Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Main Subjects : Field Crops


PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF NITROGENOUS FERTILIZER, APPLICATION TIMES, AND POLYMER GEL ON THE GROWTH CHARACTERISTICS OF BREAD WHEAT Triticum aestivum L.

saleh M. I. Al-Jobouri; Amjad TH. KH. Alabar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 1, Pages 120-130
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.128974.1092

A field experiment was carried out during the winter agricultural season 2019-2020 at two location (Al-Hamdaniya, Talkef) to study the effect of nitrogen fertilizer, its application dates, and polymer gel on the growth traits of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L), cultivar Talafar (3), and the RCBD was used. According to the split plots system and with three replications, the experiment included two factors, the first factor, levels of nitrogen fertilizer and its addition times, which are five levels :{ (zero as control treatment), (40 kg N /h: 1/2 when planting +1/2 beginning of Tillars), (40 kg N /h: 1/3 when planting +2/3 beginning of Tillars), (80 kgN /h: 1/2 when planting +1/2 beginning of Tillars) , (80 kg N /h : 1/3 when planting +2/3 beginning of Tillars)} and the second factor polymer gel in four levels (0, 80, 160 and 240 kg /h)  occupied coefficients The nitrogen fertilizer and the application of the main plots in the main plots experiment. The polymer gel levels occupied the sub plots. The results indicate that the levels of nitrogen fertilizer and the dates of its addition achieved a significant increase in most of the growth traits and for both locations, and the levels of polymer gel led to a significant increase in most of the growth traits, two study location, and The significant interaction response got all the growth traits except for the number of days until the beginning of flowering for the AL-Hamdaniya location and C.G.R for the Talkef location.

EFFECT OF BORON ON SOME INDUSTRIAL CROPS: A REVIEW

Waleed KH Al-Juheishy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 134-145
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128730.1083

Boron is considered one of the necessary elements for the growth of plants, it participates in the process of pollination, fertilization and plant fruit setting. It enhances the formation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and serves as a compound that accelerates the movement of sugars into the active areas during growth throughout the reproduction stages of the plant. Shortage in boron causes slowness in plant growth, decrease in production and degradation of crops quality. It is found that adding boron to some industrial crops such as (sesame, sunflower, safflower, rapeseed, soybean, cotton, flax, and sugar beet) leads to stimulating plants, accelerating the growth, and increasing the production of these crops, through its influence on many physiological functions that determine the growth and development of crop yield. It was noted that boron facilitates and speeds the transfer of sugars to the plants, as it interacts with sugars, forming a sugar complex with boron, this works on the movement of boron through cell membranes with ease compared to the movement of sugar molecules alone, and this may be due to the formation of regions or points of reception of sugar in modern growth or because boron may be considered one of the components of plant membranes, It also works to regulate enzymatic activity.

STUDY OF GENTIC PARAMETERS USING HALF DIALLEL CROSS IN MAIZE (Zea mays L.)

Mohammed S. Altaweel; Qusay A. Yousif

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 11-22
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127377.1049

Five inbred lines of maize (Zea mays L.) were used in this study with ten hybrids which planted through spring and autumn seasons (2018) at the research station of the Field Crops Department/College of Agriculture and Forestry/University of Mosul, using Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. The characters studied were date to tasseling, date to silking, plant height, number of leaves per plant, leaf area cm2, leave area index, number of ears per plant, ear length, number of rows per ear, number grains per row, 300 grain weight, grain yield per plant and oil percent %.The results showed that phenotypic, genetic and environmental variances were significant for all the characters for both seasons. The average degree of dominance was greater than one for number of leaves per plant, leaf area index, number of ears per plant, ear length, number of rows per ear, the number grains per row and oil percent. The broad sense heritability was high for plant height, leaf area, leaf area index, number of rows per ear, 300 grain weight, grain yield per plant, and oil percent for both seasons, while it was medium for number of leaves per plant, number of ears per plant, ear length, number grain per row, and low for date to tasseling, date to silking, at autumn season. The expected genetic advance values for all characters and for both seasons was high.

EFFECT OF TILLAGE SYSTEM AND SEEDING RATES ON GROWTH AND WHEAT YIELD Triticum aestivum L. AND ITS ASSOCIATED WEEDS.

Salim Hommaddi Antar; ahmed abdulla AL-Mashadanee

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 21-29
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127335.1047

The experiment was carried out during the winter agricultural season 2018-2019 in Nineveh Governorate at two location (Hamdaniya district 25-30 km east of Mosul  and Talkif district 25-30 km north of Mosul), the experiment include two factors, tillage systems (conservation  and  conventional tillage) and seeding rates (80 , 100 and 120 kg.ha-1), the seeds were planted at 11/1/2019 and 12/1/2019 for the two locations respectively. The variety   Adana  registered certified by Ministry of Agriculture was used. The experiment was applied as factorial experiment  using split plots system by R.C.B.D with three replications. The main plots contained the two tillage systems levels , and  the sub plots contained seeding rates levels , the experimental unit area was 20 m2,  The results showed no significant differences between tillage system in number-of narrow and broad leaves weeds and their weight for two location but the conservation  tillage was  surpassed conventional for grain yield  by 78.57 and 119.52 gm.m-2 in Hamdaniya and Talkef  location respectively, non-significant differences between the seeding rates in no-of narrow and broad  leaves weeds for two location , but seeding rate 120 kg.ha-1 surpassed 80 and 100 kg.ha-1 for grain yield 281.89 and 360.01 gm .m2 in Hamdaniya and Talkef location respectively. Non–significant differences between the seeding rates with conservation or conventional tillage in narrow leaves weeds for two location but lower number-of broad leaves weeds in seeding rate 120 kg.m-2 with conservation agriculture for two location. The best grains yield  obtain with seeding rates 120 kg.h-1 and conservation tillage by  314.62 and 405.02 gm.m-2 in Hamdaniya and Talkef locations respectively.

DIFFERENTIAL PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF BRASSICA NAPUS L. CULTIVARS (REANDY, SULTAN AND HEROS) AS A NATURAL SOURCES OF BIO-FUELS

Ahmed Abduljbbar; Bahar mahmud; Venos Abdullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 99-110
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127336.1046

The current work aims to study three seed cultivars of rapeseed (Brassica napus), as well as trying to provide a phytochemical insight of different rapeseed cultivars to be potentially cultivated as natural alternative hydrocarbon sources to petroleum hydrocarbons. The three seed cultivars, namely Heros, Sultan and Reandy were purchased from Britain, India and Sweden, respectively. After being cultivated, the seeds were collected, dried, and crushed. Oils from the crushed seeds were extracted with n-hexane as a solvent, and the attained oils were analyzed by GC-MS. The results showed that the tested oil seeds exhibited valuable phytochemical constituents, possessing increased percentages of long chain hydrocarbons. The 2,4-Decadinal (E,E)-(CAS) was the superior phytochemical compounds in Heros (18.73%) and sultan  (29.35%) seed oils, However, it was the second prevalent compound in Reandy seed oils. Also, percentage of the hydrocarbons content of the reandy seed genotype was (39.91%) higher than that of the Sultan (17.78%) seed oils. The most prevalent fatty acids were shown to be 9-Octadecenoic acid all the three tested gen verities. Based on the obtained data, Good hydrocarb plant yields can be offered by Heros and reandy cultivars. Also as a seed oil, could be considered as efficient plant oil for the industrial utilization as non-edible oils or in the biodiesel production as a low emission renewable energy.
 

INFLUENCE OF PRESS WHEELS, ROW SPACINGS AND SOWING RATES IN YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF WHEAT CROP (Triticum aestivum L.) CULTIVATED BY ZERO TILLAGE METHOD IN GLYUKHAN DISTRICT

Nawaf Jassim Alhamdani; Abdulsattar Asmair Alrijabo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 86-98
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127458.1052

