About Journal

Mesopotamia journal of Agriculture   was issued for the first time at 1/4/1966 and continued until the year 1982, the journal stopped for three years according to the ministerial order which distributing scientific journals between Iraqi universities , according to scientific field , where University of Salahaddin issued Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences (Zanko), this Journal was the only one in agricultural sciences in Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research, Mesopotamia journal of Agriculture was reissued again in 1986 , in 2000 it was adopted as country Journal ,...
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Journal Information

Publisher: University of Mosul

Email:  magrj@uomosul.edu.iq

Editor-in-chief: Saeb Younis Abdul-Rahman

Print ISSN: 1815-316X

Online ISSN: 2224-9796

EVALUATING THE PERFORMANCE OF A HAMMER MILL THROUGH USING DIFFERENT TYPES OF LOCALLY MANUFACTURED HAMMERS

Saad alkhoury; Adel Ahmed Abdullah; Anas Obed Edrees

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 1-18
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134116.1177

The study has investigated the effects of three factors, which were feeding rate, the rotational speed, and the type of used hammers on the some important indicators that could reflecting the performance of the hammer mill. These indicators were: grinding fineness (%), productivity (Kg hr-1), and consumed energy (KW). The experiment parameters were organized using a Randomized Complete Design (CRD) with three replications. The results showed that by increasing the feeding rate from 2 cm up to 4 cm, the fineness of grinding, productivity and energy consumed for both crops increased. The results also indicated that by increasing the rotational speed, the productivity and energy consumption increased, while the speed of 2154 rpm achieved the fineness grinding of barley and corn. The results also indicated that the use of conventional hammer led to the highest value concerning the fineness of grinding, and to the highest energy consumptions for both crops, barley, and corn. As for productivity, the manufactured hammer led to the highest values for both crops. However, considering the triple interaction between the studied factors (grinding fineness, productivity, and consumed energy), the manufactured hammer led to the highest value in productivity.





The study has investigated the effects of three factors, which were feeding rate, the rotational speed, and the type of used hammers on the some important indicators that could reflecting the performance of the hammer mill. These indicators were: grinding fineness (%), productivity (Kg hr-1), and consumed energy (KW). The experiment parameters were organized using a Randomized Complete Design (CRD) with three replications. The results showed that by increasing the feeding rate from 2 cm up to 4 cm, the fineness of grinding, productivity and energy consumed for both crops increased. The results also indicated that by increasing the rotational speed, the productivity and energy consumption increased, while the speed of 2154 rpm achieved the fineness grinding of barley and corn. The results also indicated that the use of conventional hammer led to the highest value concerning the fineness of grinding, and to the highest energy consumptions for both crops, barley, and corn. As for productivity, the manufactured hammer led to the highest values for both crops. However, considering the triple interaction between the studied factors (grinding fineness, productivity, and consumed energy), the manufactured hammer led to the highest value in productivity.





 

AN INVESTIGATION INTO THE EFFECT OF USING DIFFERENT HARVESTING METHODS ON THE INDICATORS OF POTATO CROP LOSS

ARKAN M.A. SEDEEQ; Othman M.M. Tofeq; Saleh Sabri Al-Slevani

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 19-26
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133350.1168

An experiment was conducted in Nineveh, Iraq. The study evaluates the efficacy of three methods for harvesting potato crops (Semi-Mechanized Harvesting, which includes single-row and two-row harvesting, and manual harvesting).  Evaluation through study effects of ways on the undamaged tubers, severely damaged tubers, slightly damaged tubers, qualitative loss, quantitative loss, produced tubers, the time of the harvest process, and harvest costs with the total loss which goes in line with each method). The best performance was obtained for semi-mechanized harvest (2-row harvesters); it recorded the lowest percentage of severely damaged tubers of 0.2 ton. ha-1  and the highest rate of lifted tubers was 24.6 ton. ha-1. The production of the best sample about 25.49 ton. ha-1 while the highest productivity about 2.24 ha. h-1. Moreover, the lowest harvest costs were 4.5$. ha-1, and less time for completion of the harvest process was 0.44 h. ha-1. At the same time, the manual harvesting process has recorded a higher percentage of undamaged tubers was 20.76 ton. ha-1 and a lower percentage of damaged tubers about 3.63 ton. ha-1, a lower percentage of quantitative loss of 0.49 ton. ha-1, and less loss in total quantity of 877 $. ha-1. Finally, in the manual harvesting process, the farmer needs 45 workers to complete per hectare within an hour.

APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN FOOD PROCESSING AND PACKAGING

Yaman Saad Fadhil Saad Al-Mahmood

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 27-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134238.1178

Nanotechnology is a rising revolution with enormous potential in a variety of professions, including medicine and mechanics, also the food industry, and the definition of this technology is the study of creating and processing substances at nanoscales, where the characteristics vary from those seen at bigger scales such as atomic and molecular levels.  In this article, we gathered information about nanoscience from previous reviews and studies. Lately, nanoparticle delivery devices have been discovered where they transport functional substances, food ingredients and additives to specific locations. Although nanotechnology is a promising prospect with advanced applications varying from increasing the mechanical strength of packaging materials to delivering functional substances to food, more efforts are needed to conduct a detailed investigation in the nanofood system and raise consumer understanding. This review aims to shed light on the important applications of nanotechnology in food processing and food packaging including improved, active, and smart packaging.

ESTIMATING THE ADDED VALUE OF WHEAT GRAIN MILLS IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE YEAR 2020

Eman Fasil Alzubaidi; Alaa Mohammed Almullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 37-49
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133953.1175

The study aims to find the added value of the agricultural industrialization of mills in Nineveh Governorate for the year 2020, and to calculate costs, revenues and profits and to diagnose the challenges and problems of the wheat grain milling industry. For the year 2020, out of a total of (41) mills distributed throughout the governorate, the results of the study indicated that the average total value added for grinding one ton of wheat grain amounted to (27,632.414) dinars / ton, and that the average net added value of grinding one ton amounted to (26556,617) dinars / ton, and the average total cost per ton of the crop amounted to (14,394.891) dinars / ton. and the average profit for grinding per ton was (13237.951) dinars / ton, and as for the average revenue per ton, it amounted to (56824.958) dinars / ton. The results indicated that the greater the share supplied to the mill by the General Company for the manufacture of grains, the production costs would decrease, which leads to that the added value would increase, and then the profits of the mill would increase and an increase in the national income would be achieved. One of the problems that mills suffer from is the low grinding wages per ton of wheat crop. The study recommended increasing the milling wages per ton of wheat crop paid to the mills in order to cover the high costs.

MOLECULAR DETECTION OF RAW MEAT FOR SOME ANIMAL SPECIES USING RFLP-PCR TECHNIQUE

Kamaran Mustafa Taha

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 50-58
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132675.1156

Mitochondrial cytochrome b gene plays a serious role in studying adulteration of meat species. This research study designed to distinguish the raw meat species of sheep, goat, cattle and donkey using RFLP-PCR technique of a universal cyt b gene 359bp. Ten indigenous samples were collected from each animal in different parts of the body. All the samples were processed for DNA isolation and amplified with a Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The amplicons were cleavage with HinfI and RsaI restriction enzymes, digestion of PCR product resulted in production of specific characterization bands for each species then analyzed by agarose electrophoresis. HinfI RE created three fragments for sheep, goat and cattle, with some similarities in a few bands between them, while yielded two bands for donkey. RsaI RE produced two bands for all species with different length except sheep and goats have the same length. Thus, results recommend that the RFLP-PCR technique with HinfI and RsaI play an important role to detect the animal meat species, since it is a fast, simple and easily handle method for identification of animal species.

EFFECT OF SPRAYING WITH SALICYLIC ACID AND CALCIUM CHLORIDE ON THE YIELD CHARACTERISTICS OF CORM AND CORMLETS FOR THREE CULTIVARS OF Gladiolus X hortulanus L

Saja salim Allawii; Ammar omar Al-atrakchii

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 59-69
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133497.1169

This experiment was carried out in the shade of the green network of the Department of Horticulture and Landscape, College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, for the period from Apr. 11, 2019 to Sept. 30, 2019, with the aim of producing corm and cormlets in the summer of three varieties of Gladiolus X hortulanus L. They are: "Break of dawn" White flowers, "Espresso" with red flowers, and "Blue frost" with purple flowers after being treated with salicylic acid (SA) at 0 and 250 mg.l-1, as well as treatment with calcium chloride in three concentrations: 0 , 500 and 1000 mg.l-1 by spraying them on the foliage twice. The Factorial Experiment conducted by RCBD. The results show that the red cultivar recorded the largest weight of the corm was 28.98 g, its volume was 34.01 cm3, its diameter was 4.94 cm, and the number of cormlets was 12.33. per plant, the size of the cormlets is 13.52 cm3. Spraying with salicylic acid at 250 mg.l-1 had a significant effect in recording the largest values ​​for the corm diameter and their volume. Treatment with calcium chloride at both concentrations 500 and 1000 mg.l-1 resulted in a significant increase in the corm weight, its diameter and the volume of cormlets. The treatment with calcium chloride at 1000 mg.l-1 caused to record the largest values ​​for the number of cormlets are 9.53 cormlet. pl-1, while the treatment with calcium chloride at 500 mg.l-1 increased of the corm volume is 27.68 cm3. The red cultivar plants treated with or without salicylic acid interact with calcium chloride at 500 mg.l-1 was gave the best grade of corms ranked 7.00 (Jumbo).

