About Journal

Mesopotamia journal of Agriculture was issued for the first time in 1966 and continued until the year 1982, the journal stopped for three years according to the ministerial order which distributing scientific journals between Iraqi universities , according to scientific field , where University of Salahaddin issued Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Zanko), this Journal was the only one in agricultural sciences in Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Mesopotamia journal of Agriculture was reissued again in 1986 , in 2000 it was adopted as country Journal , its name was changed...
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Journal Information

Publisher: Mosul University

Email:  magrj@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Saeb Younis Abdul-Rahman

Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

Farmers Knowledge Level of Potato Crop Cultivation in Rabia Sub- district / Nineveh Governorate

Asmaa Alhafidh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 1-12

The research aims to identify level of farmers knowledge in Rabia  Sub-district/Nineveh governorateon potato cultivation , identifiy the differences in Knowledge level according to some variables: Age, Education level,  years' number of experience potato farming, land ownership, number of dependent information sources of potato , monthly income, type farming career and previous training, and identify the problems facing the potato cultivation.The data were collected by a questionnaire, and analyzed by using  Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann_Whitney test. The important results showed that (45.88 %) of the farmers have medium knowledge, the higher knowledge level in crop service field , there are significant differences in knowledge levels according to age, educational level, number of experience years of potato crop, type of farming career and the important problems facing potato farmers is  high price of production cost, also there are some recommendations and suggestions.

Agricultural investment in Iraq ( Reality and determinats ) for the period (1995-2015)

Waleed Albujari

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 13-24

This research aims to study the influence of the most important factors that reflect on the agricultural investment in Iraq (1995-2015) and its impact on the agricultural sector in general. For this, the research is based on the hypothesis that the fluctuation and decline in agricultural investment to several economic factors vary in their effect. According to this hypothesis.  The research relied on the method of linking two directions, The descriptive approach, which relied on previous studies on the same subject, quantitive, which based on the methods and styles of the standard economy, where the  ordinaryleastsquareswasusedand explanation of quantitive style results for the evaluation of the technical phase of study. Agricultural investment (fixed capital accumulation) was adopted as an approved variable, and the size of agricultural loans, inflation rate, deficit and surplus from the general budget of the government, the value of support to agricultural sector, the value of investment allocations in the agricultural sector for agricultural reclamation. The research has achieved many conclusions among which is that despite of the investment allocations directed to the agricultural sector and the initiation of the agricultural initiative in 2008 ,however, the volume of agricultural loans showed non- significant importance, no clear strategy for agricultural investment appeared , additionally, these allocations were not strongly nor directly directed to the agricultural investment, based of the above of conclusions achieved by the study on the importance of drawing or imaging a future vision of agricultural investment clear enough to get the agricultural reality really  prospered and emphasizing on the importance of of the continuity in supporting the agricultural sector specially in the increase of the investment allocations and the continuity of  the funding  policy Through. the agricultural initiative, while ensuring the existence of a strong monitoring apparatus that ensures the disbursement of these amounts in the right level in order to access agricultural investment at required level, which in turn works on the development of the agricultural sector, As well as increasing interest in the study of economic indicators and agricultural positive effects and activate the role of low-impact indicators such as support to the agricultural sector poor input support will support the outputs to improve the reality of the agricultural sector.

Effect of Crushed Eruca sativa Seeds Supplementation to Quail Ration on Lipid Profile Before and After Sexual Maturity