A field experiment was carried out in a Moderate rainfall area (Jleokhan) in the Nineveh Governorate during the agricultural season 2018-2019 to study the effect of press wheels (use (+) and non-use (-), row spacing’s (17 cm and 34 cm), and sowing rates (80, 100 and 120 kg. ha-1) in the yield and its components of the wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L) Adana-99 cultivated with Zero Tillage (ZT) planting methods  and Conventional Tillage (CT) as a control treatment.The results showed that the planting methods (ZT 17+P) and (ZT 34+P) achieved the highest significant values ​​in the traits of plant height, the weight of 1000 grains, and grain yield. (ZT 17+P) planting method was achieved the highest significant values ​​ in the traits of tillers No. m-2, spikes No. m-2, biological yield and straw yield. The (ZT 34+P) planting method recorded the highest significant value in protein ratio trait. The sowing rate (120 kg. ha-1) achieved the highest significant values in the traits of tillers No. m-2, spikes No. m-2, and grain yield. In grain yield trait, the interaction between the planting  method (ZT 17+P) with all sowing  rates and the planting method (ZT 34+P) with (120 and 100 kg. ha-1) sowing rates  achieved the highest significant value in grain yield, while the interaction between CT  with (80 kg. ha-1) sowing rate has the lowest significant value in grain yield.

CORRELATION AND PATH COEFFICIENT ANALYSIS IN BREAD WHEAT

Safwan Alnajjar; Khalid Mohammed Dawod

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 25-35
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.126461.1019

Fifteen genotypes of bread wheat in addition to the two local varieties (Sham6 and Abu-Graib3) were planted inside Mosul University under three spaces between rows (15, 25 and 35cm) using split plots system in randomized complete block design with three replications to evaluate grain yield and some of its components (plant height, number spikes, number of grains/spike, biological yield, 1000 grain weight and harvest index), and genotypic and phenotypic path coefficient analysis among grain yield and its components. The results showed that 15 cm row space gave highest means for biological yield, number spikes and grain yield. The grain yield at this row space was 59.378%  and 123.422% higher than that at 25 and 35 cm row space respectively. Some genotypes significantly outperformed for larger number of traits including grain yield, came in the forefront of it MEXIPAK 65/ASFOOR-7, and Sham6 followed by the genotypes PBW343, NESMA*2/14-2//2*SAFI-3 and BT1735/ACHTAR//ASFOOR-1. It was shown that the yield/unit area had significant positive genotypic and phenotypic correlations with plant height, biological yield, number of grains/spike, 1000 grain weight and harvest index, and phenotypically with number of spikes per unit area. It was revealed from path coefficient analysis that number of grains/spike and harvest index had higher genetic and phenotypic direct effects and indirect effects through some other traits on grain yield, followed in importance by biological, this is useful in the reliability of these three traits as selection criteria for higher yield performance in breeding programs.

Evaluation of Faba Bean Genotypes For Yield And Yield Components Using Selection Index

Khalil Hathal Kanoosh; Mohammed Ali Al-Falahy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 12-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.126258.1013

The experiment was carried out at the farm at Filed crops Department , College of Agricultural engineering sciences , Duhok University in season 2018-2019 to construed selection index for five faba bean genotypes under different levels of phosphorus fertilizer .The results exhibited that all selection indices include the grain yield gave relatively efficiency , the best selection index were grain yield, number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds pods-1 , so that we can using these characters as criteria’s of selection of faba bean genotypes . Also the results showed that the highest mean selection index was 216.26 for latti kia genotype and significant and difference over all other genotypes .
The heritability broad sense was high for all studied characters and ranged between 0.94 to 0.99 . Regarding to the genetic advance as mean gave high values for first pod height (57.10) , grain yield plant-1 (43.97) , number of main branches plant-1 (33.92) and number of pods plant-1 (31.52) and medium for plant height , days to 75 flowering , number of nodules plant-1 and number of seeds pod-1 . So that we can using these desirable characters to improve the faba bean genotypes .

ESTIMATION OF GENETIC PARAMETERS IN SUNFLOWER HELIANTHUS ANNUUS L

Mowafaq Al-Layla

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 257-272
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161283

Six sun flower Genotypes (1-American, 2-Argenteny, 3-Govan, 4-Azor,
5-Mungreen, 6-Louse. were planted. half diallel was conducted out to get F1, In the next season the F1 seeds were planted to get F2.In the third season the six parents and all their F2 were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications.to study general and specific combining abilities for parents and crosses respectively, phenotypic variance components and some genetic parameters for parents and crosses were determined for plant height, leaf area, no. of seeds\head, diameter of head, 1000 weights seed, seed yield, biological yield, dry weight. Results indicated that the analysis of variance for genotypes, general and specific combining ability were significant for leaf area and No. of seed head and biological yield. While specific combining ability were specified for 1000 seed weight, seed yield and diameter head. The values of broad sense heritability was ranged from 67% for plant height character and 99% for leaf area and biological yield characters. Narrow sense heritability ranged from 1% for plant height and 40% for Biological yield. It was shown that selection for Biological yield gave higher percent of response to selection (27.12%) from original mean of yield, followed by no. of seed /head which gave percent of response to selection (15.62%)from original mean of yield.