INFLUENCE OF FOLIAR APPLICATION OF ATONIK ON VEGETATIVE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO PEA (Pisum sativum L.) CULTIVARS

dilzar basit zrar; Bayan Aziz; Sawsan محمدسعید Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 70-80
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.133920.1173

The study was carried out at Grdarasha field  in Erbil from November 4th of 2019 to April 20th, 2020.The purpose of this study was to study different levels of foliar spray of Atonik (0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1 ml.L-1) affected the growth and yield of two pea cultivars (Utrillo and Nihal). The majority of the parameters investigated yielded significant outcomes. Cultivars had a substantial reaction on some of the tests, according to the findings. Parameters of pea vegetative growth and yield, the Utrillo cultivar produced the best results. Furthermore, Atonik foliar spraying had a considerable impact. The number of leaves and branches has the biggest influence on vegetative parameters (110.74 and 2.69 respectively), according to the findings (1ml.L-1). From 0.2 ml.L-1 of Atonik the maximum values of vegetative growth, fresh weight, and total chlorophyll were recorded. Atonik foliar spraying also improved yield parameters significantly. However, at 0.2 ml.L-1 of Atonik, the highest numbers of seeds per pod, yield per plant, yield per plot, and yield per hectare (6.00, 0.16 kg, 1.00 kg, and 1.68 tons, respectively) were obtained. Meanwhile, the majority of vegetative development and yield indices, particularly Nihal, exhibited a substantial response to Atonik treatment.

PHYSIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF PHYTOCHEMICALS AS ANTIOXIDANTS ON POULTRY: (Article Review)

Abdullah F. Abdul-Majeed; Ghadeer A. M. Rahawi; Saeb younis Abdul-Rahman

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 81-96
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.135167.1193

Antioxidants have an important and vital function in preserving animal health and have a special role in animal physiological, reproductive, and productive performance. In general, poultry are subjected to a wide and varied range of stressors, including environmental, biological, nutritional, and productive stresses. These stresses frequently occur in quick and intensive poultry production systems, causing health issues related to their physiological and productive performance that may increase the formation of free radicals, which in turn cause lipid peroxidation, leading to a decline in their physiological and productive performance. Therefore, it requires an antioxidant system that can delay the initiation or slow the going rate of harmful oxidative reactions and prevent cellular and molecular damage that results from the influence of free radicals in the cellular metabolism process. Phytochemicals, which are plant-derived non-vitamin, non-mineral substances such as flavonoids and carotenoids, are considered dietary non-enzymatic antioxidants that play a protective role against oxidative reactions and minimize the effects of the body's oxidative stress, which supports the animal's physiological productive efficiency and health.

PRODUCTION OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE FROM LOCAL ISOLATES OF Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae

Wjdan Salim Al-Obaidy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2022, Volume 50, Issue 3, Pages 97-107
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134702.1184

Fourteen local isolates of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae were isolated from root nodules of Vicia faba plants collected from agricultural soils of different regions of Nineveh Governorate/Iraq. Six isolates with mucoid colonies were selected as follows: WS14, WS15, WS18, WS21., WS23 and WS26. These local isolates were incubated for periods 1, 2, 3 and 4 days. Dry biomass weight and exopolysaccharide (EPS) (g/L) were recorded. Results revealed that WS18 isolate was the best among the six mentioned isolates of R. leguminosarum biovar viciae, which it gave the maximum production of EPS (6.31 g/L) after two days of incubation. Maximum dry biomass w1.22 g/L after three days of incubation by the same isolate. The effect of addition of different carbon sources to yeast extract mannitol (YEM) broth medium on EPS production by WS18 isolate showed that mannitol, as carbon source was the best for production of EPS (6.36 g/L), after two days of incubation. Two percent was the optimal concentration of mannitol which supported the maximum production of EPS (9.67 g/L) after two days of incubation. The effect of addition of different nitrogen sources at 0.10 % concentration to YEM broth medium (supplement with 2.0 % mannitol) revealed that NaNO3 gave the best production which reached to 12.94 g/L after two days of incubation. The effective concentration of NaNO3 support the maximum production was 0.1 %. 
PRODUCTION OF EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE FROM LOCAL ISOLATES OF Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viciae
 

ATTITUDE OF RURAL WOMEN TOWARDS SOME ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES IN DUHOK GOVERNORATE, KURDISTAN REGION OF IRAQ

Mijda Alsinayi; Abid Ali Aldosky; Aamel Fadhel Alabbassi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.135404.1194

The main objective of this study is to identify the rural women’s attitudes towards some environmental issues in Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan region of Iraq. Area random sampling was used to select the research sample which is (507) rural women. A questionnaire was designed to collect the research data, which is consisted of two parts, the independent variables and attitudes scale which is consisted of (54) items distributed on four domains (Rural tourism, Home waste management, Sustainable agriculture, and Sustainable methods of using and conservation of forest). Experts and content validity were used to achieve the validity of the attitudes scale, and Cronbach alpha formula was used to measure the reliability of it, its value was (0.945). The data was analyzed with SPSS program. The results showed that attitude of the respondents towards all the studied environmental domains is positive. The results also showed that there is significant correlation between the attitude of respondents and each of the following variables (Level of education, Satisfaction with services in the village, Agricultural information sources, and Cultural openness). While there is no significant correlation with: (Age, Material status, Current work, and Participation in family decision –making). The research included some conclusions and recommendations.

