed to the vegetative parts of each plant, evenly. The results showed that the short-term application of SA was reduced the impact of NaCl. The number of green leaves, leaf area, plant height, root growth, bulb diameter, plant weight and total yield (t. ha-1) was improved by the application of SA. It has been suggested the application of a commercial or SA analogue to the agricultural saline land may alleviate the salt stress and improve the product.





     Soil salinity negatively affects crop production and leads to loss of agricultural lands worldwide. In Iraq, poor agricultural practices, such as inadequate drainage facilities and low water quality, are known to be caused soil salinization. Onion (Allium cepa L.) is an economic crop that is consumed heavily as green or dry bulb onion. The cultivated area of green onion was statistically decreased in the Kurdistan region, Iraq, lately. Therefore, this study was conducted in the Directorate of Agriculture, Ankawa, Erbil, to examine whether salicylic acid (SA) mitigate the effect of salt stress and improve the growth and development of green onions. Two different concentrations of NaCl (20 and 40 mM) were injected around the base of each plant and after 24h, SA (0.5 and 1mM) was sprayed to the vegetative parts of each plant, evenly. The results showed that the short-term application of SA was reduced the impact of NaCl. The number of green leaves, leaf area, plant height, root growth, bulb diameter, plant weight and total yield (t. ha-1) was improved by the application of SA. It has been suggested the application of a commercial or SA analogue to the agricultural saline land may alleviate the salt stress and improve the product.





 

EVALUATION OF GENETIC VARIABILITY BETWEEN THREE LINES OF CHICKENS BASED ON RAPD-PCR AND 18S rRNA GENE SEQUENCING IN ERBIL (IRAQI KURDISTAN REGION)

Hemin Ali Omarbly; Dilger Khdr; Rozhgar Khailany; Aram Ahmed; Shirkoo Fateh Salai

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 12-26
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129979.1129

The current study was carried out to evaluate and identify the genetic variation between Local Black chicken lines with two commercial Layer (Isa Brown) and Broiler (Rose) breeds using RAPD markers and sequencing approach of 18s rRNA gene. From the result of the RAPD marker, all primers used were produced 152 scorable bands ranging from 2 to 9 with the size ranging from 320 to 2990 bp with percentage polymorphic loci 64.86% among chicken populations. The highest amplified fragments by primer OPC-11 and lowest by OPAA-03 were 24 and 8, respectively. The mean of the observed number of alleles (na), effective number of alleles (ne), gene diversity (h), Shannon's information index (I) for all loci found to be 1.6486, 1.5189, 0.2883 and 0.4129, respectively. The existence of a high level of polymorphisms and targeted (74) loci throughout all chicken populations/primers indicate sufficient genetic distance and more genetic variability among chicken populations using RAPD-PCR techniques. Result of blasted sequences of 18srRNA gene of local chicken has GenBank accession number MT808178 and MT808179 by BLAST tool against Gallus gallus, it showed the highest identity 95.74% and 94.88% for data of first and second part, respectively. The overall dendrograms clustered showed that the local chicken was closer to the commercial layer than to the broiler chicken lines. Therefore, it suggests that improving the local Black chicken line according to the layer breeding program to collect genetically invaluable genetic resources

A COMPARISON STUDY BETWEEN EPIC AND MODIFIED EPIC MODELS IN ASSESSING THE ERODIBILITY FOR ALLUVIAL SOILS

Safa Al-Qaisi; Khalid F. Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 27-32
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.131054.1138

The  study aimed to determine the effect of spatial variability on the  erodibility factor (K-factor) for alluvial  soils located at Tigris river bank using two empirical models ,KEPIC and modified KEPIC( Kr).The studied alluvial soils were extended along the adjacent area of Tigris river including three sites (Mosul Dam , Al-Rashidia and Al-Busaif).The results indicated that there is a wide variations between the two models in estimating the soil erodibility. It showed that use of the Kr model (modified KEPIC) would be considerably lead to under - estimation  prediction than KEPIC model. The lowest  values of  Kr model in comparison with KEPIC for three sites is related to that the Kr -model take into account the gravel fraction in their formula while the KEPIC is not. These finding indicate that the computing method of  soil erodibility  based on the Kr-model is reasonable and most suitable for estimation soil erodibility for  scientific and detailed studies of alluvial soils (as in our soil study) or in soils that have a considerable amounts of gravels separate in comparison to KEPIC  which can be used to determine the initial values of soil erodibility by water erosion.

UTILIZATION OF CARTONS WASTE CHIPS IN MANUFACTURING OF FIBER COMPOSITE BOARDS

Dilgash Yaseen; Aree Abdulqader

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 33-49
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.130909.1136

This experiment was implemented to study the physical and mechanical properties of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) manufactured from Old Corrugated Containers OCCs using three variables including density of board (0.6 g/cm3 and 0.7 g/cm3), resin content of urea-formaldehyde (8 %, 10 % and 12 %) and pressing time (25, 30 and 35 minutes). Results showed that board density proved to be an important factor affecting MDF manufacturing, board density showed significant effects on both Modulus Of Elasticity (MOE)  and Modulus Of Rapture (MOR), while it had no significant effect on Internal Bonding (IB), higher board density (0.7 g/cm3) surpass low board density (0.6 g/cm3). The percent resin content and press time gave a significant effect on mechanical properties except IB. Also, it was noticed a perfection of boards combined at 12% resin contents and 30 minutes of mechanical properties. The triple intercourse between main effects showed to be significant for MOR, MOE and IB, generally boards made of higher density (0.7 g/cm3) with 12% resin content at pressing time 30 minutes developed better mechanical properties than other boards. According to the physical properties, board density showed a significant effect on Water Absorption (WA), Thickness Swelling (TS) and Linear Expansion (LE) after 2 and 24 hours of submersion in water. The resin content at 12 % and pressing time at 30 minutes showed better mechanical and physical properties.