Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Main Subjects : Animal Nutrition


EFFECT OF WEIGHT AT FATTENING ON CARCASS TRAITS OF AWASSI LAMBS

Osama A. Alzidan; Omar A. Al-Kurjia; Haytham M. Sabeh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133094.1166

This study was conducted to study the effect of different initial body weights of Awassi Lambs used for fattening and its outcome on growth and some carcass characteristics, 15 Awassi lambs were divided into 3 groups which differed in their initial body weight, first group was (22.00 ± 0.22 kg), second group was (29.80 ± 1.21kg), and the third group was (34.20 ± 0.66 kg). All lambs were fed   the same ration which consisted of barley, wheat bran and soybean meal, the ration had 14.39 % crude protein and 2499 Kcal/kg of metabolized energy. Results showed a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the average daily weight gain and total average weight gain in the third group which had the higher initial body weight when compared with first group which had the lowest initial body weight, the results also showed that using lambs with low initial weights in the first group caused a significant decrease  (P<0.05) in carcass weight as compared with the second and third groups which had lambs fattened with higher initial weights 18.76 kg , 24.63 kg and 25.25 kg for the three groups respectively. Total fat percentage of the carcass decreased significantly in the second group 15.83% in comparison with the first group 17.29% and the third group 18.68%, Total fat percentage was also significantly lower in the first group 2.741kg compared with the third group 4.047kg.





      This study was conducted to study the effect of different initial body weights of Awassi Lambs used for fattening and its outcome on growth and some carcass characteristics, 15 Awassi lambs were divided into 3 groups which differed in their initial body weight, first group was (22.00 ± 0.22 kg), second group was (29.80 ± 1.21kg), and the third group was (34.20 ± 0.66 kg). All lambs were fed   the same ration which consisted of barley, wheat bran and soybean meal, the ration had 14.39 % crude protein and 2499 Kcal/kg of metabolized energy. Results showed a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the average daily weight gain and total average weight gain in the third group which had the higher initial body weight when compared with first group which had the lowest initial body weight, the results also showed that using lambs with low initial weights in the first group caused a significant decrease  (P<0.05) in carcass weight as compared with the second and third groups which had lambs fattened with higher initial weights 18.76 kg , 24.63 kg and 25.25 kg for the three groups respectively. Total fat percentage of the carcass decreased significantly in the second group 15.83% in comparison with the first group 17.29% and the third group 18.68%, Total fat percentage was also significantly lower in the first group 2.741kg compared with the third group 4.047kg.





 

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT FEED ADDITIVES OF OPTIFEED, OLEOBIOTEC AND VEO PREMIUM ON THE PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILERS UNDER HEAT STRESS CONDITIONS IN DOHUK GOVERNORATE

Merkhan Mustafa; Saifaddin Zangana; NICHERVAN ARTOSHI; ARAS Tayib KHISHTAN; Luqman AL BERWARY

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 20-32
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132460.1152

This study was conducted at the University of Duhok, College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Animal Production Department. , to estimate the effect of different programs of adding  the phytogenic (Optifeed, Oleobiotec and Veo premium) which are nutritional plant materials that have ability to improve the productive performance of broiler, and that in the phases of broiler feeding: starter, grower , finisher and for the whole period of the experiment, as well as, carcass characteristics and economic efficiency at 35 days of age.  1440 one-day old chicks were distributed to five groups with six replicates for each group (48 chicks/replicate). Adding dietary phytogenic materials significantly (P<0.05) improved broiler performance at grower, finisher and during whole experimental period (35) days compared to control. Regarding the carcass characteristics and internal organs, all treatments significantly (P<0.01) increased dressing percentage compared to control group (basal diet), while all other carcass characteristics and internal organs did not significantly affected by phytogenic dietary supplementation. Concerning economic efficiency, all phytogenic dietary supplementation resulted in improved profit compared to the basal diet.  

EFFECT OF FEEDING REED WITH THE ADDITION MIXTURE OF ENZYMES AND PROBIOTIC ON BODY WEIGHT CHANGE AND SOME BLOOD MESUREMENTS IN AWASSI EWES

Mohammed Najim Abdullah; omar Diyaa almallah; safwan luqman shihab لقمان Al-Hiyalay; nashwan natheer salih

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 1, Pages 33-40
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132692.1157