Nested-PCR New Method for Detection of Phytoplasma Causing Big Bud Disease on Tomato in Iraq

Laith kais alsawaf; Hameed Hamoud Ali

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134252.1179

symptoms similar to those produced by the phytoplasma disease "Big bud" were observed on tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum L.) grown in the field in Mosul city, Iraq. Diseased plants were characterized by twisting, corrugated, yellowing or reddening of leaves. The sepals of the flowers acquired hypertrophied form, were fused together and created a bell-shaped sterile bud (phyllody) of green or anthocyanin color. The stems of the plants were lignified, and phloem necrosis was observed on the stem. In mid-September 2020, samples of 30 diseased and 2 healthy (control) tomato plants were collected from the fields. Phytoplasmas were detected by PCR and Nested-PCR in 10 diseased samples, use universal and specific primers. The results of a phylogenetic tree consisting of 27 genetic sequences of the 16 S ribosomal RNA gene of Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii, locally isolated from Iraq/Mosul, showed a sequence identity with a high percentage of genetic similarity of 99% with Candidatus Phytoplasma trifolii 16Sr member VI-A. Clover proliferation group (16Sr VI), with various isolates from around the world.

BUILDING PREDICTIVE MODELS TO ASSESS DEGRADATION OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER OVER TIME USING REMOTE SENSING DATA

Abdulsalam Aljumaily; ammar kashmolaa

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.136537.1204

Agricultural fields near Rabia district, northwest of Nineveh Governorate/Iraq, were selected for study, as the study area is located between longitudes (36°31'51.34'' and 36°43'40.343'') north and two latitudes (42°16'14.475'' and 42°34'50.99'') east, with an area of approximately 52.5 hectares (210 km2). The predictive model is built from the integration of multiple linear and nonlinear regression relationships between remote sensing data and laboratory-measured organic matter concentration values.
The predictive model was applied to space data for the three years (2002, 2012 and 2022), producing three maps to describe the soil content of organic matter (a map for each year). The results of the study showed the possibility of applying predictive models to space data for a particular area and for previous years to give results with high spatial accuracy of (R2 = 0.9581). Spatial maps were possible for each of the three years studied (2002, 2012 and 2022), and fertility maps were drawn by projecting spectral evidence values into the predictive model equation in the ENVI program. The resulting images were then processed using ArcGIS 10.8 to color them and perform a Reclassify operation and take them out with the values of percentages of organic matter concentrations. The results showed a clear deterioration in the soil's organic matter content over time, especially between 2012 and 2022.

STUDY OF SOME REPRODUCTIVE PARAMETERS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR IN AWASSI RAMS: A REVIEW

Muthanna Abdullah; Nadia Bashir ALshaar; Mohammad Salem Ibrahim

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.135812.1196

Reproductive efficiency represented by sexual desire, semen quality, testicular dimensions, and level of sex hormones are among the main components of ram fertility, which affect the fertility and productivity of the herd. Since the development of the testicles is related to reproductive activity and the ability to fertilize, so measuring the dimensions of the testicles is important in evaluating the reproductive capacity of rams. In addition, the concentration of testosterone is reflected in most of the characteristics of male sexual behavior, as it is positively and significantly correlated with ejaculation volume, mass motility, and sperm concentration. An increase in the level of testosterone hormone in the blood plasma, causing an increase in male sexual desire and an improvement in the quality of semen through direct influence in the process of sperm formation. Reproductive traits are also affected by age, body weight, season and herd management, as well as the impact of the environmental conditions, which are temperature, humidity, level of nutrition, quantity and quality, and length of lighting period. The volume of semen increases and is more dense, individual motility, and mass motility of the sperm increases with the increase in the concentration of testosterone during the reproductive season. Therefore, this study aimed to discuss some of the traits responsible for improving the reproductive performance of Awassi rams by reviewing the results of some studies that dealt with the traits responsible for reproductive efficiency and sexual behavior of these rams.

RAPD MARKER TO SCREENING GENETIC DIVERSITY OF CHICKEN in Iraq

Hurea Saber Abdulrazaq; Hurea Saber Abdulrazaq

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.135086.1190

A total of 500 local chicken from different regions of Iraq, which was divided into five groups according to the regions from which they was taken, namely, the East (E), West (W), North (N), South (S), and Central (C) regions of Iraq. The blood samples were collected into tubes contains an EDTA, DNA extraction was carried. The concentration of DNA and its relative purity were determined by the Nano Drop® spectrometer, DNA samples' purities varied from 1.8 to 1.9. Using 20 primers from Gen Script USA, random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) was carried out. The reaction of PCR had a final volume of 25 μl. A total of 473 loci ranging between 200 and 1800 bp were amplified. The higher numbers of band shown in north(N) local chicken group (101) then the other groups. East (E) and South (S) group phenotypic revealed higher numbers of the polymorphic bands. The Polymorphism percent (%6.2) in East (E). Between the north (N) and west (W) groups, the genetic similarity score was found to be the highest (0.893). dendogram It was clear that the South(S) appeared to be most distant from the other groups whereas the West (W), North (N) were related closely together whose genetic closeness is highest. The aim of present study to assess the genetic specificity chickens Iraq an depends on RAPD analysis, to assess phylogenetic relatedness between groups of chickens, to understand the extent of genetic variation between local chicken groups in Iraq.

