Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Main Subjects : Agriculture Economy


PRODUCTION OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE FROM LOCAL ISOLATES OF Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae

Wjdan Salim Al-Obaidy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 97-107
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134702.1184

Fourteen local isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba plants collected from agricultural soils of different regions of Nineveh Governorate/Iraq. Six isolates with mucoid colonies were selected as follows: WS14, WS15, WS18, WS21., WS23 and WS26. These local isolates were incubated for periods 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. Dry biomass weight and exopolysaccharide (EPS) (g/L) were recorded. Results revealed that WS18 isolate was the best among the six mentioned isolates of R. leguminosarum biovar viciae, which it gave the maximum production of EPS (6.31 g/L) after two days of incubation. Maximum dry biomass w1.22 g/L after three days of incubation by the same isolate. The effect of addition of different carbon sources to yeast extract mannitol (YEM) broth medium on EPS production by WS18 isolate showed that mannitol, as carbon source was the best for production of EPS (6.36 g/L), after two days of incubation. Two percent was the optimal concentration of mannitol which supported the maximum production of EPS (9.67 g/L) after two days of incubation. The effect of addition of different nitrogen sources at 0.10 % concentration to YEM broth medium (supplement with 2.0 % mannitol) revealed that NaNO3 gave the best production which reached to 12.94 g/L after two days of incubation. The effective concentration of NaNO3 support the maximum production was 0.1 %. 
PRODUCTION OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE FROM LOCAL ISOLATES OF Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae
 

ESTIMATING THE ADDED VALUE OF WHEAT GRAIN MILLS IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE YEAR 2020

Eman Fasil Alzubaidi; Alaa Mohammed Almullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 37-49
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133953.1175

The study aims to find the added value of the agricultural industrialization of mills in Nineveh Governorate for the year 2020, and to calculate costs, revenues and profits and to diagnose the challenges and problems of the wheat grain milling industry. For the year 2020, out of a total of (41) mills distributed throughout the governorate, the results of the study indicated that the average total value added for grinding one ton of wheat grain amounted to (27,632.414) dinars / ton, and that the average net added value of grinding one ton amounted to (26556,617) dinars / ton, and the average total cost per ton of the crop amounted to (14,394.891) dinars / ton. and the average profit for grinding per ton was (13237.951) dinars / ton, and as for the average revenue per ton, it amounted to (56824.958) dinars / ton. The results indicated that the greater the share supplied to the mill by the General Company for the manufacture of grains, the production costs would decrease, which leads to that the added value would increase, and then the profits of the mill would increase and an increase in the national income would be achieved. One of the problems that mills suffer from is the low grinding wages per ton of wheat crop. The study recommended increasing the milling wages per ton of wheat crop paid to the mills in order to cover the high costs.

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF GRAPE PRODUCTION FARMS IN SALAH EL-DIN GOVERNORATE FOR THE 2019 PRODUCTIVE SEASON (BALAD DISTRICT AS A MODEL)

ZAWID FATHY AL-Ramathny

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 1-10
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.131238.1140


        The research aimed to study and analyze the productive reality of a sample of 35 grape growers in Balad District- Salah al-Din Governorate for the 2019 agricultural season. For production the study variables included social variables (educational level, experience, age of the farmer) and economic variables (amount of production, cultivated area, chemical and animal sky, control materials and pesticides, number of fruit trees). The results of the analysis showed that most of the economic variables were significant, and the area variable had the greatest impact on production, as the area parameter amounted to 0.380. It was found that about 0.76 of the changes that occur to production are due to economic variables, and the optimum production volume in the farms of the research sample reached (5.01) tons / dunam in When the volume of the most profitable production reached (6.96) tons / dunam, and the results of the analysis showed that the farmers of the research sample are almost close to the stage of economic production, and the study recommended the necessity of using standard and scientific methods and standards when adding production elements and conducting an analysis of the soil to determine its need of nutrients.

THE PRODUCTION EFFICIENCY AND DETERMINANTS OF THE CHICKPEA CROP IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE PRODUCTION SEASON 2019

mhasin mahmood Al-jebory

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 4, Pages 18-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.132054.1146

         The research aimed to estimate the production efficiency and the optimum economic determinants of chickpea crop farms and a sample of 40 farms in Sheikhan district and for the production season 2019, using the data envelope method and the statistical program DEAP and adopting the production quantity as a reliable variable and (cultivated area, quantity of seeds, human work hours, mechanical work hours, amount of control materials). The results showed that the average production efficiency of the research sample farms amounted to (74.8), with a minimum of (54%) and a maximum of (100%), and six farms achieved full production efficiency, which constituted (15%) of the total farms It was found that there is a discrepancy in the quantities of resources used compared to the quantities of resources that achieved economic efficiency, and this resulted in a surplus in some economic resources, and the variable size of the square occupied the largest proportion. . The researcher recommends improving the efficiency of the farmer through the optimal use of the resources used and the use of fertilizers to maintain the fertility of the agricultural soil. The researcher also recommends the need to follow scientific guidelines and results of research and practical studies, especially in Amounts of seeds used per unit area.