The study was conducted in Nineveh Research Department at Ministry of Agriculture, Iraq, when a total of 21 Awassi ewes aged 2-3 years and weighing 48.61 ± 3.27 kg were used to evaluate the effect of feeding reed with addition of mixture of enzymes and probiotic on body weight and some blood parameters. The ewes were divided in to three groups (7 ewes per treatment). The first tr.eatment was fed daily concentrate diet (5kg/group) plus 3 kg of wheat straw. In the second group, the wheat straw was replaced with chopped common reed leaves while 2 gm of mixture of enzymes and probiotic was added. Results showed a significant increase (p≤0.05) in favor of the third treatment in the total weight gain of 5.00 kg and daily gain 70.85 g as compared with the second treatment 3.71 kg and 52.57 g respectively. Significantly (p≤0.05) increase was noted in blood total protein and globulin this was associated with a decrease in blood albumin in the second and third treatments compared to the first treatment. A significant increase (p≤0.05) was observed in the third treatment in the triglycerides 152.32 mg /dl compared to the first and second treatments 105.84 and 115.20 mg/dl. In general, it is possible to substitute common reed instead of wheat straw and to improve the efficiency of common reed utilization by adding a mixture of enzymes and probiotic.
EFFECT OF FEEDING REED WITH ADDITION OF ENZYMES MIXTURE AND PROBIOTIC ON BODY WEIGHT CHANGE AND SOME BLOOD MESUREAMENTS IN AWASSI EWES
 

EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF SOYBEAN MEAL IN FATTENING FARMER DIET ON AWASSI LAMBS PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

fares awad sabah; Taher abd alrawy; Maysaloon waal Ibrahim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 26-35
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129963.1127

The study was carried out at the farm located at the Animal Production Farm, College of Agriculture, University of Tikrit for a period of 70 days excluding 14 days as an adaptation period (from 8ᵗʰ October to 16ᵗʰ of December 2020). The aim of this study find alternative diets for fattening Awassi lambs in the northern region and improved protein of barley. Sixteen Awassi lamb were used, aged 5-6 months, with an average starting body weight of 26.2 ± 0.3 kg. Four formulation diets were randomly allocated to four groups of animals. Group one ( control) 98% barley, Group two (88% barley, 5% soybean meal, 5% vegetable fat), Group three (83% barley, 10% soybean meal, 5% vegetable fat), Group four ( 78% barley, 15% soybean meal, 5% vegetable fat). All the experiment diets were supplemented with 1% salts and 1% vitamins and minerals. The lambs were fed concentrate feed at 3% of live body weight on a dry matter basis with 100 grams of roughage (straw) day/lamb. The results showed that animals in group 2 (T2), group3 (T3) and group 4 (T4) significantly (P≤0.05) higher final body weight, average daily body weight gain and feed conversion ratio, then those from (T1) . Moreover , animals from T3 and T4 had significant (P≤0.05) higher production performance compared to those in T2 . The weights of hot , cold carcass, and the three main carcass cuts (leg, shoulder, and rack) were ignorantly (P≤0.05) heavier in T3 and T4 then other groups .The lambs in T3 andT4were also showed (P≤0.05) larger  eye muscle area then T1 and T2. There were no significant differences in dressing-out %,or fat thickness between the treatment groups . 

STUDY OF SEMEN CHARACTERISTICS AT SEXUAL MATURITY IN AWASSI LAMBS FED ON LOW DEGRADABLE SUNFLOWER MEAL AND SEEDS

safwan luqman Al-Hiyalay; omar dheyaa almallah; falah hassan alhassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 9-18
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.130161.1130

This study was conducted using 18 Awassi male lambs with an average initial weight 33.57 ± 0.69 kg for the period from 9-12 months of age. Lambs were distributed randomly into three treatments each, included 6 lambs. Lambs in the first treatment (T1) were fed a diet that includes 11% of sunflower meal, the second treatment (T2) fed diet includes 11% of low degradable sunflower meal, and the third treatment (T3) were fed on a diet containing 11% low degradable sunflower seed. The results were indicated a significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in semen volume in (T2) 2.77 ml compared with the (T1) 1.98 ml and (T2)1.69 ml. Significant improve (p≤ 0.05)  was noted in T2 and T3  in individual motility 87.33 and 87.70%  and sperm concentration 2.45 and 2.62 × 109 / ml compared to the T1 the individual motility was 84.95% and sperm concentration 2.10 × 109 / ml, respectively. Seminal plasma concentration of total protein, globulin, and urea were higher (P≤ 0.05) in T2 as compared other treatments. Whereas, feeding low degradable sunflower seed (T3) resulted in a significant increase (P≤ 0.01) of cholesterol concentration 140.05 mg/dl in seminal plasma compared with the T1 122.78 mg/dl and T2 125.81 mg/dl, while triglycerides was decreased (P≤ 0.05) in T1 37.49 mg/dl than T2 and T3 52.72 and 58.92 mg/dl respectivly.