EFFECT OF ADDING CHAMOMILE POWDER TO DIETS ON PRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF BROILER REARED UNDER HEAT STRESS CONDITIONS

انوار محمد الحامد; Thaer Alkado; Khalid Hassani Sultan; Anwar Mohammed Younis Al-hamed

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.132516.1153

This study was conducted to determine the effect of adding chamomile powder to the diet of broilers (Ross308) raised under heat stress conditions on production performance and economic indicators. Unsexed chicks were raised from one day until 42 days. Chicks were randomly distributed at the beginning of second week on experimental treatments with three replications / treatment as follows: T1: Feeding birds with out adding (Control), T2: adding 9 gm chamomile / kg feed , T3: adding: 15 gm chamomile /kg feed. The statistical analysis of data showed: a significant superiority in the final live body weight rate and the total weight gain rate, an improvement in the weekly and total feed conversion, and the superiority of the production index and the productive factor, while we did no find a significant effect showed in feed consumption rate and the percentage of mortality% and in the production yield per m2 in Production of one kilogram of live meat. The result indicated that addition of chamomile lead to improve growth performance and reducing the cost per unit of production in conditions of heat stress.

EFFECT OF TRADITIONAL AND NANO PHOSPHOROUS FERTILIZATION AND SOIL MOISTURE CONTENT ON THE GROWTH AND YIELD OF TWO WHEAT CULTIVARS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. IN CALCAREOUS SOIL FROM NINEVEH GOVERNORATE

adnan hazem atalla algborey; Fateh Hassan

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.136492.1201

A pot experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions to study the effect of phosphorus fertilization under to soil moisture content on some growth indicators, yield and seed content of nitrogen and phosphorous for two wheat cultivars, Adnaniah and Sham-6, in calcareous soil suffering from a lack of available phosphorus. The results indicated that phosphorous fertilization led to an improvement in plant growth, as it caused an increase in the relative water content of leaves, chlorophyll percentage, nitrogen and phosphorous seed content, grain yield and protein percentage. Phosphorous fertilization played an important role in increasing the ability of the two wheat cultivars to withstand water stress conditions and reduce the negative impact resulting from the lack of water on plant growth, while the exposure of the two wheat cultivars to water stress there was a decrease in the values of previous growth indicators, grain yield and its content of N and P elements. Sham 6 variety was more responsive than the Adnaniya variety, as this variety outperformed in all the studied traits, in addition to that it obtained the best growth and higher yield under conditions of water shortage

ESTIMATION OF THE ADDED VALUE OF WHEAT CROP PRODUCTION IN NINEVEH GOVERNORATE FOR THE AGRICULTURAL SEASON 2019-2020

Eman Fasil Alzubaidi; Alaa Mohammed Almullah

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.134996.1187

This study examines the typical value of wheat crop production in Nineveh Governorate for the production season 2020, and calculates costs, the United States and profits and diagnoses the challenges and problems of crop production. (134) questionnaire forms were distributed to a random sample of wheat crop farmers in Nineveh Governorate for the agricultural season 2019-2020. showing that the average revenue per ton of wheat crop amounted to (497, 578,832) dinars / ton,. And that the average total value added per ton was estimated at (384,200,121) dinars / ton, and the average total costs (production and marketing) per ton amounted to (223.621.841) dinars / ton. The results of the research indicated that there are problems and obstacles with regard to the process of preparing the state for production requirements for farmers in terms of inappropriate timings for cultivation and low quantities distributed, This leads to higher variable costs than production costs. and the presence of delays in the process of marketing and receiving the yield from the silos, The study recommends early development of the agricultural plan, opening centers to collect the crop in the harvest season, close to the farms in order to reduce costs and facilitate the marketing process, and work to develop a marketing mechanism and the receipt of the crop by the silos, and expedite the process of disbursing the financial dues to farmers.

