About Journal

Mesopotamia journal of Agriculture   was issued for the first time at 1/4/1966 and continued until the year 1982, the journal stopped for three years according to the ministerial order which distributing scientific journals between Iraqi universities , according to scientific field , where University of Salahaddin issued Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Zanko), this Journal was the only one in agricultural sciences in Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Mesopotamia journal of Agriculture was reissued again in 1986 , in 2000 it was adopted as country Journal ,...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  magrj@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Saeb Younis Abdul-Rahman

Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

EFFECT OF WEIGHT AT FATTENING ON CARCASS TRAITS OF AWASSI LAMBS

Osama A. Alzidan; Omar A. Al-Kurjia; Haytham M. Sabeh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 1-7
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133094.1166

This study was conducted to study the effect of different initial body weights of Awassi Lambs used for fattening and its outcome on growth and some carcass characteristics, 15 Awassi lambs were divided into 3 groups which differed in their initial body weight, first group was (22.00 ± 0.22 kg), second group was (29.80 ± 1.21kg), and the third group was (34.20 ± 0.66 kg). All lambs were fed   the same ration which consisted of barley, wheat bran and soybean meal, the ration had 14.39 % crude protein and 2499 Kcal/kg of metabolized energy. Results showed a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the average daily weight gain and total average weight gain in the third group which had the higher initial body weight when compared with first group which had the lowest initial body weight, the results also showed that using lambs with low initial weights in the first group caused a significant decrease  (P<0.05) in carcass weight as compared with the second and third groups which had lambs fattened with higher initial weights 18.76 kg , 24.63 kg and 25.25 kg for the three groups respectively. Total fat percentage of the carcass decreased significantly in the second group 15.83% in comparison with the first group 17.29% and the third group 18.68%, Total fat percentage was also significantly lower in the first group 2.741kg compared with the third group 4.047kg.





      This study was conducted to study the effect of different initial body weights of Awassi Lambs used for fattening and its outcome on growth and some carcass characteristics, 15 Awassi lambs were divided into 3 groups which differed in their initial body weight, first group was (22.00 ± 0.22 kg), second group was (29.80 ± 1.21kg), and the third group was (34.20 ± 0.66 kg). All lambs were fed   the same ration which consisted of barley, wheat bran and soybean meal, the ration had 14.39 % crude protein and 2499 Kcal/kg of metabolized energy. Results showed a significant decrease (P< 0.05) in the average daily weight gain and total average weight gain in the third group which had the higher initial body weight when compared with first group which had the lowest initial body weight, the results also showed that using lambs with low initial weights in the first group caused a significant decrease  (P<0.05) in carcass weight as compared with the second and third groups which had lambs fattened with higher initial weights 18.76 kg , 24.63 kg and 25.25 kg for the three groups respectively. Total fat percentage of the carcass decreased significantly in the second group 15.83% in comparison with the first group 17.29% and the third group 18.68%, Total fat percentage was also significantly lower in the first group 2.741kg compared with the third group 4.047kg.





 

ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY APPLICATION IN OHMIC PASTEURIZATION OF ORANGE JUICE

Hawri S. Ahmed; Arkan M. Sedeeq; Thamer A. Alhaji

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 8-20
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132958.1165

The conversion of electrical energy into heat energy, which results in internal energy generation, is the underlying premise of Ohmic heating. An experimental batch Ohmic heating unit was built and manufactured for this study. The effect of voltage gradient of alternating current during batch Ohmic heating on orange juice was investigated. Parameters such as temperature, electrical current, time consumption, system performance coefficient, and heating rate of orange juice under Ohmic heating process were studied. The time consumption such as (23.02, 11.25, and 2.19 minutes) to reach the Ohmic pasteurization temperature (95 °C) was decreased as the voltage gradients (9.20 V/cm, 12.64 V/cm, and 25.28 V/cm) increased respectively. The electrical current was rapidly increased (4.46 Amp.) in accordance with the higher voltage gradient (25.28 V/cm) to attain the pasteurization temperature. With rising voltage gradients, Ohmic heating resulted in greater system performance coefficient values. The heating rate appears to have grown dramatically as the voltage gradients increased.