USING MORPHOLOGICAL AND CHEMICAL CHARACTERSTICS OF GRAINS FOR IDENTIFICATION AND TAXONOMY OF SOME OAT CULTIVARS (Avena sativa L.)

A. Jabar; A. A. Yahya

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 229-242
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161281

This study was conducted in the laboratories of the Department of Biology, College of Education, Mosul University, to study the morphological and chemical characters of Oat Grains (Avena sativa). The cultivars studied were (Possum 6, Kangaroo 4, tall Oat, Mittika 5, short Oat). The data collected were statistically analyzed by using the Complete Randomized Design (C.R.D) with four replications for each experiment. Cultivars differences were verified statistically significant at the 5% level using Duncan multiple range test for each character used the morphological characters of Oat Grains: The results showed the presence of differences between cultivars in the following characters: Grain length, width and thickness, Rachilla length and density of brush hair, distance between cheeks, Grooves depth and shape, embryo shape, length of lodicules, The chemical characters of Oat grain: Cultivars differed for the percentage of oil content in the grain. Cultivars differed for the protein contents in the grains. All Grains cultivars were subjected to treatment by 1% phenol solution. Cultivars were stained to different degrees according to the intensity of staining. All Grains cultivars were also subjected to treatment by solution of (Phenol + Ferrous sulfate). Some Cultivars were stained to different degree of green color. There were differences in the degree of collapse of amylase (a starchy substance) of the grains after treatment with the solution of potassium hydroxide (2%), as there were broken and dissolution of the amylase of the grain of the cultivars, semi-broken amylase, or there was nearly no broken grains of the cultivar at tall.

EFFECT OF TILLAGE SYSTEM AND SEED RATES ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF DURUM WHEAT (Triticum durum) AND GROWTH OF ASSOCIATED WEEDS IN DRYLAND FARMING

Ahmad Sultan; Salim. H. Antar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 217-228
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161280

A field experiment was conducted during the growing season 2010-2011 at Namrood under supplementary irrigation and Al-koosh location under rainfall condition in Naniva province to evaluate tillage system (No till. Conventional till) under different seeding rates (100, 120, 140 kg / ha) to eliminate weed growth and to increase durm wheat var (Omm Rabie) yield Triticum durum L. However, the location was the third factor. The results showed that there was reduction in the number or dry weight of narrow 49.1 %.34.4 % respectively and broad leave weeds (57.9, 56.1 % respectively) in no till system when compared with conventional tillage but there was no difference between the two tillage system in wheat yield. In Al- Koosh location, there were reduction in the number and dry weight of grass weeds and dry weight of broad leave weeds when compared with Namrood location.Wheat yield was higher at Namrood as comparing with Al-Koosh (56.2 %) with difference between the two system up to 1952.8 kg / ha. On other hand, as seed rates had increased up to 140 kg/ha, the weed growth was low and the yield increased even if at 100 kg/ha seed rate. In general, the best result of crop yield at Namrood was with 100 kg/ ha seed rate under conventional tillage while at Al-Koosh location, Low yield had given in the con. Till differences between the two treatments reached up to 59.9 %.

EFFECT OF WHEAT AND BARLEY SEED PRIMING TREATMENTS ON BEHAVIOR OF GROWTH AND YIELD OF PLANT

Mohammed Al-Nori

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 243-256
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161282

The experiment was conducted in growth season 2011-2012 in the green house of Agriculture and Forestry College - Mosul University; to study the effects of four priming solutions i.e.(tap water, magnetized water, wheat enzyme, and barley enzyme) in addition to check treatment (without priming) on two wheat varieties (Cham-6 and Dour29) and two barley varieties (Local white and Fourat-4). The results illustrated that the priming solutions affect yield traits in wheat, and germination speed and growth characters in barley. Wheat varieties differ in emergence% and yield characters, while barley varieties differ in growth and yield characters. The second order interaction affect most studied characters. General results revealed that seed priming with water has a good effect on most growth and yield parameter.