MONITORING OF SEASONAL VARIATION IN GROUND WATER QUALITY AND EVALUATION IT SUITABILITY FOR IRRIGATION IN NIMRUD AREA SOUTH –EAST OF MOSUL –IRAQ

Zainab Alzubaidy; omar Nabhain Al Azzo

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, In Press
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2022.136520.1203

Sixteen water wells have been chosen in different locations within Nimrud district, to study the variation of ground water quality during the dry and the wet season. Analysis includes salinity, pH, temperature, total hardness, major cations and anions. Ground water salinity (EC) has significant variation and ranged from (0.81 to 5.82) and (0.88 to 5.77) ds m-1 in dry and wet seasons respectively. About 75% of water samples have a higher EC in the wet season compared with the dry season. All samples are very hard water class. Half of wells have higher calcium and chloride concentration in wet season in compare with dry season. Two third of samples have higher Magnesium in the dry season than wet season. Around 87% of wells have higher sodium and potassium in the wet season than dry season. About three quarters of wells have a higher sulphate in the wet season in compare with dry season. About 80 % of samples have a higher nitrate concentration in dry season compare than the wet season. Water quality for irrigation has been evaluated using several parameters. All samples fall into three category groups, C4S1, C4S2 and C3S1 according to US salinity diagram.

BLOOD GLUCOSE RESPONSE AND GLYCEMIC INDEX OF DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE IN HEALTHY RATS

Abdullah M Thannoun

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2010, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 24-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2010.27737

Blood glucose response and Glycemic Index (GI) of diets containing different sources of carbohydrate including glucose, starch, amylopectin, bread, rice, whole wheat kernels (habbiyah), lentils, check peas, kidney beans, and mixtures of bread or rice with lentils, chick peas or kidney beans for healthy Sprague Dawley rats using glucose as standard were studied. Fifty five normal animals were housed individually to perform this study. Animals were fasted (overnight fasting) for 12 hours and tested for blood glucose at zero time before given in amount of test food containing 0.15 g carbohydrates. Blood glucose was determined after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Results showed that amylopectin based diet had the highest GI (96) comparing with lowest GI (44) for habbiyah based diet. Results also show that addition of lentils, check pea or kidney beans to the bread resulted in lowering the GI of the final meals from 70 to 46. However, addition of these legumes to the rice base diet did not enough reduce the GI. In conclusion, mixing different sources of carbohydrates might be change the blood glucose response and GI of the original foods.

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND SPRAYING OF GIBBERELLIC ACID & ALGAMIX ON THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY ON SOME ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM OIL OF MENTHA PIPERITA & MENTHA SPICATA

Fanar H. Al-Hashemy; Ayad Ch. Al-Daody; Mohammed D. Al-Sawaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2013, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80144

The current study is carried out the effect of Nitrogen fertilization in levels (0, 46, 92, 138) kg/h and spraying of gibberllic acid at concentration (0, 50, 100) ppm and the Algamix at concentration (1,2) ml/L in percentage ratio for concentration of some active constituents for the oil of two species of Mentha (M. piperita and M. spicata). The result was showed, that the samples of oil was contained the following compounds: (Camphor, Menthone, Menthyl acetate, Menthol and Thymol), using the Gas-liquid Chromatography technique (GLC). It's illustrated that the summer harvest was exceeded to gave the highest concentration of menthone compounds about 11.47% without fertilization (N0) with spraying of algamix at concentration 1 ml/L of M. spicata, as well as thymol compound about 16.69% in fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with out spraying of M.spicata too. While, the autumn harvest was exceeded increasing percentage of camphor compound about 0.20% in the fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with spraying of algamix at concentration 1ml/L of M. piperita and Menthol compound which was presented 46.50% in the second level of fertilization 46 kg/h without spraying, and also Menthyl acetate at concentration 50.06% in the same level of fertilization of M. piperita with spraying of Algamix at concentration 1ml/L.

Evaluation of Faba Bean Genotypes For Yield And Yield Components Using Selection Index

Khalil Hathal Kanoosh; Mohammed Ali Al-Falahy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 12-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.126258.1013

The experiment was carried out at the farm at Filed crops Department , College of Agricultural engineering sciences , Duhok University in season 2018-2019 to construed selection index for five faba bean genotypes under different levels of phosphorus fertilizer .The results exhibited that all selection indices include the grain yield gave relatively efficiency , the best selection index were grain yield, number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds pods-1 , so that we can using these characters as criteria’s of selection of faba bean genotypes . Also the results showed that the highest mean selection index was 216.26 for latti kia genotype and significant and difference over all other genotypes .
The heritability broad sense was high for all studied characters and ranged between 0.94 to 0.99 . Regarding to the genetic advance as mean gave high values for first pod height (57.10) , grain yield plant-1 (43.97) , number of main branches plant-1 (33.92) and number of pods plant-1 (31.52) and medium for plant height , days to 75 flowering , number of nodules plant-1 and number of seeds pod-1 . So that we can using these desirable characters to improve the faba bean genotypes .

EFFECT OF SOME AGRICULTURAL TREATMENTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE Lactuca sativa L.