Abdullah Fathi Abdul-Majeed; Sarmad Hashem Taha

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 25-35

The study aimed to evaluate the effect of crushed Rocket salad (Eruca sativa) seeds on serum lipid profile and risk index of males and females quail before and after sexual maturity. A total of two hundred forty unsexed quail (Coturnix coturnix) (7 days aged) were randomly distributed into 4 groups (60 birds/ group,   5 replicates, 12 birds / replicate), the feed and water were allowed ad libitum, and the treatment continued till 77 days age, as follows:-
1st group(control): birds were reared on standard ration (without Eruca sativa seeds)
2nd group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds from the age of 7 days till 42 days age.
3rd group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds from the age of 42 days till 77 days age.
4th group: birds were reared on standard ration supplemented with 6 g / kg crushed Eruca sativa seeds for the whole period of experiment (7 - 77 days).
The addition of crushed Eruca sativa seed don't change the level of blood glucose, but it improves serum lipid profile in males and females quail, especially when given in the early stage of growth before sexual  maturity (Eruca sativa from 7days age), and there was a significant decrease (P≤0.05) in the level of cholesterol, triglycerides and VLDL-C compared with control.
Also the addition of Eruca sativa seeds in the ration enhanced and significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05) the level of HDL-C in males and females quail before sexual maturity (2nd and 4th groups), and there is no significant changes in the level of LDL-C compared with control, which reflected in improvement of risk index (LDL/HDL) especially when Eruca sativa seeds were added from 7 days age.
On the other hand, the addition of Eruca sativa seeds reduced the stress effects in males and females quail as represented by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in  AST and ALT values as compared with the control group.
In conclusion, the addition of crushed Eruca sativa seeds improve the lipid profile and risk index, also reduce stress condition in males and females quail, especially when given in the growth stage and  before sexual maturity.

 

Effect of Increasing Degradable Nitrogen from Adding Urea to the Ration of Awassi Ewes in Milk Yield and some Components

Al-Hafz Maher; Mohammed W. M. Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 36-41

This experiment conducted at 1/12/2017 to 4/3/2018 by using 30 ewes with their lambs. The weights of the ewes between (46-51) Kg and the ages between (3-5) years, to study the effect of increasing degradable Nitrogen from adding urea to the food of Awassi ewes milk yield and components. The experiment done by three levels of Nitrogen degradable (low, 0% urea) (mid, 0.75% urea), (high, 1.5 urea). and by three treatments each of them consists of 10 ewes.
The results indicated a significant increase (p≤0.05) in weekly, monthly and commercial yield for the treatment of high degradable protein.
For the milk components during sucking and after weaning (fat, protein, lactos, S.N.F) the results revealed non significant differences. The adding of urea to the ration of awassi ewes in creased milk production.

EFFECT OF USE FENUGREEK SEEDS (Trigonella foenum-graecum) ON SOME SEMEN CHARACTERSTICS OF AWASSI RAMS IN WINTER SEASON.

Mohammad Ibrahim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 42-48

     This study aimed to know the effect of three rations contains same crude protein and metabolizable energy but differs in Fenugreek seeds percentage( 0 , 5 and 10 %), Fifteen Awassi rams (2-3 years old), were randomly divided into three equal groups (5 rams/group) weighting 50-55 Kg during winter season from (15/11/2011 - 15/2/2012). Results showed that feeding of Fenugreek seeds had a significant effect (P ≤ 0.05)  on semen ejaculation volume, semen consistency ,mass and individual motility of spermatozoa, percentages of live and dead spermatozoa , sperm abnormality .However there were  no significant effect (P ≤ 0.05) on total sperm  concentration / ml   compared with the control group rams.

Effect of garlimmune addition in drinking water and the laying time on egg external, internal traits and hatchability of broiler breeder

Nidhal Mustafa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 49-58

The adding garlimmune in broiler breeder drinking water were tested experimentally for evaluation of its effect on egg production, external and internal traits of egg and hatchability at the different time of laying(T1: 8:30 AM, T2: 10:30 AM, T3: 1:30 PM and T4: 8:30 AM- 1:30 PM). The results indicated that the use of garlimmune had a good effect on egg production (HD %), egg weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR), eggshell thickness (mm), eggshell weight (g) and eggshell strength (kg/cm2), total protein, PUFA, HDL in egg, hatchability and set eggs (%), hatched chicks weight (g) and post hatch antibody titer against ND, IBD and IB by ELISA. However, MUFA, LDL, atherogenic index, hatch window (h), embryonic mortality (1-21day) and culled chicks were significantly (p≤0.05) decreased in garlimmune treatment compared with the control at different laying time, but there is on-significant difference in total lipid among the treatments. Noticed the time laying 10:30 AM in the both groups was more effectiveness in all parameters of the study.