META – ANALYSIS FOR AGRICULTURAL RESEARCHES (REVIEW)

Eskander H. alqysy; muna A. ALamadani; sura S. alaidham

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 23-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.127947.1064

       This article aimed to discuss the Meta- analysis and its use in agricultural research. This analysis carefully reviews the results that have already been published; it works on organizing, integrating and scientific evaluation of previous researches and studies on a specific topic. It is also a statistical analytical approach aimed at interpreting the results of researches collected from multiple studies, it helps in making decisions, and its purpose is statistical integration between the results taken from a large community through several researches on different samples derived from the same community. It is a well-established technique in the natural, medical and psychological sciences, and it was used recently in the field of economics. It is a technique that differs from others; it has its methods, steps and quantitative procedures. Recently, Meta-analysis was considered one of the objective and solid methods in agriculture. Although in cross-sectional agricultural researches there are difficulties due to different conditions and environments, yet Meta- Analysis has become an inevitable method, as it can serve as a summary or a base for data and results that help researchers and determine their research path and direction. It helps decision makers and policy makers as it puts in their hands a large number of results and conclusions.

ESTIMATING AND ANALYZING THE FACTORS AFFECTING THE PRODUCTION AND PRODUCTIVITY OF SOME CASH CEREAL CROPS IN IRAQ AND EGYPT FOR THE PERIOD 1995-2016

Eman Y. alnjar; Basim F. Al-Douri; Waleed I. Sultan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 4, Pages 86-103
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.128623.1079

This study aims to estimating and analyzing the factors affecting the production and productivity of the main cereal crops in Iraq and Egypt at the period 1995-2016, which are characterized with low production. Three crops were selected, which are wheat, barley and rice. The research was based on a hypothesis that there is a deterioration in the production of the three crops due to some factors that hamper the development of crops production for the period 1995-2016. To verify the hypothesis, the methodology used linking two directions, the descriptive method which depended on the previous studies dealing with the same topic and the quantitative method based on the standard economics methods and techniques. The two stages normal least squares method was used and then interpreting the results of the quantitative method to evaluate the theoretical aspect of the study depending on the economic theory concept. Important conclusions were reached, including: agriculture in Iraq and Egypt is subjected to several limitations with varying effects on its growth. Also, the research reached the important result: the level of the economic agricultural exposure has a negative impact on the quantities of rice produced in Iraq and Egypt, and the researcher recommended adopting a pricing policy that contributes to the product protection and making the local prices of the crops in question approximately the same international prices.

IRAQ'S AGRICULTURAL ECONOMY AND THE REALITY OF THE VARIABLRS AND THE RESULTS OBJECTIVE CURRICULUM AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS FOR THE PERIOD (1990-2011)

Salim Al-Nuaimy; Mahasen. M Al-Jeboury

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 35-44
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161298

The research aims to formulate sober policies and practical actions contribute to adjust the course of the agricultural sector and to achieve its goals, which will make it easier to raise production and productivity, Variables of agricultural sector were agricultural work, capital accumulation agricultural, technical mechanism, technical chemical, agricultural loans, agricultural export, import of agricultural, national income, domestic consumption, the cultivatedareas, that have been expressed as (policies of productivity and investment, marketing and price) where its impact was deare on the growth of the agricultural sector and overall productivity during (1990-2010) and the development process and increase production and productivity in the agricultural sector associated with economic, social and institutional multiple and overlapping factors that effects the forms and varying proportions in its impact on agricultural output, which had been measured under function producing an aggregate of variables agricultural policy and its contribution to productivity growth as well as measuring productivity elements total (TFP) by using index (Malmaquist) depending on the (DEAP). Results of analysis showed that the adopted agricultural policies were not rise to the level of efficiency in the use and impact on low productivity total level agricultural sector, which calls for the need state intervention in the policy-making integrated farming, particularly production policy and investment, which proved its role in contributing to the evolution of the index of productivity for the advancement of Iraq's agricultural sector and enabling it to achieve food security.