Mohammad Talal A. El-Habar; Mohammad Radhi S. Al-Saaberi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2008, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 56-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27595

This study was conducted in vegetable farm in the college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University during 2003-2004 growing season to investigate the effects of two sowing dates: the Sept.20th and Oct. 20th, two planting methods of seedling: plots and furrows and with the application of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46% N) at rates 0 and 60 Kg/Donnum applied at two doses with three methods of splitting: 1- Half of the total amount was added after two weeks from transplanting and the other half was added at 21 days prior to harvest (30 + 30Kg Urea /Donnum). 2- One third of the total amount added after two weeks from transplanting and the other two thirds was added at 21 days prior to harvest (20 + 40Kg Urea/Donnum). 3- Two thirds of the total amount added two weeks from transplanting and the other one third added at 21 days prior to the harvest (40 + 20Kg Urea/Donnum) on growth, yield and quality of lettuce cv. Paris Island. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments conducted in the field in a factorial experiment within split plot using the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Results indicated that vegetative growth i.e. leaf number/plant, leaf area/plant, head circumferences and mean weight of marketable head were increased significantly by second sowing date (Nov. 20th), plot planting method as well as by applying nitrogen fertilizer, while the methods of splitting of nitrogen fertilizer had no significant effect on most above mention characters. A similar favorable effect of second sowing date (No.20th), plot planting method and applying nitrogen fertilizer on yield characters was obtained at harvest, However, it has increased significantly folded head percentage, total and marketable yield, whereas the percentage of bolting plants only decreased significantly by second sowing date. The interaction among sowing date, plating methods, nitrogen application gave positive and significant increase in the total and marketable yield.

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BIOFERTILIZER EM1 AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH TRAITS AND YIELD IN WHEAT

Saleh Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2018, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 151-168
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161427

Afield experiment was carried out during the winter seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in Salamya which is located at 34 Km southern from Mosul city. The split plot arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications was used. The experiment included four levels of biofertilization EM1 (0, 1, 2, 3 cc/Liter), five levels of nitrogen fertilization (0,30,60,90,120Kg N/ha). Nitrogen fertilization levels and biofertilization EM1 were represented as Main plots, and sub plots respectively. The results indicated that biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index in first season it was significantly superior in stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2, spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield,protein percentage and yield.Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield witch is stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2 , spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield, harvest index,  protein percentage and yield in both seasons . Biofertilization EM1 and Nitrogen fertilization interacted significantly for all growth and yield characters in both seasons, biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter and Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha  interaction was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index which was at the interaction between biofertilization EM1 level1cc/Liter and nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha.

BLOOD GLUCOSE RESPONSE AND GLYCEMIC INDEX OF DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT SOURCES OF CARBOHYDRATE IN HEALTHY RATS

Abdullah M Thannoun

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2010, Volume 38, Issue 1, Pages 24-34
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2010.27737

Blood glucose response and Glycemic Index (GI) of diets containing different sources of carbohydrate including glucose, starch, amylopectin, bread, rice, whole wheat kernels (habbiyah), lentils, check peas, kidney beans, and mixtures of bread or rice with lentils, chick peas or kidney beans for healthy Sprague Dawley rats using glucose as standard were studied. Fifty five normal animals were housed individually to perform this study. Animals were fasted (overnight fasting) for 12 hours and tested for blood glucose at zero time before given in amount of test food containing 0.15 g carbohydrates. Blood glucose was determined after 15, 30, 45, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Results showed that amylopectin based diet had the highest GI (96) comparing with lowest GI (44) for habbiyah based diet. Results also show that addition of lentils, check pea or kidney beans to the bread resulted in lowering the GI of the final meals from 70 to 46. However, addition of these legumes to the rice base diet did not enough reduce the GI. In conclusion, mixing different sources of carbohydrates might be change the blood glucose response and GI of the original foods.

THE EFFECT OF NITROGEN FERTILIZATION AND SPRAYING OF GIBBERELLIC ACID & ALGAMIX ON THE QUALITY AND QUANTITY ON SOME ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS FROM OIL OF MENTHA PIPERITA & MENTHA SPICATA

Fanar H. Al-Hashemy; Ayad Ch. Al-Daody; Mohammed D. Al-Sawaf

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2013, Volume 41, Issue 3, Pages 19-36
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2013.80144

The current study is carried out the effect of Nitrogen fertilization in levels (0, 46, 92, 138) kg/h and spraying of gibberllic acid at concentration (0, 50, 100) ppm and the Algamix at concentration (1,2) ml/L in percentage ratio for concentration of some active constituents for the oil of two species of Mentha (M. piperita and M. spicata). The result was showed, that the samples of oil was contained the following compounds: (Camphor, Menthone, Menthyl acetate, Menthol and Thymol), using the Gas-liquid Chromatography technique (GLC). It's illustrated that the summer harvest was exceeded to gave the highest concentration of menthone compounds about 11.47% without fertilization (N0) with spraying of algamix at concentration 1 ml/L of M. spicata, as well as thymol compound about 16.69% in fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with out spraying of M.spicata too. While, the autumn harvest was exceeded increasing percentage of camphor compound about 0.20% in the fourth level of fertilization 138 kg/h with spraying of algamix at concentration 1ml/L of M. piperita and Menthol compound which was presented 46.50% in the second level of fertilization 46 kg/h without spraying, and also Menthyl acetate at concentration 50.06% in the same level of fertilization of M. piperita with spraying of Algamix at concentration 1ml/L.