Evaluation of heavy chisel plow performance in different speeds in terms of some mechanical performance indicators

Arkan Siddiq; Yahya Younis Mohsin AL-Obaidi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 59-69

This study was conducted  to evaluate the performance of heavy chisel plow at the end of January  during agricultural season ( 2018) In the area of Baweizah of the district of  Talkif / Ninavah province which is located north east of the city of Mosul Which is far (13) Km about the city center.Soil texture was silty clay by using two levels of  factory of  level  plowing, the first level was add the tubular rolleron the chisel plow and the second level was without the tubular rollerfrom the chisel plow . also two levels of depth plow .the first was (8-10 cm) and the second was (12-14 cm) and three levels of speed included ( 2.4, 4.3 and 7.1) km/h. to study their effect in some mechanical properties , the experience was factorial with three replication . The differences have been tested by Duncan.the important results are in the following: excelled (add the tubular roller) in the following properties (,Volume of soil disturbed,depth achieved,the appearance tillage), while the level  (withput roller reducer) excelled in properties (Draft force ,specific resistance), while does not appear any moral differences in the following properties  (Fuel consumption).At same time  excelled the speed (2.4)km/h in the following properties (Draft force, specific resistance, Depth actual of plowing), While the speed (7.1)km/h excelled in the following properties (Fuel consumption ,volume of soil disturbed, the appearance tillage). RegisterThe interaction between the first level  tillage (add the  roller reducer)  and the first forward speed (2.4) km/h  record moral superiority in the following properties (Depth actual of plowing)  while  the interaction between the first level  tillage and the Third forward speed (7.1) km/h record moral excelled in the properties (Volume of soil disturbed ,The appearance tillage), while the interaction between the Second level  tillage (without the tubular  roller)  and the first forward speed (2.4)km/h  moral  excelled in the following properties (Draft force, specific resistance), while the interaction between the second level  tillage (without the tubular roller) and the third forward speed (7.1) km/h moral excelled in the properties(Fuel consumption) 

THE RESPONSE OF TWO VARITY OF FABA BEAN (AT FLOWERING STAGE) TO DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS OF ALPHA CYPERMETHRIN INSECTICIDE

نهلة سالم حموک

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 47, Issue 1, Pages 70-79

The aim of the present study was to investigate the response of two types of form Faba bean Vicia faba L.(local and Italian), at flowering stage, to different concentration of insecticide alpha cypermethrin. Also, to study these effects on chlorophyll quantity and production of the plant. the experiment was designed according to the International Experimentation System (2x4) according to the Randomized complete Block Design (RCBD) with six replicates .The study involved two factors ; First one included two types of Faba bean (locally and Italian) , the second included different concentrations of the pesticide (distilled water, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, mg/ml). The alpha cypermethrin pesticide lead to significant decreasing (P-value <0.05) in characteristic of chlorophyll A quantityand in crop yieldingplant height,pod number/plant, seeds number/pod, pod weight (g), pod length and the total weight for each 1000 grain. Which was with direct increase of the concentration. The Italian typerecorded a significant decrease in the chlorophyll A, plant height and pod weight comparing with the local type. it was obvious that the Italian type was more sensitive than the local type toward the pesticide and its negative effect is increasing with the increase of the concentration. 