EFFECTS OF FORWARD SPEEDS AND BLADE ANGLES OF POTATO DIGGER ON FUEL CONSUMPTION AND TUBER MECHANICAL DAMAGES

Zhyar Burhan Abdulla; Arkan M. Sedeeq; Fawzi faythalla Khorshid

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 21-37
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133565.1170

This experiment was conducted in Shamamik- Erbil state in Iraq-Kurdistan Region during the middle of summer of 2021 in order to determine the effects of different blade angles and forward speeds of potato digger in the fuel consumption and mechanical damages. Split plot arrangement under Randomized Completely Block Design was replications. Two blade angles (180) and (220) were located as main plot, while three forward speeds 2.6, 3.51 and 4.36 Km.h-1 were located as sub plots. The results were as following: the blade angle of (220) recorded the lowest percentage values for all studied traits, namely, undamaged tubers, severe damage, slight damage, lifted tubers and damage index except in digging depth and fuel consumption which gave higher values than those obtained from the blade angle of (220). By increasing the forward speed, weight of (undamaged tubers 69.11%, lifted tubers 79.27% and digging depth 26.16cm) were decreased, while the rest of the traits increased. At any blade angle (180 , 220), as the forward speed increased, the values of (severe damage1.84%,2.87%,slight damage17.50%,12.48, fuel consumption 44 , 43 litter.ha-1 and damage index 142 , 104) were increased, while the other attributes decreased

APPLICATION LEVEL OF DRIP IRRIGATION TECHNOLOGY BY THE VEGETABLE GROWERS IN ALQOSH DISTRICT/ NINEVEH

Rayan R. Kadem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 38-46
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133802.1172

The research aims to measure the level of application of drip irrigation technology by vegetable farmers in Alqosh district/Nineveh Governorate, and identify the correlation between the level of application of drip irrigation technology by vegetable farmers and some independent variables. The research community included all the vegetable farmers in Alqosh district, who numbered 200 farmers. A simple random sample of them was taken by 60%, thus bringing the number of respondents to 120 farmers. A questionnaire was prepared consisting of three parts, the first part included the independent variables (age, educational level, land area, tenure, training courses). the second part, it included a scale to measure the level of farmers’ application of the drip irrigation technology, and it might consist of 21 items, while the third part included 10 problems that hinder the application of the drip irrigation technology. The data were collected by the personal interview method. After that, the data was emptied for the purpose of statistical processing using the Spss program. The results showed that 64% of the respondents had a medium level of application. The results also showed that there is a significant correlation between the independent variables (age, educational level, tenure and training courses) and the level of application. while there is no significant correlation between the land area and the level of application, as it was found that the problem of clogging the nozzles with suspended materials, sediments and salts ranked first with an average of (3.533).

THE USE OF LINEAR BODY MEASUREMENTS PREDICTORS OF BODY WEIGHT OF DONKEYS AT BLOUBERG LOCAL MUNICIPALITY, LIMPOPO, SOUTH AFRICA

Thobela Louis L. Tyasi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 47-57
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132799.1160

The current study was conducted to estimate body weight (BW) by using body measurements including thoracic circumference (TC), withers height (WH), body length (BL), rump height (RH) and front leg length (FLL) of donkeys. The study was conducted at three villages (Thorne, Archibalt, and Genau) of Blouberg Local Municipality, Limpopo, South Africa. A total of 74 donkeys (40 males and 34 females) aged from 3 to 4 years were used in the current study. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation and simple linear regression. Correlation results indicated that in female donkeys, BW had positive and highly statistical significant (p  0.01) correlation with WH (r = 0.67) and not significant correlated (p  0.05) with TC (r = 0.14) and FLL (r = 0.28). In male donkeys, BW had positive and highly statistical significant (p  0.01) correlation with RH (r = 0.60) and not significant correlated (p  0.05) to FLL (r = 0.27). Regression findings indicated that WH had the highest R2 = 0.45 in female donkeys, while RH had the highest R2 = 0.36 in male donkeys.