This study was conducted using 18 Awassi male lambs with an average initial weight 33.57 ± 0.69 kg for the period from 9-12 months of age. Lambs were distributed randomly into three treatments each, included 6 lambs. Lambs in the first treatment (T1) were fed a diet that includes 11% of sunflower meal, the second treatment (T2) fed diet includes 11% of low degradable sunflower meal, and the third treatment (T3) were fed on a diet containing 11% low degradable sunflower seed. The results were indicated a significant increase (P≤ 0.05) in semen volume in (T2) 2.77 ml compared with the (T1) 1.98 ml and (T2)1.69 ml. Significant improve (p≤ 0.05)  was noted in T2 and T3  in individual motility 87.33 and 87.70%  and sperm concentration 2.45 and 2.62 × 109 / ml compared to the T1 the individual motility was 84.95% and sperm concentration 2.10 × 109 / ml, respectively. Seminal plasma concentration of total protein, globulin, and urea were higher (P≤ 0.05) in T2 as compared other treatments. Whereas, feeding low degradable sunflower seed (T3) resulted in a significant increase (P≤ 0.01) of cholesterol concentration 140.05 mg/dl in seminal plasma compared with the T1 122.78 mg/dl and T2 125.81 mg/dl, while triglycerides was decreased (P≤ 0.05) in T1 37.49 mg/dl than T2 and T3 52.72 and 58.92 mg/dl respectivly.




 

THE ASSESSMENT OF HEPATIC COPPER CONTENT IN LAMB, YEARLING, SHEEP AND CATTLE SLAUGHTERED IN ERBIL CITY, KURDISTAN REGION-/ IRAQ

Abdulqader Ahmed Hussein

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2021, Volume 49, Issue 2, Pages 36-44
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2021.129337.1106

Liver samples from 163 slaughtered animals were studied to provide data regarding normal hepatic Copper (Cu) concentration, and Iron (Fe). Results show the mean and median liver Cu concentration in majority samples were normal. Lambs had higher (P<0.05) liver Cu concentration (499) compared to yearling (353), cattle (321), and sheep 200 mg /kg respectively. Cases of being at risk with Cu-toxicity were shown in 2 lambs (1797 and 2449), 1 yearling (1546), and 1 cattle) 1525 mg/kg respectively. sheep did not exhibit a high liver Cu concentration, while a six yearling, an eight sheep, and fourteen cattle revealed marginal hepatic Cu concentration. Moreover, five sheep and six cattle cases showed low hepatic Cu concentration. In addition to that the lambs and yearling cases did not reached hepatic Cu deficiency. Hepatic Fe concentration in sheep was higher (P<0.05) compared to lamb, yearling, and cattle, with the mean concentration of 2047, 1962, 1954, 1925 mg Fe/kg respectively. All sheep liver samples, with 33 yearling sample, and 46 lambs liver samples contained liver Fe concentrations exceeded toxic level (2450 mg/kg). While, one liver sample in cattle contained (3214 mg/kg), exceeding toxic level. There were 14 lambs and 14 yearlings, with 12 and 13 liver samples contained greater than 2000 mg of Fe/kg. In conclusion, hepatic Cu content in the majority of examined sample were normal. Though, high and low levels of Cu were also observed. The low hepatic Cu level might be related to the high hepatic Fe concentration.

IMPACT OF BLACK SEEDSS Nigella sativa L. MEAL SUBSTITUTION INSTEAD OF SOYBEAN MEAL ON SOME GROWTH TRAITS OF LOCAL RABBIT MALES

Nadia Mohammed ALshaar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 3, Pages 59-67
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.126930.1038

The work carried out on a privet local farm extended to eight weeks in Mosul city Iraq. Sixty local male rabbits, six to seven weeks aged, with an average initial bodyweight of 552 ±15gm. Randomly divided into 4 treatments and 3 replications (5 rabbits each). Soybean meal replaced by black seeds (Nigella sativa L.) meals at levels 0, 33, 66, and 100% respectively in the diets as a crud protein source. The diets were nearly equal in the level of energy digests and the percentage of crude protein. Treatment 4 (100%) showed a significant effect (p≤ 0.05) in increasing daily weight gain, daily consumption, total weight gain, hot and cold carcass weight. A higher mortality percentage was in T1 (6.67). While our other results did not show any significant differences in all other studied traits. T4 showed the highest profit in weight gain (Kg) / Iraqi Dinar) then T3, T2 and T1 respectively.