EVALUATING OF PERFORMANCE THE SEED DRILL (GASPARDO SC-250) WITH DIFFERENT GROUND SPEED AND SOWING RATE IN CHICKPEAS (Cicer arietinum L.) CROP PRODUCTION

Mosab Abd Al-wahid Mohammed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 39, Issue 1, Pages 203-210

This research was contacted during 2006-2007 in semi- arid rainfed region of silty clay soil in mosul city field to study the effect of two speed sowing
(3.5-4.5)Km/h with three sowing rate (60,80,100) Kg/ ha in some characteristic of mechanization, growing and yield of chickpeas. The results indicated the possibility of using seed drill (Gaspardo SC-250) for planting chickpeas at the first speed because it achieved the lowest ratio in (slippage, deviation ratio between the rows and seed damage)% while the second provides showed results in (No. of plants/m2, No.of plant/5m length, weight of 100 seeds and seeds yield).
The sowing rate (100 kg / ha) indicated better results in all growth characteristic and seed yield except (No. of branches/plant , No. of pods/plant and weight of 100 seeds), the interaction between sowing rate (100 kg/ha) with sowing speed (5-6) Km/h achieved the best results on growth and yield properties and the slippage ratio was within an allowed level with a lowest seed damage .

EFFECT OF VERY HIGH LEVELS OF NITROGEN AND PHOSPOURS FERTILIZERS, PINCHING, AND SEED RATE SOWING ON GROWTH, SEED YIELD AND COMPONENTES OF Nigella sativa L. 2- SEED COMPENENTS

Yousif H. Hammo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 2, Pages 2-11

This field experiment was conducted during the season 2005-2006 in Singar - Mosul city to investigate the effects of very high level (320 N, 300 P2O5) kg ha-1, and high level (280 N, 260 P2O5) kg ha-1 of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer, pinch and with out pinch, and plant seed rate sowing 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 g/10m2 was done by hand within 3, 4, 5, 6 rows respectively in (10)m2 plot size on seed components of Nigella sativa L. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. The results include the following. Very high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus caused a significant increase in fixed oil, volatile oil, protein, and phosphorus; in contrast carbohydrate was significantly decreased, while humidity and ash cannot be affected with this factor. Pinching nigella plants causes a significantly increasing in fixed oil, ash, and carbohydrate of seeds while volatile oil, protein, and phosphorus were decreased significantly when compared with non pinched plants. Increased seed rate sowing from 0.8 to 1.2 g/10m2 caused significant increasing in fixed oil when compared with 0.6 g/10m2 while decreased seed rate sowing 0.6, 0.8 g/10m2 caused significant increases in volatile oil and ash when compared with 1.0, 1.2 g/10m2. Protein also Increased significantly from 20.67 to 24.40 with decreased seed rate sowing from 1.2 to 0.8 g/10m2.while medium rate cause significant increase in phosphorus when compared with lowest and highest rate, the lowest rate of see rate give the highest percentage of carbohydrate when compared with other .

EFFECT SUPPORT POLICIS ON ALL FROM THE PRODUCTING AND CONSUMPTION CROP WHEAT IRAQ FOR TH PERIOD

Salim Y. Sultain AI-Niaamy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 14-23

The price proving issues considers one of the most issues that is most of the world countries suffering from it because of the direct connected with the people life and with their lived levels this is from one side, and national economics systematizing (supply and demand) from another side. As we know, The wheat crop is an importance food strategy crop that is we must interest in it with specifically for food secure requirements and inquest the self-security that is all needed concerning with studies the supporting policies and affected it on producing and consumption in the wheat crop. In this research we shall focus on wheat price support by considering an important food commodities for the Iraqi people, therefore the state aimed from the support policies for this crop specifically to stability prices it in the market and saving it for the people that their having limited income and it saving the motive for the producer to continued the producing and development the producing. It is show that trend timer general chronological taken ascend facing to all of the producing and consumption with increasing rate assumed (-2.70) and 0.65 on the successively through mentioned period. confirm the analysis found the policies that Iraq country to follow it trend wheat crop have positive effect on the producer welfare (his income and his profit level) since the study time.