EVALUATION OF FOUR PROMISING BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES TO DIFFERENT PHOSPHORUS LEVELS FOR YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS

Mohammed A. Al-Falahy; Khalid M. Dawood; Dilsher S. Al Mahmada; Shleer S. Ahmad

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 58-67
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132494.1155

The study was done during winter season 2020-2021 at field of College of Agricultural Engineering Sciences, Duhok University, to evaluate the influence of different phosphorus fertilizer P2O5 rate (0, 60, 90, 120kg ha-1 on yield and yield components of four promising bread wheat Bura, Jehan-99, Apst-35 and Apst-26. The experiment was Laid out in factorial experiments using randomize complete block design with three replications. Significant difference in plant height, flag leaf area (cm), spike length(cm), No. seed spike, weight of seed per spike, 1000-seed weight and total yield were observed by the application of different phosphorus fertilizer 120kg ha-1. However, only days to 75% flowering was not significant affected by different rate of phosphorus fertilizer. Also the results exhibited that the Apast-35 was significant in plant height (104.91cm), flag leaf area (40 cm2), spike length (15.4cm), No. seed per spike (37), seed weight of spike (1.48g), 1000-seed weight (41.09g) and total yield 3.66 (t.ha-1). The simple correlation exhibited positive and significant between yield and plant height (0.89), leaf area (0.85), 1000-seed weight (0.76), No. seed per spike (0.87) and weight of seed spike (0.92), this main these traits were intributed to increase the yield under rate 120kg ha-1of phosphorus P2O5.

EFFECT OF OHMIC HEATING TREATMENT ON DIFFERENT PROPERTIES OF WHOLE COW MILK

Rayan N. Meshaan; Thamer A. Alhaji

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 68-76
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133744.1171

Ohmic heating is a unique thermal technology in which an electrical current is passed through a food product, causing heat to be generated. This alternative heating process was investigated in terms of energy efficiency and high quality method for a batch quantity of whole cow milk. The study's major goal is to show that it is possible to develop a heater that successfully pasteurizes milk on a laboratory scale. Before and after ohmic and conventional heating procedures, chemical characteristics (such as protein, acidity as lactic acid, fat, and solid non-fat), alkaline phosphatase, and microbial counts (such as total bacteria count and E. coli) of the milk were examined. When the maximum voltage gradient (19.13 V/cm) was used, the protein content of pasteurized milk remained unaltered. The fat level remained consistent at 5.10 % across all pasteurization methods. Both conventional and ohmic heating inactivated alkaline phosphatase and microorganisms. Different voltage gradients of 6.08 V/cm, 9.56 V/cm, and 19.13 V/cm were also studied to see what effect they would have on the ohmically heated milk's electrical properties (such as electrical conductivity and current).

THE ASSESSMENT OF SOIL AVAILABILITY AND WHEAT GRAIN STATUS OF MANAGNESE AND IRON IN CALCAREOUS SOILS AND IMPLICATION FOR HUMAN SAFETY IN IRAQI KURDISTAN

Muhammed S. Rasheed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 2, Pages 77-94
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132812.1161

Manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) are the two vital micronutrients for plants and moreover essential nutritional health components in humans. Iron deficiency is common in humans and causes many health issues. In this survey, wheat grains of two major wheat cultivars were analyzed for their Mn and Fe concentrations beside the natural gradient of micronutrient availability across Sulaymaniyah province, Iraqi Kurdistan. However only 20% and 7.5% of the soils samples were Mn and Fe deficient or below recommended level. The considered micronutrient concentrations in the grains of wheat were in the acceptable range which are reported globally (range 41.3 and 37.6 mg kg-1 respectively). Furthermore, high application of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in the studied calcareous soils could be strongly affected on the studied micronutrients concentration in the studied grain samples. The results indicate that adequate levels of Mn and Fe in the surveyed grains is a beneficial guide for quality of grains associated with human heal

Evaluation the Performance of a Hammer Mill Through Using Different Types of Locally Manufactured Hammers

Saad alkhoury; Adel Ahmed Abdullah; Anas Obed Edrees

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134116.1177

The research included a study of three factors, feeding rate, the rotational speed, and the type of used hammers and their impact on some performance indicators of the hammer mill.The studied technical indicators were: grinding fineness (%), productivity (kg/hr), and consumed energy (KW). The experiment parameters were organized using a complete randomized block (RCBD) design with three replications.The results showed that by increasing the feeding rate from 2 cm up to 4 cm, the fineness of grinding, productivity and energy consumed for both crops increased. The results also indicated that by increasing the rotational speed, the productivity and energy consumption increased, while the speed of 2154 rpm achieved the fineness grinding of barley and corn.The results also indicated that the use of conventional hammer led to the highest value concerning the fineness of grinding, and to the highest energy consumptions for both crops, barley, and maize. As for productivity, the manufactured hammer led to the highest values for both crops. However, considering the triple interaction between the studied factors (grinding fineness, productivity, and consumed energy), the manufactured hammer led to the highest value in productivity.