Evaluation of Faba Bean Genotypes For Yield And Yield Components Using Selection Index

Khalil Hathal Kanoosh; Mohammed Ali Al-Falahy

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2020, Volume 48, Issue 1, Pages 12-24
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2020.126258.1013

The experiment was carried out at the farm at Filed crops Department , College of Agricultural engineering sciences , Duhok University in season 2018-2019 to construed selection index for five faba bean genotypes under different levels of phosphorus fertilizer .The results exhibited that all selection indices include the grain yield gave relatively efficiency , the best selection index were grain yield, number of pods plant-1 and number of seeds pods-1 , so that we can using these characters as criteria’s of selection of faba bean genotypes . Also the results showed that the highest mean selection index was 216.26 for latti kia genotype and significant and difference over all other genotypes .
The heritability broad sense was high for all studied characters and ranged between 0.94 to 0.99 . Regarding to the genetic advance as mean gave high values for first pod height (57.10) , grain yield plant-1 (43.97) , number of main branches plant-1 (33.92) and number of pods plant-1 (31.52) and medium for plant height , days to 75 flowering , number of nodules plant-1 and number of seeds pod-1 . So that we can using these desirable characters to improve the faba bean genotypes .

EFFECT OF SOME AGRICULTURAL TREATMENTS ON GROWTH AND YIELD OF LETTUCE Lactuca sativa L.

Mohammad Talal A. El-Habar; Mohammad Radhi S. Al-Saaberi

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2008, Volume 36, Issue 1, Pages 56-66
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2008.27595

This study was conducted in vegetable farm in the college of Agriculture and Forestry, Mosul University during 2003-2004 growing season to investigate the effects of two sowing dates: the Sept.20th and Oct. 20th, two planting methods of seedling: plots and furrows and with the application of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea 46% N) at rates 0 and 60 Kg/Donnum applied at two doses with three methods of splitting: 1- Half of the total amount was added after two weeks from transplanting and the other half was added at 21 days prior to harvest (30 + 30Kg Urea /Donnum). 2- One third of the total amount added after two weeks from transplanting and the other two thirds was added at 21 days prior to harvest (20 + 40Kg Urea/Donnum). 3- Two thirds of the total amount added two weeks from transplanting and the other one third added at 21 days prior to the harvest (40 + 20Kg Urea/Donnum) on growth, yield and quality of lettuce cv. Paris Island. The experiment consisted of 16 treatments conducted in the field in a factorial experiment within split plot using the Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Results indicated that vegetative growth i.e. leaf number/plant, leaf area/plant, head circumferences and mean weight of marketable head were increased significantly by second sowing date (Nov. 20th), plot planting method as well as by applying nitrogen fertilizer, while the methods of splitting of nitrogen fertilizer had no significant effect on most above mention characters. A similar favorable effect of second sowing date (No.20th), plot planting method and applying nitrogen fertilizer on yield characters was obtained at harvest, However, it has increased significantly folded head percentage, total and marketable yield, whereas the percentage of bolting plants only decreased significantly by second sowing date. The interaction among sowing date, plating methods, nitrogen application gave positive and significant increase in the total and marketable yield.

INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF BIOFERTILIZER EM1 AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER ON GROWTH TRAITS AND YIELD IN WHEAT

Saleh Ibraheem

Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 2018, Volume 46, Issue 1, Pages 151-168
DOI: 10.33899/magrj.2018.161427

Afield experiment was carried out during the winter seasons of 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 in Salamya which is located at 34 Km southern from Mosul city. The split plot arrangement in Randomized Complete Block Design (R.C.B.D) with three replications was used. The experiment included four levels of biofertilization EM1 (0, 1, 2, 3 cc/Liter), five levels of nitrogen fertilization (0,30,60,90,120Kg N/ha). Nitrogen fertilization levels and biofertilization EM1 were represented as Main plots, and sub plots respectively. The results indicated that biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index in first season it was significantly superior in stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2, spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield,protein percentage and yield.Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield witch is stem length, leaf area, biological yield, number of spike per m2 , spike length, number of grains per spike, weight of 1000 grains, grain yield, harvest index,  protein percentage and yield in both seasons . Biofertilization EM1 and Nitrogen fertilization interacted significantly for all growth and yield characters in both seasons, biofertilization EM1 level 3 cc/Liter and Nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha  interaction was significantly superior in all growth traits and yield in both seasons with the exception of harvest index which was at the interaction between biofertilization EM1 level1cc/Liter and nitrogen fertilization level 120Kg N/ha.