USING THE RATIO IMAGING IN DISTINGUISHING SOIL SURFACE STATUS AND LAND COVER

Namik A . Daood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 1, Pages 115-121

A study area that has various topography natural which in fact affect in different soil geneses had been selected and studying the area primarily to know the types the found soils , then using rationing images and studying the ability of its benefits in recognize the different soils of the study area .
Using the rationing images in identifying lands that have good natural soils then others that suffer from affected troubles on production factors as increment of gypsum and copious water and which represents the troubles where study area suffer from though it is in very narrow limited which gives a lot of significance to this study .
This study refers to recognize three types of soils in the study area ; the first is good natural soils , the second is soils that suffer from gypsum sedimentation on the two sides of valley , and the third is copious soils .

EFFECT OF SOME AGRICULTURAL TREATMENTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE Lactuca sativa L.

Mohammad Talal A. El-Habar

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 56-66

This study was conducted in vegetable farm in the college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University during 2003-2004 growing season to investigate the effects of two sowing dates: the Sept.20th and Oct. 20th, two planting methods of seedling: plots and furrows and with the application of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46% N) at rates 0 and 60 Kg/Donnum applied at two doses with three methods of splitting: 1- Half of the total amount was added after two weeks from transplanting and the other half was added at 21 days prior to harvest (30 + 30Kg Urea /Donnum). 2- One third of the total amount added after two weeks from transplanting and the other two thirds was added at 21 days prior to harvest (20 + 40Kg Urea/Donnum). 3- Two thirds of the total amount added two weeks from transplanting and the other one third added at 21 days prior to the harvest (40 + 20Kg Urea/Donnum) on growth, yield and quality of lettuce cv. Paris Island. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments conducted in the field in a factorial experiment within split plot using the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Results indicated that vegetative growth i.e. leaf number/plant, leaf area/plant, head circumferences and mean weight of marketable head were increased significantly by second sowing date (Nov. 20th), plot planting method as well as by applying nitrogen fertilizer, while the methods of splitting of nitrogen fertilizer had no significant effect on most above mention characters. A similar favorable effect of second sowing date (No.20th), plot planting method and applying nitrogen fertilizer on yield characters was obtained at harvest, However, it has increased significantly folded head percentage, total and marketable yield, whereas the percentage of bolting plants only decreased significantly by second sowing date. The interaction among sowing date, plating methods, nitrogen application gave positive and significant increase in the total and marketable yield.

EFFECT SUPPORT POLICIS ON ALL FROM THE PRODUCTING AND CONSUMPTION CROP WHEAT IRAQ FOR TH PERIOD

Salim Y. Sultain AI-Niaamy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 14-23

The price proving issues considers one of the most issues that is most of the world countries suffering from it because of the direct connected with the people life and with their lived levels this is from one side, and national economics systematizing (supply and demand) from another side. As we know, The wheat crop is an importance food strategy crop that is we must interest in it with specifically for food secure requirements and inquest the self-security that is all needed concerning with studies the supporting policies and affected it on producing and consumption in the wheat crop. In this research we shall focus on wheat price support by considering an important food commodities for the Iraqi people, therefore the state aimed from the support policies for this crop specifically to stability prices it in the market and saving it for the people that their having limited income and it saving the motive for the producer to continued the producing and development the producing. It is show that trend timer general chronological taken ascend facing to all of the producing and consumption with increasing rate assumed (-2.70) and 0.65 on the successively through mentioned period. confirm the analysis found the policies that Iraq country to follow it trend wheat crop have positive effect on the producer welfare (his income and his profit level) since the study time.

The EFFECT OF THE REARING ON OILS SOURCE IN ACTIVATION OF OILS FOR CONTROLLING THE GRAIN BEETLE Trogoderma granarium (E.)