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT HARVESTING METHODS ON THE INDICATORS OF POTATO CROP LOSS

ARKAN M.A. SEDEEQ; Othman M.M. Tofeq; Saleh Sabri Al-Slevani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133350.1168

An experiment was conducted in Nineveh, Iraq. The study evaluates the efficacy of three methods for harvesting potato crops (Semi-Mechanized Harvesting, which includes single-row and two-row harvesting, and manual harvesting). Evaluation through study effects of ways on the undamaged tubers, severely damaged tubers, slightly damaged tubers, qualitative loss, quantitative loss, produced tubers, the time of the harvest process, and harvest costs with the total loss which goes in line with each method). The best performance was obtained for semi-mechanized harvest (2-row harvesters); it recorded the lowest percentage of severely damaged tubers of 0.2 ton. ha-1 and the highest rate of lifted tubers was 24.6 ton. ha-1. The production of the best sample about 25.49 ton. ha-1 while the highest productivity about 2.24 ha. h-1. Moreover, the lowest harvest costs were 4.5 $. ha-1, and less time for completion of the harvest process was 0.44 h. ha-1. At the same time, the manual harvesting process has recorded a higher percentage of undamaged tubers was 20.76 ton. ha-1 and a lower percentage of damaged tubers about 3.63 ton. ha-1, a lower percentage of quantitative loss of 0.49 ton. ha-1, and less loss in total quantity of 877 $. ha-1.Finally, in the manual harvesting process, the farmer needs 45 workers to complete per hectare within an hour.

APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PACKAGING

Yaman Saad Fadhil Saad Al-Mahmood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134238.1178

Nanotechnology is a rising revolution with enormous potential in a variety of professions, including medicine and mechanics, also the food industry, and the definition of this technology is the study of creating and processing substances at nanoscales, where the characteristics vary from those seen at bigger scales such as atomic and molecular levels. In this article, we gathered information about nanoscience from previous reviews and studies. Lately, nanoparticle delivery devices have been discovered where they transport functional substances, food ingredients and additives to specific locations. Although nanotechnology is a promising prospect with advanced applications varying from increasing the mechanical strength of packaging materials to delivering functional substances to food, more efforts are needed to conduct a detailed investigation in the nanofood system and raise consumer understanding. This review aims to shed light on the important applications of nanotechnology in food processing and food packaging including improved, active, and smart packaging.

ESTIMATING THE ADDED VALUE OF WHEAT GRAIN MILLS IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE YEAR 2020

Eman Fasil Alzubaidi; Alaa Mohammed Almullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133953.1175

The study aims to find the added value of the agricultural industrialization of mills in the Nineveh Governorate for the year 2020, and to calculate costs, revenues and profits, and to diagnose the challenges and problems of the wheat grain milling industry. For the year 2020, out of a total of (41) mills distributed throughout the governorate, the results of the study indicated that the average total value added for grinding one ton of wheat grain amounted to (27,632.414) dinars/ton, and that the average net added value of grinding one ton amounted to (26556,617) dinars/ton, and the average total cost per ton of the crop amounted to (14,394.891) dinars/ton. and the average profit for grinding per ton was (13237.951) dinars/ton, and As for the average revenue per ton, it amounted to (56824.958) dinars/ton. The results indicated that the greater the share supplied to the mill by the General Company for the manufacture of grains, the production costs would decrease, which leads to the added value would increase, and then the profits of the mill would increase and increase in the national income would be achieved. One of the problems that mills suffer from is the low grinding wages per ton of wheat crop. The study recommended increasing the milling wages per ton of wheat crop paid to the mills in order to cover the high costs.

