Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Main Subjects : poultry Physiology


Ghadeer Rahawi; Abdullah Fathi Abdul-Majeed; Saeb Abdul-Rahman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 65-77
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133151.1167

Animal health depends on multiple factors, and recently it has been shown that diet plays a major role in maintaining health and preventing various diseases. One of the most important nutritional factors is antioxidants, which occupy a special place because they play an important role in animal survival, maintaining animal health, and improving its physiological and productive performances and the immune state of the body. Antioxidants work to reduce the harmful effects of free radicals and toxic products of the metabolism. Therefore, the role of antioxidants, especially antioxidant vitamins (vitamin A, E, and C) is important in the growth stages of the bird's body, as well as in reducing the stress of birds as a result of their rapid growth requirements. Poultry products are considered one of the most protein sources in human nutrition in order to solve the problem of food shortage in the world, so the poultry industry is taking many ways to reduce the time period to reach the marketing weight such as: genetic selection, nutritional improvement, and other environmental factors, but unfortunately, all of that is associated with reduced immunity and the occurrence of oxidative stress. Therefore, the aim of this review is to clarify the role of antioxidants, which are: vitamin A, E, and C in the physiological and productive performance of broilers and their ability to prevent and/or reduce the oxidative stress effects in the body.


Mahbuba A. Mustafa; Rand R. Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 114-124
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128894.1089

The present study was conducted to study the impact of serotonin, tryptophan and Optifeed adding in drinking water on behavior characterize, body performance, sensory evaluation of breast and thigh meat, some biochemical parameters of blood and immune status against some diseases by ELISA of broiler (Ross-308). 400 unsexed chicks one day old were randomly distributed into 4 treatments and 4 replicates for each treatment, are: T0 (control standard drinking water DW), T1 (0.5 g tryptophan/1 L DW, T2 (2 mg serotonin/1 L DW, T3 (0.5 g Optifeed®/1 L DW). The birds were reared for 42 days and behavior traits of birds controlled by erected cameras upon all replicates. The analyzed results were significantly improved behavioral characteristics, body performance (body weight and gain, feed intake, FCR, water consumption, uniformity, liver, and gizzard%), feasibility (economic profit), sensory evaluation (aroma, taste, tenderness, juiciness, and acceptance) of cocked breast and thigh meat, blood serum concentrations (total protein, globulin, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), serotonin, thyroxin (T4), tryptophan), and immunological ELISA titers against Newcastle, Gamboro, and Infectious bronchitis viral diseases. Otherwise, significantly decreased mortality, and blood serum concentrations, (triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and corticosterone) in all treatments of water additives compared with the control.
The addition of Optifeed® and serotonin positively affects in all experimental characteristics than others especially improved behavioral characterize of broiler during the rearing periods.


Hassan Awad Albdrani; Abdullah F. Abdul-Majeed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127701.1058

The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of potassium iodide in-ovo injection on thyroid gland activity and some hematological and biochemical indices of broiler chicks. A total of four hundred seventy-seven fertilized broiler eggs (Ross 308) were randomly distributed into 3 groups (159 eggs/group), with 3 replicates (53 eggs/replicate). Eggs of 1st group were considered as a negative control (not injected), the 2nd group eggs were injected with 0.2 mL deionized water (positive control), whereas the 3rd group eggs were injected into the allantois sac, with 2 mg potassium iodide/ egg in 0.2 mL volume, on the 10th day of incubation. At the hatch day, hatchability%, embryonic mortality%, chicks weight were measured, and the hematological and biochemical tests were conducted. The weight of the hatched chicks from injected eggs with potassium iodide was significantly lower than that in negative control group (P≤0.05), moreover, a significant increase was recorded for hemoglobin, packed cell volume%, lymphocytes%, and thyroxin concentration as compared with the control group, meanwhile a significant decrease was recorded for the heterophils%, H/L ratio, cholesterol, triglycerides and triiodothyronine concentration as compared with the control group (P≤0.05). In conclusion, potassium iodide has an important impact on thyroid activity and reduce stress on the incubated eggs, as well as on some hematological indices of hatched chicks.


Ahmed Taha; Anmar Dhirar Mawlood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 3, Pages 1-8
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.125948.1004

This study designed to demonstrate the effect of adding different levels of melatonin in some productive and physiological characteristics of quail birds at the age of 35 days. Melatonin added from 7 days to 21 days age, a total 225 bird aged 7 days divided into three treatments with three replicates. The first treatment represented the control treatment (without addition). The second and third treatments Ration supplemented with melatonin at a concentration of 20 and 30 mg / Kg feed respectively
The results showed:
Melatonin addition did not have significant effect on the live body weight, body weight gain, feed consumption, and the feed conversion ratio from the age of 7 to 35 days, although there was a significant decrease in the melatonin treatments body weight at 21 Day.
In addition, melatonin treatment had no significant effect on the total number of red blood cells, white blood cells, PCV% and hemoglobin concentration. While the third treatment showed a significant decrease in MCV and MCH compared to control treatment. About the antioxidants status, Melatonin (20 mg|\kg) reduce MDA and increase GSH significantly.

Effect of Crushed Eruca sativa Seeds Supplementation to Quail Ration on Lipid Profile Before and After Sexual Maturity

Abdullah Fathi Abdul-Majeed; Sarmad Hashem Taha

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2019, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 25-35
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161245

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of crushed Rocket salad (Eruca sativa) seeds on serum lipid profile and risk index of males and females quail before and after sexual maturity. A total of two hundred forty unsexed quail (Coturnix coturnix) (7 days aged) were randomly distributed into 4 groups (60 birds/ group,   5 replicates, 12 birds / replicate), the feed and water were allowed ad libitum, and the treatment continued till 77 days age, as follows:-
1st group(control): birds were reared on standard ration (without Eruca sativa seeds)
2nd group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds from the age of 7 days till 42 days age.
3rd group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds from the age of 42 days till 77 days age.
4th group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds for the whole period of experiment (7 - 77 days).
The addition of crushed Eruca sativa seed don't change the level of blood glucose, but it improves serum lipid profile in males and females quail, especially when given in the early stage of growth before sexual  maturity (Eruca sativa from 7days age), and there was a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the level of cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-C compared with control.
Also the addition of Eruca sativa seeds in the ration enhanced and significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) the level of HDL-C in males and females quail before sexual maturity (2nd and 4th groups), and there is no significant changes in the level of LDL-C compared with control, which reflected in improvement of risk index (LDL/HDL) especially when Eruca sativa seeds were added from 7 days age.
On the other hand, the addition of Eruca sativa seeds reduced the stress effects in males and females quail as represented by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in  AST and ALT values as compared with the control group.
In conclusion, the addition of crushed Eruca sativa seeds improve the lipid profile and risk index, also reduce stress condition in males and females quail, especially when given in the growth stage and  before sexual maturity.