Batool A. Karso; Nazar M.Al-Mallah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 286-293

The results of studying the effect of the type of host food by which the larvae were reared on , and the type of oil used for some vegetable oils ( sunflower ,Sesame ,Peanut , Soybean and Almond ) on the 3rd instar of grain beetle , showed a different mortality percentage and the Peanut oil exhibit a superior , killing percentage reached 72.5 . and toxicity index 100 on insect larvae reared on Peanut in comparisor with 49.3 % and 41.3 for toxicity index . The lowest killing percentage 43.7 % was obtains from treating larvae reared on Sunflower with Sunflower oil in comparison with 66.6% on larvae reared on wheat .

EFFECT OF BROILER DIET COMPOSITION ON NEWCASTLE DISEASE ANTIBODY PRODUCTION

A. M. Saeed Al Saigh

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 34, Issue 3, Pages 2-6

An experiment was conducted at the college of veterinary medicine to investigate the effect of two types of broiler starter diets, with or without animal protein, on Newcastle disease antibody production. Bursal weight index was also studied. Two replicates with 10 male broiler chicks, each were used in each treatment groups, A and B, for a total of 40 birds .The experimental birds were reared from day old till 4 weeks of age. Results revealed that there were no significant effects on antibody titer and bursal weight index, due to different types of the experimental diets. It was found that out of antibody titers 20 and 40, only 3 and 2 birds were found to be positive, respectively .Where as out of antibody titers 80 and 160 only 3 birds from each group, A and B, where found to be positive verses 8 and 4 birds from group B were shown to be positive.

EFFECT OF THE NEW FARMING SYSTEM-ZERO TILLAGE IN GROWTH,YIELD AND ITS COMPONENTS OF BREAD WHEAT ,DURUM WHEAT AND BARLEY CROPS IN MODERATE RAINFALL AREA IN NINEVAH PROVINCE.

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 42, Issue 1, Pages 242-254

A field study was conducted under three different environmental sites within the region introduced for the first time in Iraq through the import of new ZT seeder. The study implemented in 2006-2007 season compared with conventional agriculture and sowing after chisel plow. It was applied on numerous varieties belonging to the three field crops Bread Wheat , Durum Wheat and Barley.
The grain yield results showed that the ZT planting method was equal with farmer planting method (conventional tillage) in all locations and crops studied while chisel planting method was the superior in this trait , this result is encouraging for the adoption of this new technology because the input in a ZT doesn't need cultivation, while in other studied traits results showed that the chisel method excelled in 15 traits, while the ZT method excelled in 9 traits and the farmer methods in 4 traits only, this results strengthens the recommendation to adopt the ZT planting method for its limited implementation cost compared with the rest of the planting methods . In the same time grain yield in ZT planting method was not less than conventional tillage (con.) in any way.

EFFECT OF DISC ANGLE AND SOIL STATE ON PERFORMANCE OF TANDEM DISC HARROW AT DIFFERENT GROUND SPEEDS

Husain A. Hamood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, Volume 40, Issue 2, Pages 247-255

This research included studying two disc angles for front gangs of tandem disc harrow 15 and 22 degrees with three ground speeds 8.166 , 10.378 and 16.354 kmhr in tilth soil and 9.587, 12.473 and 16.000 kmhr in untilled soil , disc angle of rear gangs was fixed at 22 degree , and effect of these factors on fuel consumption, slippage percentage, number of soil aggregates larger than 5 cm/m2, cutting depth, cutting width, coefficient of cutting width, line width lifting behind rear gangs and effective field capacity. Soil state had significant effects on number of soil aggregates larger than 5 cm/m2, cutting depth and line width lifting behind rear gangs, Ground speed and disc angle had significant effects on slippage percentage, cutting depth and effective field capacity. The effect of interaction between soil state and disc angle was significant in slippage percentage and effective field capacity. The effect of interaction between soil state, disc angle and ground speed was significant in effective field capacity, while ground speed treatment with disc angle and soil state had no significantly effect in studied characteristics.