Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Main Subjects : Forest Sciences


UTILIZATION OF CARTONS WASTE CHIPS IN MANUFACTURING OF FIBER COMPOSITE BOARDS

Dilgash Fayeq Yaseen; Aree Abdulqader

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 3, Pages 33-49
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.130909.1136

This experiment was implemented to study the physical and mechanical properties of Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF) manufactured from Old Corrugated Containers OCCs using three variables including density of board (0.6 g/cm3 and 0.7 g/cm3), resin content of urea-formaldehyde (8 %, 10 % and 12 %) and pressing time (25, 30 and 35 minutes). Results showed that board density proved to be an important factor affecting MDF manufacturing, board density showed significant effects on both Modulus Of Elasticity (MOE)  and Modulus Of Rapture (MOR), while it had no significant effect on Internal Bonding (IB), higher board density (0.7 g/cm3) surpass low board density (0.6 g/cm3). The percent resin content and press time gave a significant effect on mechanical properties except IB. Also, it was noticed a perfection of boards combined at 12% resin contents and 30 minutes of mechanical properties. The triple intercourse between main effects showed to be significant for MOR, MOE and IB, generally boards made of higher density (0.7 g/cm3) with 12% resin content at pressing time 30 minutes developed better mechanical properties than other boards. According to the physical properties, board density showed a significant effect on Water Absorption (WA), Thickness Swelling (TS) and Linear Expansion (LE) after 2 and 24 hours of submersion in water. The resin content at 12 % and pressing time at 30 minutes showed better mechanical and physical properties.

ASSESSMENT OF NATURAL REGENERATION OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF GAPS IN ATRUSH FOREST

muzahim S. younis; Mohammed Y. Al-alaaf; Mohanad Abd-Alqader

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 43-52
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127907.1062

Atrush Forest is a mixed forest that contains many types of forest trees and shrubs, and the dominant species in these forests (Pinus brutia Ten., Querecus sp., Crataqus ozaralus, Juniperus oxycedrus, Rhus coriaria, Prunus amycdalus, Ficus carica L. and Plautus spina- christi), the total area of the study area was determined (126.1821) hectare, (1786) gaps were fixed, classified into four categories, measurements were taken of the crowns and the total height of the surrounding trees that make up the circumference of the gap. As for the gap area, use the ellipse formula. It was found that the numbers of small gaps come in the forefront for each category (X < 200) m2  and (200 < X < 400) m2 where the number of gaps in the first category (X < 200) (855) was a problem gap of 48% of the total  gaps, while the second category followed (200 < X < 400), in which the number of gaps was (444) gaps and constituted (25 %), while the third category (400 < X < 600), the number of gaps was (171) gaps formed by that (10%) of the total gaps, while the number of gaps in the fourth and large category (X > 600) was (316) gaps, and 17% of the total gaps formed, while the shapes for the gaps were the triangular, oval, regular, and irregular shape Regular proportions (6, 30, 37 and 27 %) respectively, and that the ellipse and regular form (67 %) of total space. As for the gaps with areas (400 < X < 200) m2 where the triangular, oval, regular and irregular shapes form the proportions (9, 28, 39, 24 %) respectively, we find that the oval and regular forms are a total of (67 %) of the areas of the second category, while the gaps with areas (600 < X < 400) m2 , the triangular, oval, regular and irregular shapes formed the proportions (13, 25, 40, 22 %) respectively, and the oval and regular forms formed 65% of the areas of the third category. While we find that the large gaps whose area is greater than (600 > X) m2, we find that the triangular, oval, regular and irregular oval shapes formed proportions (13, 18, 53, 16 %), respectively, and that the sum of the ratios The oval and regular forms of the fourth area category are (71 %), and this indicates that the oval and regular forms are the most common forms in the gaps, and there is no doubt that regular forms are prevalent at the site of the study and formed (17 %) of the total gaps.

CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF POPLAR SPECIES LEAVES GROWN IN NINEVAH GOVERNORATE.

Y.M. Al-alousy; M.Y. Mohamed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 209-216
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161278

Leaves forage of three Poplar species grown at Ninevah forest(Populus nigra , P. euphratica , P. deltoids) were evaluated for comparative seasonal contents of Crude protein , Ash, Organic matter, Dry matter, Eather extraction, Crude fiber, Soluble carbohydrates , Phosphorus, and Potassium which determined according to Anonymous. (2002), in order to determine the best date for collecting the forage of these species to be used at food shortage time for livestock and wild ungulates. Samples were collected in fivedates (20th\ April , 20th June, 20th Augest,20th October,20th November). The study showed that Populus nigra leaves were significantly different with other species and contained higher percentage of Ash, Crude protein and phosphorus and suitable percent of crude fibers , whereas Populus deltoids leaves contained the higher percent of dry matter, soluble carbohydrates, Eather extraction and Potassium and the lower percent of crude fibers , contained the lower percent of crude protein and higher percent of crude fibers. The study recommended using the forage of Populus nigra and P. deltoids leaves in livestock and wild Ungulates Nutrition because of there higher contain of crude protein over all growth season and the fibers percent did not increased too much by the progressive of growing season in adition to the good content of other nutrition compounds.

EFFECT OF EUCALYPT WOOD LIGNOSULFONATES ON CONCRETE PROPERTIES

Esam Hamid; Esam Majeed Solyman; Janan Yousif David

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 197-208
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161277

The study was performed to investigate the effect of Eucalyptus camldulenses wood lignosulfonate on concrete properties. several concrete mixtures were used with the variables (cement: 500, 600, and 700 gm.), (water: 35, 40, 45, and 50%). (Lignosulfonate: zero. 3, and 5%). A compression test on all samples was used to evaluate the effect of the Eucalypt wood lignosulfonates on concrete properties. There were a highly significant effects of the studied main variables on compression test, specially cement, water percentage, lignin derivative (lignosulfonate) and the interactions between cement with water percentage, cement with lignin derivatives, water with lignin and cement with water and lignin derivatives. The interaction between cement and lignin derivative didn’t show any significant effect on compression test. After Duncan's test on all the study factors showed that cement amount of 600gm had a highest average of compression test with 130.28 kg/ cm2. water percent (35, 40, 45, and 50%) gave the highest values (112.34, 115.73, and 117.2 kg) respectively.Consequently lignin derivative percentages had a significant effect on the compression test specially at (3, 5%) percent (114, 118, 8 kg / cm2) respectively. Averages of 600gm of cement samples and 45% water interactions had a highest average (147, 81 kg/cm2) values, 40% percent of water & 3% lignin (Lignosulfonates) had compression values of (142, 84 kg / cm2).All samples of 600 gm. Cement, 45% water percentage and 3% lignin derivative had best compressed value 182.44 kg/ cm2.