BLOOD GLUCOSE RESPONSE AND GLYCEMIC INDEX OF DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE IN HEALTHY RATS

Abdullah M Thannoun

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2010, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 24-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2010.27737

Blood glucose response and Glycemic Index (GI) of diets containing different sources of carbohydrate including glucose, starch, amylopectin, bread, rice, whole wheat kernels (habbiyah), lentils, check peas, kidney beans, and mixtures of bread or rice with lentils, chick peas or kidney beans for healthy Sprague Dawley rats using glucose as standard were studied. Fifty five normal animals were housed individually to perform this study. Animals were fasted (overnight fasting) for 12 hours and tested for blood glucose at zero time before given in amount of test food containing 0.15 g carbohydrates. Blood glucose was determined after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Results showed that amylopectin based diet had the highest GI (96) comparing with lowest GI (44) for habbiyah based diet. Results also show that addition of lentils, check pea or kidney beans to the bread resulted in lowering the GI of the final meals from 70 to 46. However, addition of these legumes to the rice base diet did not enough reduce the GI. In conclusion, mixing different sources of carbohydrates might be change the blood glucose response and GI of the original foods.

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND SPRAYING OF GIBBERELLIC ACID & ALGAMIX ON THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY ON SOME ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM OIL OF MENTHA PIPERITA & MENTHA SPICATA

Fanar H. Al-Hashemy; Ayad Ch. Al-Daody; Mohammed D. Al-Sawaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2013, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80144

The current study is carried out the effect of Nitrogen fertilization in levels (0, 46, 92, 138) kg/h and spraying of gibberllic acid at concentration (0, 50, 100) ppm and the Algamix at concentration (1,2) ml/L in percentage ratio for concentration of some active constituents for the oil of two species of Mentha (M. piperita and M. spicata). The result was showed, that the samples of oil was contained the following compounds: (Camphor, Menthone, Menthyl acetate, Menthol and Thymol), using the Gas-liquid Chromatography technique (GLC). It's illustrated that the summer harvest was exceeded to gave the highest concentration of menthone compounds about 11.47% without fertilization (N0) with spraying of algamix at concentration 1 ml/L of M. spicata, as well as thymol compound about 16.69% in fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with out spraying of M.spicata too. While, the autumn harvest was exceeded increasing percentage of camphor compound about 0.20% in the fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with spraying of algamix at concentration 1ml/L of M. piperita and Menthol compound which was presented 46.50% in the second level of fertilization 46 kg/h without spraying, and also Menthyl acetate at concentration 50.06% in the same level of fertilization of M. piperita with spraying of Algamix at concentration 1ml/L.

Evaluation of Faba Bean Genotypes For Yield And Yield Components Using Selection Index

Khalil Hathal Kanoosh; Mohammed Ali Al-Falahy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 12-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.126258.1013

The experiment was carried out at the farm at Filed crops Department , College of Agricultural engineering sciences , Duhok University in season 2018-2019 to construed selection index for five faba bean genotypes under different levels of phosphorus fertilizer .The results exhibited that all selection indices include the grain yield gave relatively efficiency , the best selection index were grain yield, number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds pods-1 , so that we can using these characters as criteria’s of selection of faba bean genotypes . Also the results showed that the highest mean selection index was 216.26 for latti kia genotype and significant and difference over all other genotypes .
The heritability broad sense was high for all studied characters and ranged between 0.94 to 0.99 . Regarding to the genetic advance as mean gave high values for first pod height (57.10) , grain yield plant-1 (43.97) , number of main branches plant-1 (33.92) and number of pods plant-1 (31.52) and medium for plant height , days to 75 flowering , number of nodules plant-1 and number of seeds pod-1 . So that we can using these desirable characters to improve the faba bean genotypes .

EFFECT OF SOME AGRICULTURAL TREATMENTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE Lactuca sativa L.