ESTIMATING AND ANALYZING THE FUNCTIONS OF THE IMPORTS OF STRATEGIC CROPS IN SOME DEVELOPING COUNTRIES FOR THE PERIOD (1980-2010)

Kays Ghazal; Mohammad Subhi Al-Mashhadani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 2, Pages 11-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161294

The agricultural imports are considered as one of the basis of the agricultural foreign commerce which most countries depend on for solving the shortage of agricultural products that are unable to provide for their people in a short term. The strategic corns have a great rank in the economies of developing countries because of their alimental importance and their contribution in the foreign commerce. Despite their importance, these crops are unavailable in these countries for several reasons: the first reason is disusing a correct agricultural policy, especially in the scope of organizing their productive resources to make a high economic efficiency in producing agricultural corps in order to increase the production of these corps, the second reason is the carelessness of lands reclamation and the third one is the lack of quantitative and qualitative incentives presented to the producers of the strategic crops. According to mentioned above, this study depends on a supposition that there are some variables are affect the imports of the strategic corns in some underdeveloped countries, hence, the following developing countries are chosen (Iraq, Egypt, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, Thailand, Indonesia, Morocco, Jordan, Pakistan), and four strategic corps are chosen: (Wheat, Barley, Rice, Maize). The time series data were used to estimate the phenomenon under study for every country separately, because it reflects the occurring changes in the imported quantities of the strategic corps, and they have features and characteristics differ from country to another according to the political and economic structure of these countries. To achieve best results, a standard model was applied with four formulas: (linear formula, double logarithm, semi-logarithm, reflected logarithm). The most important conclusions of this research were the alimental gap in the underdeveloped countries which results in depending grossly on importing the strategic corns under study in order to filling the increased alimental gap and increased local demand of these corps, and this has undesired economic effect like alimental dependence on the foreign countries.

INDEPENDENT DEVELOPMENT, AND THE A RANGE OF ITS ACHIEVEMENT IN CHOSEN ARABIC COUNTRIES FOR PERIOD (1980 -2010)

Salim Al-Youzbaki; Asmaa Mahmood Fathallah Al-Mansor

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 35-48
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161264

The aim of this study is measuring the range of achievement of indevelopment development in the countries of sample by using the mathematical method and measuring the factors which effect on indicators of independent  development by using the econometrica method in analysis , Independent development is considered the alternative distinguished style with balanced strategy with independence in identifying the needs and capabilities. It is a comprehensive, balanced and conscious with its trends, objectives and its relations with other countries. The countries of the sample (Iraq, Syria, Libya and Algeria) adopted this style to overcome their economic and social crises , to improve their conditions , to get rid of underdevelopment, dependency and to build and develop their societies. which become an important and critical issue now and in future. The research has concluded that the countries of the sample have capabilities and qualifications that enable them to achieve this independent development on one hand and that achieving this development varied amongst those countries on the other. We see that Syria is in the independence stage and this stage enables it from accomplishing its goals and providing its requirements to a large degree. For Algeria, it is currently in the transitional stage a way to accomplish independency. While Iraq and Libya now are in the stage of dependency in depending greatly on other countries in order to provide their goods and services. The research also reached several conclusions and recommendations

ALTERNATIVE FARM PLANS FOR VAGETABLE FARMERS A HIGHER PROFIT MARGIN AND EFFICIENCY IN USING OPTIMUM RESOURCE STYLE ASSALAMEYYAH REGION AS AMODEL

Salim Al-Nua’imi; Sura Sa’il Abed Al-Ugaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 49-58
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161265

The research aims at achieving economical objectives represented by increasing pure profit of distance unit for various crops in the light of economical resources characterized with their limits in order to meet the needs of the desired plans for the farmer to be able to achieve his objectives efficiently. Linear programming style is one of the economical planning styles at farm level. It is characterized by its ability to handle and solve problems that face the projects represented by optimum allocation of the rare resources among the available alternative uses to achieve the required objective. To achieve that, the study was performed on vegetable farms in Assalameyyah Region belonging to Al-Namroud sub-district irrigated by Assalameyyah irrigation project as a model for applying the alternative farm economical plans. The model is represented by increasing objective function in the light of (11) possible and available activity and (6) limits (land, seeds, compound fertilizer, Urea fertilizer, combating materials and capital). Some attempts on the model were performed and the productive plan (optimum plan) obtained at the level of sample (70) farmers in (10) villages within the project area. The analysis results indicated that it has achieved a total margin more than the achieved total margin according to the prevailed structure in the region at an average (11127%) for the sample. The results also indicated to the presence of a surplus in most of the productive resources except land resource which refers to the inefficiency in using and wastage of those resources. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the model to analyze the supposed changes. The test included raising the costs of the productive requirements at a rate (10%). Then , the prices of selling the planted crops at a rate (10%). The results of test analyzing referred to achieving total margin more than the achieved total margin according to the current productive plan in the region for the first case. In the second case , the results achieved a total margin less than the achieved total margin according to the current productive plan..