EFFECT OF ADDITION DRY BREAD YEAST (SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE) AND PROBIOTIC ON GROWTH, CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS AND SOME RUMEN AND BLOOD PARAMETERS IN AWASSI LAMBS

Omar saad Waad Allah Al-Taie; muthanna Ahmed Muhammad Taib

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 2, Pages 59-67
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.126920.1037

ABSTRACT
This study was conducted In Animal Production Department fields, at college of agriculture and forestry, University of Mosul, by using 24awassi male lambs average body weight 26.43± 2.46 kg and their ages ranged 5-6 months, lambs were divided into four treatments and fed ration consisting of barley, wheat bran, wheat straw and urea. The lambs were fed the first treatment (control) without additives, while 10 g/lamb/day dry bread yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) was added to the second treatment, 10g/lamb/day of probiotic was added to the third treatment, and the fourth treatment was added in a mixture of 5 g dry bread yeast and 5 g probiotic/lamb/day. The results were showed that daily feed intake of feed was 999, 1171, 1004, 1104 g/lamb/day, Daily body weight gain increased significantly(P<0.05) 129, 201, 152, 205 g/lamb/day. Hot carcass weight incresed (P<0.05) in the second and third treatmeata as compared first (control) 19.706, 23.750, 21.380, 24.516 kg. Also results indicated that there were significant differences (P <0.05) for the third and fourth treatments in rumen pH after 2 hours of feeding were 5.43, 5.78, 6.11 , 5.97 respectively. no significant differences were noted in serum parameters. Through the results, it is noted that most of the productive representative of the additive treatments of dry bread yeast (saccharomyces cerevisiae) are added.

EFFECT OF RATIONS CONTENT OF DEGRADABLE PROTEIN AND BARLEY GRAIN (STARCH) IN MILK PRODUCTION , COMPONENTS AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD PARAMETERS OF AWASSI EWES

Omar ALMallah; Mohamed. N. Abdullah; Waseem. A. Hashem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 163-174
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2019.161276

This study was conducted in Al-Rashidiya animal breeding station, using 32 Awassi ewes (3-5 yrs old) with average body weight of 66.59 kg with their single born lambs. The ewes were divided randomly into 4 groups, the first (T1) and second (T2) groups fed on rations consist of 35% barley and contained two levels of rumen degradable protein (RDP) 10 and 13 g/ MJ metabolizable energy. while barley grain raised to 62% in the ration of third and fourth groups (T3 and T4) to increase the starch ratio with observance of the same level of RDP 10 and 13 g/ MJ respectively , and all the rations were iso calorie. Results indicated that RDP and starch levels had no significant effect on milk yield which were 968 , 1067 , 1127 ,and 867 g/ day, milk composition and yield with exception milk urea concentration were decreased (p<0.05) in T3 11.67 mg/ dl as compared with T2 21.14 mg/ dl, also milk urea concentration was increased significantly with RDP increase from 10 to 13 g/ MJ , but decreased (p<0.05) with increasing starch level. Ammonia concentration in rumen liquor decreased (p<0.05) after 2hrs of feeding in T1 4.57 mmol/ dl as compared with to T2 6.34 , T3 6.53 and T4 6.46 mmol/ dl. It was noted that treatments had no significant effect on body weight change in ewes , average daily gain in lambs and also in blood metabolites with exception the significant decrease (p<0.05) in the concentration of triglyceride in T3 14.67 mg/ dl as compared to other treatments were 20.19, 22.91 and 24.35 mg/ dl , also the increase in RDP level led to significant increased (p<0.05) in triglyceride concentration.

INFLUENCE OF VARYING LEVELS OF RUMEN DEGRADABLE TO UNDEGRADABLE PROTEIN ON MILK YIELD, COMPOSITION AND SOME BLOOD PARAMETERS OF KARADI EWES

Jalal Eliya Alkass; Kamal Noman Dosky; Emad Tayar Sadeeq Buti Buti

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2017, Volume 45, Issue 1, Pages 287-298
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2017.161251

Twenty-four lactating Karadi ewes, 3-5 years old and 54±0.69 kg in body weight were used to study the effect of rumen degradable protein (RDP) to rumen undegradable protein (RUP) ratio on milk yield, composition and some blood metabolites. Ewes with their lambs were placed in individual pens and fed ad libitum on three rations containing different levels of RDP:RUP namely 68:32 (T1), 56:44 (T2) and 50:50 (T3). Milk yield was recorded in two successive days at biweekly intervals commencing at 2nd week post lambing by using hand milking and lamb suckling technique. Also, blood samples were withdrawn at start, mid and at the end of the experimental period (84 days).
Daily milk yield and total milk yield averaged 1.16±0.038 and 98.31±4.44 kg, respectively. Feeding ewes protected soybean meal (SBM) resulted in a non-significant increase in milk yield in T3 (15.22%), and 12.06% in fat corrected milk (FCM) in T2 as compared to control. A significant (P<0.05) effect of treatment on both percentage and yield of fat and protein was observed. However, the highest fat percent and yield was recorded in T2, whereas, the highest percent and yield of protein was noticed in T2 and T3, respectively. Cholesterol and urea levels was significantly (P<0.05) lower in T1 as compared to other groups.