Mohammad Talal A. El-Habar; Mohammad Radhi S. Al-Saaberi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2008, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 56-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27595

This study was conducted in vegetable farm in the college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University during 2003-2004 growing season to investigate the effects of two sowing dates: the Sept.20th and Oct. 20th, two planting methods of seedling: plots and furrows and with the application of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46% N) at rates 0 and 60 Kg/Donnum applied at two doses with three methods of splitting: 1- Half of the total amount was added after two weeks from transplanting and the other half was added at 21 days prior to harvest (30 + 30Kg Urea /Donnum). 2- One third of the total amount added after two weeks from transplanting and the other two thirds was added at 21 days prior to harvest (20 + 40Kg Urea/Donnum). 3- Two thirds of the total amount added two weeks from transplanting and the other one third added at 21 days prior to the harvest (40 + 20Kg Urea/Donnum) on growth, yield and quality of lettuce cv. Paris Island. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments conducted in the field in a factorial experiment within split plot using the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Results indicated that vegetative growth i.e. leaf number/plant, leaf area/plant, head circumferences and mean weight of marketable head were increased significantly by second sowing date (Nov. 20th), plot planting method as well as by applying nitrogen fertilizer, while the methods of splitting of nitrogen fertilizer had no significant effect on most above mention characters. A similar favorable effect of second sowing date (No.20th), plot planting method and applying nitrogen fertilizer on yield characters was obtained at harvest, However, it has increased significantly folded head percentage, total and marketable yield, whereas the percentage of bolting plants only decreased significantly by second sowing date. The interaction among sowing date, plating methods, nitrogen application gave positive and significant increase in the total and marketable yield.

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BIOFERTILIZER EM1 AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH TRAITS AND YIELD IN WHEAT

Saleh Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2018, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 151-168
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161427

Afield experiment was carried out during the winter seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in Salamya which is located at 34 Km southern from Mosul city. The split plot arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications was used. The experiment included four levels of biofertilization EM1 (0, 1, 2, 3 cc/Liter), five levels of nitrogen fertilization (0,30,60,90,120Kg N/ha). Nitrogen fertilization levels and biofertilization EM1 were represented as Main plots, and sub plots respectively. The results indicated that biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index in first season it was significantly superior in stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2, spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield,protein percentage and yield.Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield witch is stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2 , spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield, harvest index,  protein percentage and yield in both seasons . Biofertilization EM1 and Nitrogen fertilization interacted significantly for all growth and yield characters in both seasons, biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter and Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha  interaction was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index which was at the interaction between biofertilization EM1 level1cc/Liter and nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha.

BLOOD GLUCOSE RESPONSE AND GLYCEMIC INDEX OF DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE IN HEALTHY RATS

Abdullah M Thannoun

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2010, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 24-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2010.27737

Blood glucose response and Glycemic Index (GI) of diets containing different sources of carbohydrate including glucose, starch, amylopectin, bread, rice, whole wheat kernels (habbiyah), lentils, check peas, kidney beans, and mixtures of bread or rice with lentils, chick peas or kidney beans for healthy Sprague Dawley rats using glucose as standard were studied. Fifty five normal animals were housed individually to perform this study. Animals were fasted (overnight fasting) for 12 hours and tested for blood glucose at zero time before given in amount of test food containing 0.15 g carbohydrates. Blood glucose was determined after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Results showed that amylopectin based diet had the highest GI (96) comparing with lowest GI (44) for habbiyah based diet. Results also show that addition of lentils, check pea or kidney beans to the bread resulted in lowering the GI of the final meals from 70 to 46. However, addition of these legumes to the rice base diet did not enough reduce the GI. In conclusion, mixing different sources of carbohydrates might be change the blood glucose response and GI of the original foods.

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND SPRAYING OF GIBBERELLIC ACID & ALGAMIX ON THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY ON SOME ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM OIL OF MENTHA PIPERITA & MENTHA SPICATA

Fanar H. Al-Hashemy; Ayad Ch. Al-Daody; Mohammed D. Al-Sawaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2013, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80144

The current study is carried out the effect of Nitrogen fertilization in levels (0, 46, 92, 138) kg/h and spraying of gibberllic acid at concentration (0, 50, 100) ppm and the Algamix at concentration (1,2) ml/L in percentage ratio for concentration of some active constituents for the oil of two species of Mentha (M. piperita and M. spicata). The result was showed, that the samples of oil was contained the following compounds: (Camphor, Menthone, Menthyl acetate, Menthol and Thymol), using the Gas-liquid Chromatography technique (GLC). It's illustrated that the summer harvest was exceeded to gave the highest concentration of menthone compounds about 11.47% without fertilization (N0) with spraying of algamix at concentration 1 ml/L of M. spicata, as well as thymol compound about 16.69% in fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with out spraying of M.spicata too. While, the autumn harvest was exceeded increasing percentage of camphor compound about 0.20% in the fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with spraying of algamix at concentration 1ml/L of M. piperita and Menthol compound which was presented 46.50% in the second level of fertilization 46 kg/h without spraying, and also Menthyl acetate at concentration 50.06% in the same level of fertilization of M. piperita with spraying of Algamix at concentration 1ml/L.

Evaluation of Faba Bean Genotypes For Yield And Yield Components Using Selection Index

Khalil Hathal Kanoosh; Mohammed Ali Al-Falahy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 12-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.126258.1013

The experiment was carried out at the farm at Filed crops Department , College of Agricultural engineering sciences , Duhok University in season 2018-2019 to construed selection index for five faba bean genotypes under different levels of phosphorus fertilizer .The results exhibited that all selection indices include the grain yield gave relatively efficiency , the best selection index were grain yield, number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds pods-1 , so that we can using these characters as criteria’s of selection of faba bean genotypes . Also the results showed that the highest mean selection index was 216.26 for latti kia genotype and significant and difference over all other genotypes .
The heritability broad sense was high for all studied characters and ranged between 0.94 to 0.99 . Regarding to the genetic advance as mean gave high values for first pod height (57.10) , grain yield plant-1 (43.97) , number of main branches plant-1 (33.92) and number of pods plant-1 (31.52) and medium for plant height , days to 75 flowering , number of nodules plant-1 and number of seeds pod-1 . So that we can using these desirable characters to improve the faba bean genotypes .

EFFECT OF SOME AGRICULTURAL TREATMENTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE Lactuca sativa L.

Mohammad Talal A. El-Habar; Mohammad Radhi S. Al-Saaberi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2008, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 56-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27595

This study was conducted in vegetable farm in the college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University during 2003-2004 growing season to investigate the effects of two sowing dates: the Sept.20th and Oct. 20th, two planting methods of seedling: plots and furrows and with the application of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46% N) at rates 0 and 60 Kg/Donnum applied at two doses with three methods of splitting: 1- Half of the total amount was added after two weeks from transplanting and the other half was added at 21 days prior to harvest (30 + 30Kg Urea /Donnum). 2- One third of the total amount added after two weeks from transplanting and the other two thirds was added at 21 days prior to harvest (20 + 40Kg Urea/Donnum). 3- Two thirds of the total amount added two weeks from transplanting and the other one third added at 21 days prior to the harvest (40 + 20Kg Urea/Donnum) on growth, yield and quality of lettuce cv. Paris Island. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments conducted in the field in a factorial experiment within split plot using the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Results indicated that vegetative growth i.e. leaf number/plant, leaf area/plant, head circumferences and mean weight of marketable head were increased significantly by second sowing date (Nov. 20th), plot planting method as well as by applying nitrogen fertilizer, while the methods of splitting of nitrogen fertilizer had no significant effect on most above mention characters. A similar favorable effect of second sowing date (No.20th), plot planting method and applying nitrogen fertilizer on yield characters was obtained at harvest, However, it has increased significantly folded head percentage, total and marketable yield, whereas the percentage of bolting plants only decreased significantly by second sowing date. The interaction among sowing date, plating methods, nitrogen application gave positive and significant increase in the total and marketable yield.

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BIOFERTILIZER EM1 AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH TRAITS AND YIELD IN WHEAT

Saleh Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2018, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 151-168
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161427

Afield experiment was carried out during the winter seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in Salamya which is located at 34 Km southern from Mosul city. The split plot arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications was used. The experiment included four levels of biofertilization EM1 (0, 1, 2, 3 cc/Liter), five levels of nitrogen fertilization (0,30,60,90,120Kg N/ha). Nitrogen fertilization levels and biofertilization EM1 were represented as Main plots, and sub plots respectively. The results indicated that biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index in first season it was significantly superior in stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2, spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield,protein percentage and yield.Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield witch is stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2 , spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield, harvest index,  protein percentage and yield in both seasons . Biofertilization EM1 and Nitrogen fertilization interacted significantly for all growth and yield characters in both seasons, biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter and Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha  interaction was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index which was at the interaction between biofertilization EM1 level1cc/Liter and nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha.